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1997 IEEE/PCA Cement Industry Technical Conference. XXXIX Conference Record (Cat. No.97CH36076)

20-24 April 1997

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  • 1997 IEEE/PCA Cement Industry Technical Conference. XXXIX Conference Record (Cat. No.97CH36076)

    Publication Year: 1997
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (178 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Starting high inertia loads on adjustable speed drives

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):81 - 87
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (360 KB)

    In a cement mill there are applications that require high starting torques like draft inducer fans and ball mills. Sometimes a larger motor is required just to give enough starting torque to accelerate the load. This paper reviews how adjustable speed drives can be used to give high starting torque on a motor sized for running torque, not starting torque, with a side benefit of low starting curren... View full abstract»

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  • New developments in precalciners and preheaters

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):255 - 280
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1128 KB)

    The evolving design of the preheater in a modern cement plant has changed very little. Some of the design details, such as low pressure drop cyclones and designs with an eye toward easier and less maintenance are among some of the more significant changes. The preheater must achieve a transfer of heat from the pyroprocessing system exhaust gases to the incoming raw meal in preparation for the ener... View full abstract»

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  • Using partial discharge measurement technology to implement predictive maintenance in high voltage motor and generator stator windings

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):63 - 68
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB)

    Partial discharge (PD) tests can determine which motor and generator stator windings are experiencing insulation problems. A deteriorated winding has a PD activity which can be 30 times or more higher than a winding in good condition. This great difference in PD activity enables even nonspecialized maintenance personnel to identify the few motors or generators in a company which need further inves... View full abstract»

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  • Transient undervoltages in the electricity supply system and their consequences in cement plants

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):17 - 37
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (964 KB)

    Repeatedly transient (brief) undervoltages give rise to production losses which could be avoided in many cases. Transient over- and undervoltages are part of every electricity supply system. The article describes how the various kinds of undervoltage originate and introduces a classification system which should simplify communication for further discussion. Precautions that can be taken by consume... View full abstract»

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  • Taking full advantage of utility deregulation

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):385 - 395
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (916 KB)

    Combining the power of electric utility deregulation with in-plant energy upgrades can provide dramatic improvements in cement plant profitability. Often overlooked in the push for greater production, enlightened utility management now offers one of the cheapest, most cost effective ways to lower operating costs. This paper is a case study of the results of such a program in a major midwestern USA... View full abstract»

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  • Refractory management using fact-based analysis for the cement kiln

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):359 - 369
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB)

    Variation is present in all manufacturing processes and “control” is not a natural state. In fact, a lack of variation in a process which indicates “perfect“ control, should make one suspicious. Using control charts will keep a process operating within specified limits most of the time and, more importantly, control charting can both alert an operator when a process goes ou... View full abstract»

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  • Power costs reduction measures at Lafarge Whitehall plant

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):89 - 95
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB)

    In 1991, the cement companies in eastern Pennsylvania suffered from a poor economy and strong competition within the marketplace. The Lafarge Whitehall plant was no exception and endeavored to become more profitable through cost reduction. Rigorous analysis of both corporate and cement industry costs revealed that the plant power costs were excessive compared to industry standards. In fact, the pl... View full abstract»

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  • Applying DeviceNet in motor control centers at a cement plant

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):113 - 123
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)

    The Lafarge Cement Plant in Alpena, MI produces 2.5 million tons of cement per year from 5 kilns which each yield around 1250 tons per day. Plant control is distributed over forty PLC5s with over eighteen thousand I/O points, which have been installed over ten years. The kilns were the last major pieces of equipment yet to be tied into the PLC based supervisory system. PLC5s were chosen for the ki... View full abstract»

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  • New generation of low NOx calciners

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):281 - 295
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1032 KB)

    Many countries-especially the USA, Canada, and European countries-have enacted stringent requirements for the emission of NOx from new or upgraded cement plants. In many cases the NO x emission must be lower than 500-800 mg NOx/NM 3 of dry gas (corrected to 10% oxygen) which is equivalent to approximately 1.10-1.76 kgNOx/MT clinker for a moder... View full abstract»

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  • Risks that you can live with regulations that you can live without regulation of crystalline silica and hexavalent chromium in the cement industry

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):371 - 383
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB)

    Lately, the regulation of airborne contaminants has become a major focus of both the Occupational Health and Safety Act (OSHA) and Mine Safety Health Act (MSHA) in the USA. Given this focus, the mining industry in general, and the cement industry in particular, must be particularly sensitive to regulatory trends regarding airborne or dustborne pathogens or irritants. Recent developments reveal tha... View full abstract»

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  • Industrial experience with clinker grinding in the HOROMILLR

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):195 - 211
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1196 KB)

    Comminution is an important element for cost evaluation in any cement plant, mainly in relation to the power consumed, which is about 80 to 90 kW for a cement plant. In the early 90s, grinding in cement plants was operated mainly by vertical mills for raw material with rather good results in the majority of cases, and by tube mills for cement, with some development of mixed grinding with roller pr... View full abstract»

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  • Roller mill application for high moisture feed

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):213 - 225
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1516 KB)

    Vertical roller mills are known to be excellent drying machines. This is due to the fact, that the grinding material is in contact with the hot gas during the grinding and classification process. Considering critical physical and technical aspects, a stable operation of a grinding plant can be achieved even for raw materials with more than 20% of feed moisture without a pre-drying-system. The auth... View full abstract»

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  • Gyro-therm technology boosts cement kiln output, efficiency and cuts NOx emissions

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):345 - 357
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (952 KB)

    Precessing jet burner technology has been applied to a number of process industries that burn natural gas in rotary kilns with remarkable results. This is the first time that precessing jet technology has been incorporated into a burner firing pulverized coal. This paper discusses some of the design considerations and presents plant data from a four stage preheater cement kiln showing increased pr... View full abstract»

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  • The impact of Nikola Tesla on the cement industry

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):125 - 133
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (520 KB)

    Nikola Tesla was perhaps the greatest inventor/engineer the world has known since the time of Leonardo da Vinci. Similar to da Vinci, Tesla's work was revolutionary, and Tesla's work was forgotten by the time his work was fully developed by others. Tesla was awarded the original patents that established the foundation for generating, delivering and utilizing the electricity used in the cement indu... View full abstract»

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  • Commitment to the fully-automated cement laboratory concept: a cement industry trend whose time has come

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):443 - 452
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3488 KB)

    In the modern cement plant, there is the challenge to balance production efficiency and quality to meet internal and international requirements for standards. Focus is concentrated on the process, rather than the individual job units. Defined in this way, a process is a sequence of activities which provide value and quality to meet production goals. At most innovative companies, the drive to achie... View full abstract»

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  • Power Management Control Systems-more than energy savings

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):97 - 112
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1580 KB)

    This paper discusses the evolution in technology which has led to today's Power Management Control System facility automation systems. A summary of current, “state-of-the-art” functionality within the different component, network and software categories that make up PMCS systems is provided. This will enable the readers to begin to identify their companies' own PMCS needs, explore the ... View full abstract»

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  • EMC on AC motors-advice, tips and hints

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):39 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1348 KB)

    Trends indicate that variable speed AC drives are already well established in the cement industry. However, as the use of these low maintenance drives, becomes more widespread, so do the associated problems. One such problem is that of electromagnetic interference (EI). EI can lead to de-rating when dimensioning the motor and modification of installation practices. In fact the need to take EI into... View full abstract»

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  • State-of-the-art marine cement terminals

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):143 - 155
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (3408 KB)

    A unique marine cement import terminal has recently been taken into operation in Singapore. The terminal introduces a new cement import concept to the industry. The large, state-of-the-art terminal is owned by the Port and used by many independent cement companies. The design of the terminal is further described in this paper View full abstract»

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  • The air-swept ring roller mill for clinker grinding

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):157 - 176
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (2200 KB)

    The symmetrical air-swept ring roller mill heralds a new era in cement grinding. To really understand the advantages of the new mill concept compared to other mill systems, the basis of its development is thoroughly described. Furthermore, the working principles of the mill itself as well as the entire mill system are outlined. The operating data of the first air-swept ring roller mill in operatio... View full abstract»

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  • A new approach to expert kiln control

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):399 - 412
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (728 KB)

    Expert system kiln control is proven technology. The expert system's smoother control provides significant operating cost reductions by: (1) lowering the specific consumption (i.e. MBTU/tons clinker or kcal/kg); (2) extending brick life; (3) lowering electrical energy costs; (4) lowering maintenance costs; (5) substantially reducing the use of high price auxiliary fuels such as gas; and (6) kiln N... View full abstract»

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  • Variable speed drives for roller presses

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):69 - 79
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1596 KB)

    The concept of an energy efficient integral grinding system incorporating a roller press is best served with variable speed drives. This drive system is required to accommodate grinding of different types of cement with different fineness. It eases the load on the mechanical components and is an economically feasible drive providing a return of investment of approximately one year. Since the varia... View full abstract»

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  • Productivity increase of the vertical roller mill for cement grinding

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):177 - 194
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (940 KB)

    The specific power consumption, product quality and other performance of the “OK” and “CK” vertical roller mills for cement grinding are briefly stated. Hence, the enhancement in increasing the productivity of the vertical roller mill at Chichibu Onoda Cement Corporation (COCC) is introduced. These include: (a) restoring a table liner and roller tires by hard-facing to redu... View full abstract»

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  • To improve the availability of grate coolers

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):227 - 254
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (4312 KB)

    Mechanical equipment, hydraulic components, its control as well as the process design, all play an important role in the reliability of the clinker cooling system. Only by optimizing all of them can the performance and the availability be optimized. In addition to new design features like the anti-riddling side plates or the aerated beams it is shown that a new solution for the cooler inlet sectio... View full abstract»

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  • Integration of imaging pyrometry into the Wampum Plant automation project [cement plant]

    Publication Year: 1997, Page(s):419 - 431
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1224 KB)

    The measurement of the flame temperature and burning zone conditions in cement kilns has long been considered absolutely critical in maintaining optimum clinker production levels. This process control has evolved over the years; from the well-trained eye of a seasoned kiln burner to the dual imaging pyrometry technology used to continually monitor cement kiln burning zones. This device easily inte... View full abstract»

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