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Humanoid Robots, 2008. Humanoids 2008. 8th IEEE-RAS International Conference on

Date 1-3 Dec. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 110
  • Identification of the inertial parameters of a humanoid robot using unactuated dynamics of the base link

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6442 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The inertial parameters are important to generate motion patterns for humanoid robots. Conventional identification methods can be used to estimate these parameters; however they required the joint torque estimates that can be obtained by modeling of the transmission or by direct measurements. To overcome that issue we have recently developed a new method to estimate the inertial parameters of legged systems. By using the base-link equations only, we obtain a reduced identification model that is free of joint torque estimates. In this paper we propose to apply the method to a human-size humanoid robot. The preliminary experimental results are given and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Self-stabilizing bipedal locomotion employing neural oscillators

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 8 - 15
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8518 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For attaining a stable and robust dynamic bipedal locomotion, we address an efficient and powerful alternative based on biologically inspired control framework employing neural oscillators. Neural oscillators can be used to generate sustained rhythmic signals, and show superior features for stabilizing bipedal locomotion particularly when coupled with virtual impedance components. By building a network of neural oscillators, we can enable humanoid robots to walk stably and exhibit robustness against unexpected disturbances. Specifically, in order to maintain stability, the neural oscillator plays an important role by controlling the trajectory of the COM in phase with the ZMP input. The effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified through simulations. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic parameter adjustment of reflexive walking of a musculo-skeletal humanoid

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 16 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (13182 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Humanoid robots need mechanical flexibility, redundancy, multiple degrees of freedom, and so on. Because the hard and heavy body can hurt human or surrounding objects, multiple degrees of freedom and flexibility are needed in a daily life. A novel musculo-skeletal humanoid dasiaKojiropsila is one of the answer to these demand. It has those physical characteristics. How to move this complex bodily structure is a challenging theme. Especially motion generation using only partial information by itself make actional multiplicity, it will be useful in diversified environment. This paper presents the approach to make Kojiro walk and make Kojiro adjust self-parameter to walk using 6-axis force sensors in the feet. View full abstract»

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  • Inverse kinematics with floating base and constraints for full body humanoid robot control

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 22 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2387 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper explores inverse kinematics for full body, floating base, task space control on a real humanoid robot. We discuss how constraints can be used to address the issue of under-actuation due to floating base, and list the sufficient conditions for maintaining task space control of arbitrary robot tasks. We suggest a controller based on a task priority framework and demonstrate the feasibility of the approach on the SARCOS/ATR CBi humanoid robot. We implement examples of position control via constrained floating base inverse kinematics as first approach to full body model-based inverse dynamics control. The examples demonstrate center of gravity position tracking as well as hand figure-8 tracking while simultaneously balancing. View full abstract»

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  • Stabilization control for humanoid robot to walk on inclined plane

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 28 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4499 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a novel stabilization control is proposed for humanoid robot to walk dynamically on an inclined plane. Online walking control is indispensable to obtain a stable dynamic walking, even if the walking pattern is provided based on a zero moment point and an angular momentum because modeling errors and external disturbances, which are not expected in the modeling stage, may exist in the actual condition. Considering these issues, this paper proposes a stabilization control, which consists of landing force controller, posture controller and walking pattern generator to walk on the inclined plane. The proposed control does not require a complex dynamic equation of robot and the adjustment of control parameters because it is based on time-domain passivity approach. Moreover, it can guarantee the stability of the controller without requiring any dynamic model information. The proposed control is verified through dynamic walking simulations using Webots simulator. View full abstract»

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  • One-leg jumping with virtual spring principle

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 34 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4376 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One-leg jumping of a biped robot with virtual spring principle is proposed and experimentally implemented. A biped robot is modeled and controlled as a simple mass-spring system, and its trajectories for jumping and landing are consequently planned as the mass-spring system. The jumping condition and necessary constraint conditions are deduced. Finally one-leg jumping of 130[ms] flight time is achieved with our developed biped robot MARI-3. View full abstract»

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  • The initial design and manufacturing process of a low cost hand for the robot iCub

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 40 - 45
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4488 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the design of a new hand for the robot iCub. Developed as part of the European project RobotCub the iCub is a robot baby based on an 18 month to 2.5 year old child. The current iCub hands are under-actuated which means they are not as dexterous as a true childpsilas hand. The hand designed in this work has a total of 22 degrees of freedom of which 18 are independently drivable. In order to minimise weight and cost the hand has been produced from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) using 3D printing techniques. This removes the need for extensive machining which would add significantly to the overall cost of the hand. A prototype finger has been produced and tested and a full mechanical design is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a new wrist for the next generation of the humanoid robot ARMAR

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 46 - 53
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5191 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The development of a humanoid robot within the scope of the collaborative research centre 588 has the objective of creating a machine that can closely cooperate with humans. This development area presents new challenges for designers. In contrast to industrial robots - for which mechanical rigidity, precision and high velocities are primary requirements - the key aspects here are prevention of hazards to users, a motion space that corresponds to that of human beings, and a lightweight design. In order to meet these requirements, the robot must have humanlike appearance, motion space, and dexterity. Additionally, its kinematics should be familiar to the user, and its motions predictable, so as to encourage inexperienced persons to interact with the machine. This article gives insight into the design of a new wrist for the next generation of the humanoid robot ARMAR. The goals of the development project are both to improve the motion space and to achieve a humanlike appearance. The new mechanical design is described in detail completed by a study of a first prototype. View full abstract»

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  • Selecting a suitable grasp motion for humanoid robots with a multi-fingered hand

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 54 - 60
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (9347 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses grasp planning of a multi-fingered hand attached at the tip of a humanoid robotpsilas arm. Our planner can select a different grasping style even for the same object if a position/orientation of the object is changed. Also, if the planner cannot find a feasible grasping posture with arm/hand kinematics, a humanoid robot tries to use the whole body motion. These functions are necessary for realizing the robust grasp planning. Our planner defines convex models on both the object and each grasping style. By considering geometrical relationship among these convex models, we determine several parameters needed to define the final grasping configuration. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by several numerical examples and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling postural coordination dynamics using a closed-loop controller

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 61 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5242 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper models recent data in the field of postural coordination showing the existence of self-organized postural states, and transition between them, underlying supra-postural tracking movements. The proposed closed-loop controller captures the complex postural behaviors observed in humans and can be used to implement efficient and simple balance control principles in humanoids. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of physical human-robot interaction for motor learning with physical help

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 67 - 72
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7000 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we investigate physical human-robot interaction (PHRI) as an important extension of traditional HRI research. The aim of this research is to develop a humanoid robot that can work in the same spaces as humans. We first propose a new control system that takes advantage of inherent joint flexibility. The control system is applied on a new humanoid robot called CB2. In order to clarify the difference between successful and unsuccesful interaction, we conduct an experiment where a human subject has to help the CB2 robot in its rising-up behavior. We also develop a new measure that reveals the difference between smooth and nonsmooth physical interactions. An analysis of the experimentpsilas data, based on the introduced measure, shows significant differences between experts and beginners in human-robot interaction. Consequently, we assume that this measure can be used in the evaluation method required for a motor learning system that uses physical help from a human helper. View full abstract»

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  • Safe joint mechanism using double slider mechanism and spring for humanoid robot arm

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 73 - 78
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4646 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, collision safety between a human and a robot has drawn much attention as service robots and humanoids are increasingly being used in the human environment. Safety of a robot arm can be achieved by either active or passive compliance system. Since active compliance systems with actuators are usually slow and expensive, several passive compliance systems with purely mechanical elements are proposed. Passive systems can provide faster response to collision and higher reliability than active systems. Since both positioning accuracy and collision safety are equally important, a robot arm should have very low stiffness when subjected to a collision force greater than the one causing human injury, but maintain very high stiffness otherwise. In order to implement these requirements, a safe joint mechanism composed of a linear spring, slider-crank mechanism, and 4-bar linkage is proposed in this research. Various experiments on static and dynamic collisions show high stiffness of the SJM against an external force of less than the pre-determined threshold force, but an abrupt drop in the stiffness when the external force exceeds this threshold, which guarantees positioning accuracy and collision safety. View full abstract»

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  • A beat-tracking robot for human-robot interaction and its evaluation

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 79 - 84
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Human-robot interaction through music in real environments is essential for humanoids, because such a robot makes people enjoyable. We thus developed a beat-tracking robot which steps, sings, and scats according to musical beats predicted by using a robot-embedded microphone, as a first step to realize a robot which makes a music session with people. This paper first describes the beat-tracking robot, and then evaluated it in detail at the following three points: adaptation to tempo changes, robustness of environmental noises including periodic noises generated by stepping, singing and scatting, and human-robot interaction by using a clapping sound. The results showed that our beat-tracking robot improved noise-robustness and adaptation to tempo changes drastically so that it can make a simple sound session with people. View full abstract»

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  • Towards a human-robot interface based on the electrical activity of the brain

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 85 - 90
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8409 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent advances in computer hardware and signal processing assert that controlling certain functions by thoughts may represent a landmark in the way we interact with many output devices. This paper exploits the possibility of achieving a communication channel between the brain and a mobile robot through the modulation of the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal during motor imagery tasks. A major concern was directed towards designing a generalized and multi-purpose framework that supports rapid prototyping of various experimental strategies and operating modes. Preliminary results of brain-state estimation using EEG signals recorded during a self-paced left/right hand movement task are also presented. The user successfully learned to operate the system and how to better perform the motor-related tasks based on outcomes produced by its mental focus. View full abstract»

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  • Movement reproduction and obstacle avoidance with dynamic movement primitives and potential fields

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 91 - 98
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (19074 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Robots in a human environment need to be compliant. This compliance requires that a preplanned movement can be adapted to an obstacle that may be moving or appearing unexpectedly. Here, we present a general framework for movement generation and mid-flight adaptation to obstacles. For robust motion generation, Ijspeert et al developed the framework of dynamic movement primitives which represent a demonstrated movement with a set of differential equations. These equations allow adding a perturbing force without sacrificing stability of the desired movement. We extend this framework such that arbitrary movements in end-effector space can be represented - which was not possible before. Furthermore, we include obstacle avoidance by adding to the equations of motion a repellent force - a gradient of a potential field centered around the obstacle. In addition, this article compares different potential fields and shows how to avoid obstacle-link collisions within this framework. We demonstrate the abilities of our approach in simulations and with an anthropomorphic robot arm. View full abstract»

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  • Generation of humanoid walking pattern based on human walking measurement

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 99 - 104
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5469 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Walking pattern generation has been a crucial issue for humanoid robot. To generate more natural walking patterns, and determine parameters more reasonably, this paper presents a method for humanoid walking pattern generation based on human walking characteristics. The characteristics of human walking parameters were obtained by capturing and analyzing human walking data. Walking pattern parameters are determined by using these characteristics, and then stable and harmonious walking patterns are generated. The effectiveness of the method was verified by experiment result on humanoid robot BHR-2. View full abstract»

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  • A new method for generating safe motions for humanoid robots

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 105 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2613 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a new method for planning safe motions for complex systems such as humanoid robots. Motion planning consists on finding the best joint trajectories. By using trajectory parameterization, the motion planning problem can be seen as a semi-infinite programming problem (SIP) since it involves a finite number of parameters over an infinite set of constraints. Most methods solve the SIP problem by transforming it into a finite programming one by using a discretization over a prescribed grid. We show that this approach is risky because it can lead to motions which violate one or several constraints. Then we introduce our new method for planning safe motions. It uses Interval Analysis techniques in order to achieve a safe discretization of the constraints. We show how to implement this method and use it with state-of-the-art constrained optimization packages. Then, we illustrate its capabilities for planning safe motions for the HOAP-3 humanoid robot. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of fluent approach and grasp motions

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 111 - 117
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7232 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Generating a fluent motion of approaching, grasping and lifting an object comprises a number of problems which are typically tackled separately. Some existing research specializes on the optimization of the final grasp posture based on force closure criteria neglecting the motion necessary to approach this grasp. Other research specializes on motion optimization including collision avoidance criteria, but typically not considering the subsequent grasp as part of the optimization problem. In this paper we aim to combine existing techniques for grasp optimization, trajectory optimization, and attractor-based movement representation, into a comprehensive framework that allows us to efficiently compute a fluent approach and grasping motion. The feasibility of the proposed approach is shown in simulation studies and experiments with a humanoid robot. View full abstract»

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  • Realization of stretch-legged walking of the humanoid robot

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 118 - 124
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7945 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new forward walking pattern known as stretch-legged walking and posture control algorithm in single support phase. Additionally, what has been termed the walking guide platform (WGP) was developed to verify the developed walking pattern. Walking pattern is generated by simple function such as sine function and 3rd polynomial. Especially pelvis center is generated by 3rd polynomial that is tuned by hip shape factor. The value is selected by experiment. Posture control that is composed of body balancing controller and vibration-reduction controller maintains posture of robot in single support phase. It prevent robot falling in walking. Based on proposed walking pattern, posture control makes realization of stretch-legged walking in humanoid robot. View full abstract»

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  • Modelling and control of the humanoid robot RH-1 for collaborative tasks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 125 - 131
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4478 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work deals with the modelling and control of the humanoid robot RH-1, a full scale humanoid prototype totally developed in the University Carlos III of Madrid and the only one existing in our country. The main objective is to develop an advanced control system that allows cooperation tasks to be carried out semi-autonomously between humanoid robots and humans in real working environments. The kinematic model and a simplification of the dynamic model of the robot are presented in this paper, together with a control strategy for the stabilization of the system during the walking and collaborative actions. Several simulation and experimental results are also given along the paper to illustrate the work. View full abstract»

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  • Kinematic and dynamic analogies between planar biped robots and the reaction mass pendulum (RMP) model

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 182 - 188
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2972 KB)  

    In order to simplify dynamic analysis, humanoid robots are often abstracted with various versions of the inverted pendulum model. However, most of these models do not explicitly characterize the robotpsilas rotational inertia, a critical component of its dynamics, and especially of its balance. To remedy this, we have earlier introduced the reaction mass pendulum (RMP), an extension of the inverted pendulum, which models the rotational inertia and angular momentum of a robot through its centroidal composite rigid body (CCRB) inertia. However, we presented only the kinematic mapping between a robot and its corresponding RMP. Focussing in-depth on planar mechanisms, here we derive the dynamic equations of the RMP and explicitly compute the parameters that it must possess in order to establish equivalence with planar compass gait robot. In particular, we show that, a) an angular momentum equality between the robot and RMP does not necessarily guarantee kinetic energy equality, and b) a cyclic robot gait may not result in a cyclic RMP movement. The work raises the broader question of how quantitatively similar the simpler models of humanoid robot must be in order for them to be of practical use. View full abstract»

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  • Grasp synthesis in cluttered environments for dexterous hands

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 189 - 196
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (12236 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an algorithm for efficiently generating collision-free force-closure grasps for dexterous hands in cluttered environments. Computing a grasp is complicated by the high dimensionality of the hand configuration space, and the high cost of validating a candidate grasp by collision-checking and testing for force-closure. When an object is placed in a new scene, we use a novel cost function to focus our search to good regions of hand pose space for a given preshape. The proposed cost function is fast to compute and encapsulates aspects of the object, the scene, and the force-closure of the ensuing grasp. The low-cost candidate grasps produced by the search are then validated. We demonstrate the generality of our approach by testing on the 3-fingered 4DOF barrett hand and the anthropomorphic 22DOF shadow hand. We also propose an extension of the algorithm for two-handed grasps and demonstrate it on the HRP3 hands. Our results show that the candidate grasps generated by our algorithm consistently have high probability of being valid for various hands, objects and scenes. Finally, we describe an implementation on a WAM arm with a barrett hand. View full abstract»

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  • Motion planning for humanoid robots in environments modeled by vision

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 197 - 204
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (17854 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The context of this work is vision-based motion planning for humanoid robots in an unknown environment. We present an efficient combination of on-line 3D environment modeling and motion planning methods for humanoid robots (e.g whole body motion and walking ) in non-static environment. To construct the model of the environment, we rely on 3D occupancy grid that is updated incrementally by stereo vision. As the dimension of configuration space is high for humanoid robots, a roadmap based method is used for motion planning. However, as the environment is not static, it is necessary to update the roadmap after receiving new visual information. In other words, the nodes and edges which are in collision, based on the new update of the environment, must be erased. Moreover, preliminary steps are necessary for considering the environment as a non-static model. As we construct the model incrementally by vision, several thousands points would appear in each update of the model. Therefore, updating the roadmap raises algorithmic complexity issues. Our approach is an extension of a recent idea to cope with the problem. After presenting the approach, we implement our method by planning a collision-free motion in a 3D occupancy grid model generated by HRP2 based on stereo vision. As the robot navigates in the environment, it receives updated information through its on-board cameras and refreshes the 3D model of the environment incrementally. Conventionally, the 3D model can be composed of up to millions of voxel. If the statuses of some voxels change, our method uses these changes to update the last roadmap locally. This updated roadmap is then reused for further motion planning. We evaluate our algorithm by measuring processing time and memory usage in each step and compare them with its descendant. View full abstract»

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  • Pattern generation for bipedal walking on slopes and stairs

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 205 - 210
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4677 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Uneven terrain walking is one of the key challenges in bipedal walking. In this paper, we propose a motion pattern generator for slope walking in 3D dynamics using preview control of zero moment point (ZMP). In this method, the future ZMP locations are selected with respect to known slope gradient. The trajectory of the center of mass (CoM) of the robot is generated by using the preview controller to maintain the ZMP at the desired location. Two models of slope walking, namely upslope and downslope, are investigated. Continuous walking on slopes with different gradients is also studied to enable the robots to walk on uneven terrains. Since staircase walking is similar to slope walking, the slope walking trajectory generator can also be applied to the staircase walking. Simulation results show that the robot can walk on many types of slopes and stairs by using the proposed pattern generator. View full abstract»

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  • An optimal control method for biped robot with stable walking gait

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 211 - 218
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4623 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes an optimal control method for a 10 degree of freedom (DOF) biped robot with stable walking gait. The biped robot is modeled as a 3D inverted pendulum. From dynamic model of the 3D inverted pendulum and under the assumption that center of mass (COM) of the biped robot moves on a horizontal constraint plane, zero moment point (ZMP) equations of the biped robot depending on the coordinate of the center of the pelvis link obtained from the dynamic model of the biped robot are given based on the DdasiaAlembertpsilas principle. A walking pattern is generated based on ZMP tracking control systems that are constructed to track the ZMP of the biped robot to zigzag ZMP reference trajectory decided by the footprint of the biped robot. An optimal tracking controller is designed to control the ZMP tracking control system. From the trajectory of the COM of the biped robot and an arc reference input of the swinging leg, the inverse kinematics solved by the solid geometry method is used to compute the angles of each joint of the biped robot. The simulation and experimental results show the effectiveness of this proposed control method. View full abstract»

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