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Power Systems Conference: Advanced Metering, Protection, Control, Communication, and Distributed Resources, 2007. PSC 2007

Date 13-16 March 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 35
  • Cover

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): c1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (195 KB)  

    First Page of the Article
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  • 2007 power systems conference advance metering, protection, control, communication, and distributed resources

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): i
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (101 KB)  

    The following topics are dealt with: power transmission system protection; power distribution system protection; power system metering; and renewable energy. View full abstract»

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  • [Copyright notice]

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): ii
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (170 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): iii - v
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (249 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Basic Fault Tree Analysis for use in protection reliability

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (93 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fault tree analysis (FTA) is a tool originally developed in 1962 by Bell Labs for use in studying failure modes in the launch control system of the Minuteman missile project. The tool now finds wide use in numerous applications from accident investigation to design prototyping and is also finding use for protection and control related applications. This paper provides an elementary background to the application of fault tree analysis for use in protection applications. The construction of the fault tree as well as the use of reliability data is considered. A simple example is presented. The intention is to provide a brief introduction to the concept to allow users to at least understand how a fault tree is constructed and what can be done with it. View full abstract»

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  • Application of existing technologies to reduce arc-flash hazards

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 8 - 15
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (149 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Protective relay engineers have long been concerned with protecting power systems and all of the equipment associated with those systems. We routinely apply relays to limit damage to apparatus (e.g., transmission and distribution lines, power transformers, buses, generators, motors, etc.) and protect against, or reduce, the impact of electrical disturbances on the larger power system (e.g., shedding load for frequency or voltage variations). View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic simulations help improve generator protection

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 16 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2059 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes a digital simulation study of a set of two 160 MW generating units operating in the Juan de Dios Batiz Paredes thermal power station, in Topolobampo, Sinaloa, Mexico. This plant belongs to Comision Federal de Electricidad, the national Mexican utility. We first discuss the factors that limit the active and reactive power delivered by a generating unit, such as thermal and voltage limits, power-system imposed limits, and the minimum excitation limiter. We then describe generator protection functions related to the capability curve. Later, we propose a P-Q plane-based scheme that provides generator loss-of-field protection and capability-curve violation alarming. Finally, we present the simulation results of loss-of-field and loss-of-synchronism conditions of one of the two generating units for several cases, including different initial load conditions, different loss-of-field modes, and different numbers of units on line. View full abstract»

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  • Undervoltage load shedding

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 39 - 54
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (463 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses why voltage as well as frequency load shedding may be necessary to prevent major system blackouts. Investigations of recent blackouts indicate that the root cause of almost all of these major power system disturbances is voltage collapse rather than the underfrequency conditions prevalent in the blackouts of the 1960 and '70s. This paper explores the nature of recent power system blackouts (2003 east coast, 1996 California and others) and explains why voltage collapse is the leading edge indicator of impending power system problems. It also discusses the design and security issues that need to be addressed in the design of an undervoltage load shedding (UVLS) scheme and why relying on underfrequency load shedding (UFLS) may be "too little, too late." The paper addresses the current level of UVLS on utility systems as well as current NERC (North American Electric Reliability Council) pronouncements on the subject. View full abstract»

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  • Effect of system decomposition on two-level state estimation

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 55 - 60
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (180 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper compares the performance of different techniques of two-level state estimation based on system decomposition. Recent major blackouts around the world and deregulation of power systems require the operators to have a wide area view of the power system to operate it securely and reliably. Wide area state estimation is one of the functions that can provide the operators with such a view. Two-level state estimation can provide the information of the system on wide area basis regardless of the size of the system and without any data exchange between the areas of the grid. The system selected for the simulation is 1896-bus real world system consisting of four areas. View full abstract»

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  • Improved service reliability for rural electric customers - innovative auto-restoration following loss of primary source interconnection

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 61 - 68
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (497 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Plumas-Sierra Rural Electric Cooperative (PSREC) has two interconnections with large investor-owned electric utilities. Presently, PSREC normally operates solely connected to the Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) system via a radially fed line. This connection to PG&E is subject to service interruption for events on the PG&E line or connecting facility. Loss of this PG&E interconnection drops the entire PSREC customer load. An alternative service interconnection is available with Sierra Pacific Power Company (SPPCo) on another part of the system. However, this alternative source does not have the capacity to carry the entire PSREC customer load. In an effort to increase the reliability of PSREC's service to its customers, future enhancements will allow the system to operate with PG&E and SPPCo in parallel, a project PSREC dubbed Marble Live. In addition, PSREC decided to implement an auto- restoration scheme based on scenarios that require PG&E to interrupt service to the PSREC system. In the case of an event on the PG&E line, PSREC will automatically island its system and execute a series of steps to reconnect to PG&E, should conditions permit, or remain disconnected from PG&E and connect to SPPCo after shedding the appropriate amount of load. This paper describes the system protection and control scheme solution that PSREC incorporated to accomplish a system restoration that satisfies the demands of both PG&E and SPPCo while increasing the reliability of service to PSREC's customers. Audio tone direct transfer trip equipment, IEC 61850 GSSE, also known as UCA GOOSE, messages among geographically diverse locations, and spread-spectrum radio among directional relays provide communication among substations, while the restoration logic resides in communications processors at each substation. The combination of protection elements and communications equipment initiates selective load shedding and restores power from the- - alternate power source to as many retail customers as possible. View full abstract»

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  • Spline function based technique for sensitizing of ground Overcurrent relays for sub-transmission and distribution lines

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 69 - 77
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (271 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The sensitivity of the overcurrent relays is affected by the feed from the other end and the fault resistance. Both of these are unpredictable as these are dependent on the fault location and system conditions. This paper focuses on a novel technique for the sensitizing (enhancing the sensitivity ) of the ground overcurrent relays. The focus of the paper is to demonstrate the technique for a distribution system with double end feed. The results can be extended to radial systems without any loss of accuracy. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of distribution systems overcurrents using Expert Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 78 - 84
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (213 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Overcurrents on distribution systems include permanent faults, temporary faults and other lower magnitude surges, typically from switching events. The overcurrent environment of the distribution system requires quantification if improvements are to be made in power quality, protection and reliability. New and more complex overcurrent protection products require more exact knowledge of feeder conditions. In the absence of todaypsilas data acquisition equipment and computer simulations, overcurrents were previously characterized by employing broad assumptions and deriving some long-standing ldquorules-of-thumbrdquo. Kinectrics has engaged in a study that built upon those existing characterizations of overcurrents, by monitoring overcurrents in the field and conducting computerized analysis. Over 5000 electronic waveforms were collected by monitoring 9 feeders from 3 distribution stations. Using an Expert System, the waveforms were grouped into several categories (ie permanent and temporary fault currents, inrush currents, emergency overloads or cold load pick-up, and switching events). Pertinent parameters (frequency of occurrence, magnitude, peak current, rms current, duration, 12t and time constant) were measured or computed. View full abstract»

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  • Detection of high-impedance faults in power distribution systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 85 - 95
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (963 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When overhead power lines in solid or low-impedance grounded systems lose supports and fall on poorly conductive surfaces, they generate high-impedance faults (HIFs). These faults are a great public safety concern because the fault currents are generally too small for detection by conventional overcurrent relays. This concern has generated great interest in the detection of downed conductor-related HIFs at the substation level. In this paper, we present an HIF detection algorithm that uses traditional relay logic. The algorithm is easier to understand and simpler to implement than many black-box detection methods such as neural networks. We discuss such key aspects of algorithm design as input quantity selection, generation of a reliable reference, adaptation to feeder ambient load noises, and decision logic based on trending and memories. We use real-world data collected from staged HIF tests and noisy substation loads to validate detection results. View full abstract»

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  • AEP experience with protection of three delta/hex phase angle regulating transformers

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 96 - 105
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (310 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    American Electric Power installed three 138 kV, 150 MVA delta/hex phase angle regulating (PAR) transformers on the south Texas transmission grid during 2006. These transformers help optimize power flow on the transmission grid until planned 345 kV line construction projects can be completed to improve the strength of the grid in this portion of the power system. The delta/hex PAR transformer is a new single-tank design that promises to be much more economical to build and install than previous designs - improving the economic viability of deployment of these devices on the transmission grid. This paper addresses the challenges of providing fully redundant, sensitive, and secure protection for all types of faults, including turn-to-turn faults in this type of transformer and its surrounding bus work. The protection system includes a mix of conventional protection concepts and a completely new differential protection system that can compensate for the variable phase angle shift introduced by operation of the PAR transformer. The complete protection system was tested using digital model power system transient testing prior to installation in the field. View full abstract»

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  • Precise distance to fault locator with two end phasor measurement transmitted via serial protection data interface

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 106 - 111
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (107 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fault locator functionality is a standard feature in modern numerical feeder protection devices for transmission systems. It is common practice to calculate the fault location via an impedance measurement separately at each line end. All calculation techniques used to date in this ldquosingle endedrdquo fault location exhibit limited accuracy. The accuracy that can be obtained is limited by natural constraints. The common factors that influence the accuracy are described below. Hereafter, the fundamental improvement provided by the ldquotwo endedrdquo fault locator, which in addition uses the measured values from the opposite line end, are described. View full abstract»

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  • The newly revised ANSI C12.19 and its application across the utility enterprise

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 112 - 116
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (157 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    ANSI C12.19, Utility Industry End Device Data Tables, defines the data model for electricity meters, and was last revised in 1997. Since that time, many manufacturers have moved to producing solid-state electricity meters with advanced measurement capabilities far beyond those represented in 1997. In addition, utilities have been pushed to recover more and more data about their energy delivery, which is seen in the advanced metering requirements stated in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. This paper analyzes the improvements and extensions to the 1997 published standard in the context of the system requirements that utilities are presently facing. These include requirements to handle data associated with modem communications, extended measurement sources, load control and pricing, network and relay control, power quality (quality of service), and one-way devices. Also discussed is the ability for utilities to leverage the so-called user-defined tables and extended user-defined tables to perform streamlined meter data (energy and demand, in particular) retrieval. Finally, the ability to generate a machine-usable version of the standard in XML will be put into the context of its usefulness in developing cross-vendor applications. View full abstract»

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  • The ANSI C12 protocol suite - updated and now with network capabilities

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 117 - 122
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (165 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For ten years, the utility industry has been using optical port communications, defined by ANSI C12.18, and telephone modem communications, defined by ANSI C12.21, to get metering data, defined by ANSI C12.19, from the field to the back office. While the two communication protocol standards have been employed to great success, missing was a standard method for using true ldquonetworkrdquo communications for exchanging this data. Recent work has completed ANSI C12.22, a standard for interfacing to data communication networks, as well as updating the optical port and modem communications standards. This set of standards offers the industry an open and comprehensive ldquoprotocol suiterdquo to transport the newly revised data standard, ANSI C12.19. This paper focuses on how utilities can best benefit from deploying technologies that meet those standards, in particular the newly developed ANSI C12.22 networking standard, as they begin to build advanced metering infrastructures. In particular, utility requirements being refined by OpenAMI Task Force are matched against the offerings from the ANSI protocol suite. View full abstract»

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  • The emerging European influence on international metering type testing

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 123 - 128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (167 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For electricity meters, and in particular, watt-hour only meters, the European directive on measuring instruments (or ldquoMIDrdquo) represents a different spin on setting the performance and safety requirements for those meters. Another European group, the OIML (international organization for legal metrology) has published one document (D11) discussing recommendations for legislation to meet the MID. An OIML technical committee is drafting the recommendation (IR46) that would give regulatory bodies an easily-adoptable set of requirements and tests to meet the needs of the MID. This paper examines the imminent European legislation for electricity meters (measuring instruments), with a comparison of the stated goals versus those pursued in the North American market via the ANSI C12 performance standards. Included are the MID, the OIML publications D11 and IR46, the mutual acceptance agreement (or MAA) and what all of those mean for manufacturers producing typical ANSI C12 meters. View full abstract»

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  • Implementing the future today In Naperville, Illinois

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 129 - 134
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (146 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Taking the initiative to move future technology into the present, the city of Naperville in 2005 began implementing the first IEC 61850 substation while many U.S. utilities were still reviewing and familiarizing themselves with the new standard. City engineers modified their existing substation drawings to remove the existing relays and add the Siemens 7SJ63 relays with dual-fiber IEC 61850 interfaces. The dual-fiber design allows for shorter fiber runs and provides an extremely reliable redundant loop. The Chicago 50 substation controls were modified to match their existing substation designs, which also used the 7SJ63 relays. Since standards were maintained, the relay files from the existing substations could be reused and modified with the required IEC settings and feeder specific protection settings. Siemens assisted with modifications since it was the first implementation of this type in the United States. Naperville hired a contractor and made the mechanical and electrical modifications. While Naperville was working to get the relays installed, Siemens was busy building an automation cabinet and designing the substation HMI based on the Chicago 50 substation single line. View full abstract»

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  • Dairyland Power installs multifunction high-end meters and expanded wide area I/P communications for metering and real-time data collection

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 135 - 139
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (210 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dairyland Power Cooperative is installing a new distribution automation/telecommunications system that will provide secure collection of substation meter readings, load profile billing information, real-time meter data, local alarms, and a secure communications path for member Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) systems. Dairyland Power is a generation and transmission cooperative located in La Crosse, WI that provides wholesale power to 25-member cooperatives and 19-member municipal electric systems. Dairyland Power was experiencing diminished analog cellular service with limited bandwidth, minimal security, and no guarantee of service beyond February of 2008. As a result, a comprehensive distribution automation and telecommunications project was approved in December 2004. Expansion of the existing digital microwave network, installation of point-to-multipoint I/P-capable spread spectrum radios, and installation of custom-designed metering, communications, and automation cabinets provides secure serial and I/P connections for real-time and billing metering data, distribution SCADA, load management, and AMR traffic. View full abstract»

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  • High-speed control scheme to prevent instability of a large multi-unit power plan

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 140 - 153
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (571 KB)  

    Unintended loss of a major power plant can cause substantial strain on the remaining generating resources and lead to local system instability and/or generate oscillations with impact to the overall bulk power system. In the continuing quest to improve the availability of the generation supply and in order to meet the more stringent electric coordinating council reliability criteria, power companies and grid operators are focusing on System Integrity Protection Schemes (SIPS) that can detect and react on events leading to potentially unstable power system conditions. One such situation occurs when severe disturbances occur on transmission line exits from large multi-generator power plants. Based the disturbance severity, the typical results are intensive swings or loss of plant synchronism which will lead into loss of the entire generation complex either by out-of-step protection, or unit shutdown by protective devices reacting to voltage dips at auxiliary buses. By quickly detecting the destabilizing conditions, preemptive actions can be taken to preserve the plant and minimize the extent of the disturbance and subsequent effect on the power grid. Such SIPS offer added advantages under normal operating conditions for scheduled transmission line outages, and allow full power operation with a line out of service. This paper discusses a control solution based on implementation of high-speed SIPS. The control strategy results from transient stability analysis for various types of transmission line faults, including delayed faults caused by complete and partial breaker failures. Different types of faults and transmission outlet line outage conditions for various system and plant initial conditions are investigated and options for mitigation are recommended. The discussion includes stability requirements, alternative actions and algorithms, SIPS components, the methodology for obtaining arming settings, interaction with the existing protection schemes, and effect of a sw- - itchyard topology. Technical implementation considerations such as system design, architecture, measures for reliable and secure operation, synchrophasor capture, event capture, performance under missing or conflicting information, and testing are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Fundamentals of adaptive protection of large capacitor banks

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 154 - 186
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper derives correct balance equations for short circuit protection of shunt capacitor banks taking into account inherent unbalances in the protected bank. Four methods are derived: voltage differential, compensated neutral voltage unbalance, phase current balance, and neutral current balance. As can be seen from key equations the proper way of balancing the bank (or banks) involves instantaneous values of currents or voltages. Subtracting the residual unbalance as a time-delayed signal (a historical, or a constant value), and responding to the delta changes does not constitute a proper, sensitive and secure operating equation for protective relaying purposes. The methods presented in this paper compensate for both bank and system unbalances. Therefore they are insensitive to major system events such as close-in faults. Presently used relaying techniques might misoperate on such system conditions, as they typically disregard system unbalances and compensate for the bank unbalance assuming no, or minor system unbalances. View full abstract»

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  • Monitoring ageing CCVTs practical solutions with modern relays to avoid catastrophic failures

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 187 - 208
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (13340 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ageing coupling capacitor voltage transformers (CCVTs) can pose safety problems and possibly restrain system operations. Catastrophic failure of a CCVT could start a widespread fault in the substation and/or endanger personnel working in a close proximity. The latter becomes a real danger when inspecting a suspicious CCVT or when live line work is being performed. CCVT monitoring becomes more and more important as the installed population of CCVTs ages with sporadic incidents of catastrophic failures alerting both field personnel and dispatching managers regarding safety and liability. Microprocessor-based protection relays facilitate cost-efficient and broad deployment of CCVT monitoring functions across the organization. First, modern relays allow programming a number of indicators that alone, or in combination, are reliable enough to raise alarms and initiate an in-depth engineering analysis. Second, these relays can provide data recording and remote access. This data includes high-resolution data such as oscillography, and long-term trending such as the magnitude profiling. Third, relay-based CCVT monitoring schemes can be retrofitted in the existing installations. In many cases with a simple wiring and setting changes, existing relays could provide a solid CCVT health indication. The combination of reliable alarming via protective relays with remote access yields a cost- efficient, easy to implement, and safe to operate, solution. This paper presents a number of CCVT health indicators that could be programmed on modern relays via logic and simple math operands in order to monitor the CCVTs with a minimum material and labor investment. View full abstract»

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  • On the standardization of distance characteristics

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 209 - 212
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB)  

    Configuration, coordination, testing and analysis of the operation of multifunctional protection relays are the typical activities of protection engineers and technicians. They require the use of multiple software tools, usually different for each vendor. They impose varying requirements for the representation of the operating characteristic of the distance protection functions. The paper discusses the need for an effort by the industry to standardize the characteristics of distance relays. It analyses the existing types of distance characteristics used in electromechanical, solid state and microprocessor based relays, describes some generic models of some of the more commonly used distance characteristics and presents some ideas on their standardization. View full abstract»

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  • Synchrophasors: A primer and practical applications

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 213 - 240
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1001 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although the concept and definition of Synchrophasors dates back to 1980, the combination of 2nd generation IED platforms and power system needs has brought the technology into high-visibility in the electric power industry. As synchrophasor technology has matured, nuances of the measurement of a synchronized phasor have been identified and the details of ldquohowrdquo a phasor is defined, synchronized to absolute time, reported, and communicated have subsequently been re-codified int he recently revised IEEE standard: Synchrophasors for Power Systems - C37.118. This paper reviews the concept of the synchronized phasor in light of the IEEE C37.118 standard. Specifically, details of an ldquoun-correctedrdquo Fourier based phasor during off-nominal frequency conditions are presented as well as techniques for correction to meet the Synchrophasor standard. The need for IED input transformer and filter characterization / correction is presented. Simulations of various system transients and their phasor response are presented - specifically, the response of synchrophasor calculation to dynamic system conditions. Finally, this paper reviews application of synchrophasors on the SRP system today as well as plans and needs in the future. View full abstract»

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