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Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conference, 1997., Annual

Date 16-20 June 1997

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  • Conference Record of 1997 Annual Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conference

    Publication Year: 1997
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Implementation of a PC-based operator interface for a paper machine drive

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 1 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Personal computers (PCs) are increasingly being used in industrial applications. Graphical user interface (GUI) software and Windows-based operating systems are proving to be cost-effective, rugged and reliable. These advances have allowed over the the successful installation of several human-machine interface (HMI) systems for paper machine winders. The HMI monitors the operation of a winder and provides complete machine control. An operator interface was developed to both monitor and control a multi-section paper machine drive. The application described highlights the use of a redundant multi-computer network to replace existing benchboard controls. New monitoring and control features and a unique reel roll-density-control scheme were included. The goals achieved were increased paper production and improved control of reel building. View full abstract»

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  • Insulation systems available for PWM inverter fed motors for low voltage pulp and paper applications

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 17 - 28
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    This paper focuses specifically on integral horsepower AC induction motors used in the pulp and paper industry. An analysis of the various winding stresses is presented. The different requirements for the two insulation systems are discussed (MG1-Parts 30 and 31 for General Purpose and Definite Purpose Inverter Fed Motors), and test results show the need for higher dielectric insulations when the voltage levels of Part 30 are exceeded. The differences between existing, rebuilt and new motors is also explored. To assist the reader with additional research an extensive reference section is provided. View full abstract»

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  • MotorMaster+: an energy-efficient motor selection and energy management tool for the pulp and paper industry

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 29 - 35
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    MotorMaster and MotorMaster+ software programs are distributed by the US Department of Energy's Motor Challenge program with development and support furnished by the Washington State University Cooperative Extension Energy Program in conjunction with the Bonneville Power Administration. Following a brief description of the Motor Challenge Program, this paper discusses MotorMaster (DOS format), which is used by many within pulp and paper and other industries to evaluate and select motors for energy efficiency and lowest life cycle cost. The last portions of this paper describe MotorMaster+, an enhanced version of MotorMaster, presented in the Windows format. The discussion covers MotorMaster+'s motor and motor-driven system energy management capabilities, the determination of motor load and efficiency from field testing measurements, energy savings determination and life cycle costing, use of utility rate information, and the types of motor selection scenarios addressed within the software. View full abstract»

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  • Grounding of AC and DC low voltage and medium voltage drive systems

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 36 - 47
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    The grounding of AC and DC drive systems should detect and clear ground faults both on the source and load side of the converters. Most drive systems are separately derived through a stepdown transformer, which serves as a drive isolation as well as rectifier transformer. Isolation transformers on individual or group drive systems, downstream of main substation transformers are also common. An output isolation transformer on an AC drive will isolate the drive electronics, step up the AC voltage from the inverter section and also serve to control high line-to-ground voltages on the motor windings. The grounding system has a profound effect upon the continuity of operations, loading of the solid state devices and common mode voltages. The paper discusses the various possibilities of grounding of low voltage and medium voltage drive systems and shows that a high resistance grounding system can be often implemented to permit continuity of operations, allow fault detection and limit the transient overvoltages. View full abstract»

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  • Predict motor failure with insulation testing

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 48 - 50
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    Reliable electric motors are essential to the operation of any plant, particularly large integrated paper mills. This paper describes the deterioration mechanisms at work on motors and test methods which can be used to assess the electrical condition of the motor windings. These tests, combined with a program of vibration monitoring, can provide a pro-active motor maintenance capability. View full abstract»

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  • Using the new EPRI/BPA testing facility to evaluate the latest technologies in motors and drives

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 51 - 56
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    This paper describes the capabilities of a new facility that has been developed on the campus of Oregon State University by support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The purpose of the Motor Systems Resource Facility (MSRF) is to promote the effective and efficient use of electric motors, drives and generators by providing consulting and analysis services backed by test and evaluation capabilities rated up to 300 hp (225 kW). The laboratory is designed to be both highly flexible in its capabilities and to be of maximum efficiency through the use of a bidirectional, unity power factor, active rectifier dynamometer power converter. Extracts from recent test projects are given including a comparison assessment of switched-reluctance and induction motor drives and an investigation of in-service efficiency measurement techniques. View full abstract»

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  • Condition-based maintenance for the electrical windings of large motors and generators

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 57 - 63
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    Many pulp and paper mills are moving toward condition-based maintenance (CBM), also known as predictive maintenance, for major equipment such as generators and motors. In research sponsored by the electric utility industry, new tools have been developed to help motor and generator operators implement CBM on the electrical windings in such machines. One technology involved the development of an expert system which analyzes all common online and offline tests together with operating data to estimate an overall indicator of the risk of winding failure. In a second development, an online partial discharge measurement system which can be used by plant personnel has been developed which can detect most of the deterioration mechanisms that can occur in stator windings rated 4 kV and above. This paper reviews the development of these two areas, which rely heavily on sophisticated software technologies, and discusses their application to implement CBM. The paper concentrates on stator windings. A short discussion of what problems are most likely to occur in stator windings is first presented. View full abstract»

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  • Design of high speed fiber optics backbones for pulp and paper mills

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 64 - 70
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    In late 1995, the data communications networks at the Fletcher Challenge Canada's Crofton pulp and paper mill had reached capacity and was suffering from overload conditions. The large growth in process control information and personal computers over the past few years was straining the existing coax and fiber optic systems' ability to reliably transfer data. In addition, the increased network complexity made the troubleshooting of the networks extremely difficult and time-consuming. This paper discusses the design methods used to create a new fiber optic backbone that would provide the data carrying capacity and reliability needed for the pulp and paper mill's computers and control systems. High speed network technologies such as ATM (asynchronous transfer mode), FDDI (fiber distributed data interface) and fast Ethernet were compared for their suitability in industrial environments. The design also incorporated Ethernet switches so that the existing Ethernet networks could attach at minimal cost. These switches subdivided the single large network that originally existed into approximately 24 subnetworks. This division greatly increased the network's allowable traffic capacity and prevented problems in any one area from propagating throughout the mill, thus reducing network and process downtime. View full abstract»

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  • The professional job search

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 71 - 75
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    In the past three or four years, more than any other time, engineers who work in the pulp and paper industry and related businesses are finding themselves out of work. For some, it is the first time since they graduated from college and it is a situation that they have never envisioned for themselves. This paper is a case study on some of the requirements for a professional job search, the preparations, the work, and the problems. This is not intended to be all inclusive, nor is it intended to be another "how to" textbook like so many that line the shelves down at the bookstore. View full abstract»

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  • The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard's impact on cables used in the pulp and paper industry

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 76 - 82
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    Recent changes in chemicals considered toxic by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and hazardous by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has required the cable industry to reevaluate the "Article" exclusion for wire and cable products under the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Communication Standard. Many wire and cable products can no longer be considered an "Article" which was exempt from the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) and hazard labeling requirements under 29 CFR 1910.1200. This paper reviews the changes that were made by the EPA, OSHA's clarification of the Hazard Communication Standard, and the impact these changes will have on the manufacture, storage, installation, testing and disposal of wire and cable and its material components. User reporting requirements are also addressed. View full abstract»

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  • PWM inverter and motor applications, a quick reference of bibliographies and abstracts

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 83 - 90
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    The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with a quick reference of some of the more recently published technical papers dealing with the application of PWM inverter/motor systems. It should be pointed out that the "system" includes all components between the incoming 60 Hertz power supply and the driven equipment. The authors selected the more current publications. The technology associated with the newer PWM drives is changing so fast that many of the papers published 5 to 10 years ago may be effectively obsolete. These papers are categorized as follow: (1) motor/drive system application issues; (2) dv/dt, reflected wave, and lead length issues; and (3) motor issues. View full abstract»

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  • Process safety management in the real world

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 91 - 96
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    The Federal regulation on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals became effective in 1992. The objective of the regulation was to prevent the accidental release of any of the highly hazardous chemicals listed in the appendix of the regulation and to minimize the consequences of any such release. The regulation came about as the result of a marked increase in process incidents which occurred in manufacturing facilities in the United States and abroad that resulted in lives being lost and large economic expenses. The standard lists approximately 140 specific toxic or flammable chemicals and a broad category range of flammable hydrocarbons and their threshold amounts. Any facility that uses or stores the listed chemicals in excess of the threshold quantity, and there is a possibility of releasing the threshold amount, is required to comply with the requirements of the standard. Process safety differs from worker safety in that the main focus is on the process equipment and conditions that could result in a failure and release of some highly hazardous chemical. The Process Safety regulation is a management system that requires extensive documentation of the process design, maintenance practices, training, system changes, operational procedures, etc., all of which must be continually updated and communicated to all who would be affected. The elements of the safety management system that was developed consists of fourteen parts which are discussed by the author. View full abstract»

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  • Process Safety Managment In The Real World

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 94 - 96
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    First Page of the Article
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  • The wet-end in pulp and paper industry: controllers and simulation results

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 97 - 100
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    This article proposes a control study for the Fourdrinier. This will be achieved using the internal model controller (IMC), with the use of tracking and regulation reference models and measurable perturbation model. The IMC design and application to multivariable systems requires a mathematical model in state representation form. Thus, we give the representation using state variables of the Fourdrinier's model combined with every component, which are the wet box, the table roll, the foil, the vacuum box, and the couch roll. The results show that the Fourdrinier can be controlled using the mathematical models proposed previously by the authors (1996) with a modern control law. A quantitative discussion on numerical control of a Fourdrinier's machine with the use of reference models is then presented. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of a 32000 HP refiner motor on Daishowa's existing power system and equipment

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 101 - 107
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    The power system at Daishowa's TMP plant in Quebec city was commissioned in 1989. The two-line plant comprised two primary, two secondary and three rejects refiners. the primary and secondary refiner motors are rated 24000 HP each, and rejects are rated 6700 HP each. For increased pulp production, Daishowa decided to replace the existing 24000 HP P2 refiner motor with a new 32000 HP motor. The existing refiner was large enough to handle the increased production. An impact study was carried out to ensure that the refiner could be started and operated within the power system constraints, without adverse effect on the existing distribution system. The study included: power system analysis including load flow, short circuit and motor starting; voltage flicker and starting methods; review of equipment rating; selection of new equipment; motor performance during acceleration; and installation constraints. This paper describes the methodology used for the study and solutions found to circumvent the problems associated with the application of large refiner motors. View full abstract»

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  • A comparison of liquid-filled and dry-type transformers for industrial applications

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 108 - 112
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    This paper is an attempt to assemble data from various sources in order to give the reader information to evaluate the choice between liquid and dry type transformers. The choice is controlled by the application, location, cost or combination of any of the three. In order to limit the size of the paper, the kVA sizes and voltages have been limited to those most commonly used in industrial applications in the United States. Only ANSI and NEMA standards are used in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Transient motor re-acceleration study in an integrated petrochemical facility

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 113 - 118
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    The reliability of the power supply can be significantly improved by modifying the electric motors' re-acceleration scheme. It will mitigate the affect of lengthy and simultaneous acceleration by staggering the high inrush current demand. Transient simulations were performed at an integrated petrochemical facility to verify the effectiveness of the existing re-acceleration scheme. The results indicated that the existing scheme will perform better with some changes as discussed further. View full abstract»

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  • Instrumentation, measurement techniques and analytical tools in power quality studies

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 119 - 140
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The proper choice of instrumentation, measurement techniques and analytical tools is vital to the successful implementation of any industrial distribution system power quality study. Whether the desired result is the determination of harmonic distortion levels, a harmonic filter design, or transient waveform analysis, the proper choice of instrument, measurement technique and analytical tools can make the difference between a well engineered solution to a complex problem and an expensive failure. This paper reviews the points of consideration for power quality instrumentation, a description of appropriate measurement techniques, and a discussion of analytical methods. View full abstract»

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  • A state-of-the-art medium voltage SF/sub 6/ breaker for today's distribution requirements

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 141 - 147
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    In recent years, much has been documented on vacuum interrupter improvements. This paper focuses on alternative technology in the form of arc quenching in SF/sub 6/ gas by means of a rotating arc and thermal expansion. These parallel developments in SF/sub 6/ circuit breakers make possible choices between vacuum and SF/sub 6/ breakers. User identified criteria in evaluating the emergent and competing technologies are offered in an effort to provide an understanding of the differences in medium voltage switchgear technologies. View full abstract»

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  • A low harmonic electric drive system based on current-source-inverter

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 148 - 154
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    This paper presents a new electric motor drive system topology, which is based on a pulse-width-modulation (PWM) current source inverter (CSI). It is aimed at reducing the current harmonics drawn from paper mill distribution systems and the electric utility. Meanwhile, the voltage harmonics feeding into the electric motors are significantly reduced. Furthermore, the voltage rate of rise of the PWM-CSI drives is low compared to the currently dominated PWM voltage source inverter (VSI) based motor drive systems. The paper also presents a proposal to modify the current paper mill machine motor drive systems in order to achieve an overall low harmonic level. The new topology is verified by computer simulations. The problems of the new motor drive system are also described. View full abstract»

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  • An alternative to pilot wire relays for industrial power systems

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 155 - 159
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    The practical installation and setting of pilot wire relays in the field presents a complex problem that may leave the designer uncertain of the reliability of the pilot wire relaying scheme. There are those designers of protective relaying schemes who would prefer to avoid the use of pilot wire relays altogether. A common concern that is often used to dismiss alternatives, is burden and sensitivity to ground fault currents on low resistance grounded systems. A method by which to determine the applicability of an alternative to pilot wire relays for industrial power systems and the scheme itself is summarized below. The burden issue is considered. View full abstract»

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  • Optimization of load shedding scheme in an integrated process plant

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 160 - 166
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    An integrated process facility recently went through an update of its existing load shedding scheme due to planned process changes in the coming years. Transient simulations indicated that by changing the load shedding philosophy, the frequency profile during power shortages can be improved significantly. This paper discusses the plant's electrical/steam load balance issues, and the development of a high speed load shedding scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Proper selection and application of belting systems

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 167 - 172
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    A common method of transmitting power from an electric motor to the driven unit is through the use of belts. Advantages of belt drives include minimal maintenance and lubrication requirements, smoothing of sudden shock loads, and quietness. In general, belting systems are less expensive than most other power transmission systems, and offer the flexibility to vary the speed of the driven load without altering the driver speed by simply replacing the sheave(s). This paper discusses the variety of belting systems which are in common use today, their design considerations, proper belt tension, how these belt systems affect the motor and driven unit, and how to properly specify, apply and install belting systems to attain a long and satisfactory life. View full abstract»

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  • Leading the people who are left

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 173 - 178
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    Most organizations have been, or will soon be, affected by downsizing. The 1995 AMA Survey of 1003 organizations reported that one in four organizations have plans to eliminate jobs before the end of 1996 (the highest future index in the survey's 8-year history). This survey also compares the leading reasons given for downsizing. This paper presents recommendations for the management of the personnel who remain following organizational downsizing. View full abstract»

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