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Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference, 2008. EPE-PEMC 2008. 13th

Date 1-3 Sept. 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 411
  • Electric drive system for automatic guided vehicles using contact-free energy transmission

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (410 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Four technologies, combining mainly innovative solutions, offer the possibility of clean and flexible vehicles, all using only electricity. The main common components are contact-free energy transmission, storage on super-capacitors, holonome axles integrating wheel-motors and automatic guiding. Moreover, the complete energetic chain is managed by power electronics. Their applications are mainly in the field of public and industrial transportation. Several applications are described: electric busses, automatic guided vehicles for container handling, automatic people movers and automatic surveillance vehicles. For more information please visit http://www.numexia.com/. View full abstract»

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  • State-of-the-art high power density and high efficiency DC-DC chopper circuits for HEV and FCEV applications

    Page(s): 7 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1614 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent environmental issues have accelerated the use of more efficient and energy saving technologies in any area of our daily life. One of the major energy consumptions is in the transportation area, especially in the automobile field. DC/DC chopper circuits for use in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV) and so on will be discussed in this paper from the view point of power density and efficiency. A typical power range of such converters can be in order of kWs up to over 100 kW with a short term overload requirement of often more than 200%. Considering the state of the art, switching frequency of these converters is in the range from 50 kHz with IGBTs to 200 kHz with power MOSFETs, the power density peaks at about 25 kW/l, and the highest efficiency is close to 98 [%] depending on the load conditions. As can be seen from the brief introduction, the design of such converter presents multiple challenges from power density as well as efficiency point of view and these are discussed further in the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Current-based condition monitoring of electrical machines in safety critical applications

    Page(s): 21 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (239 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents a complete summary of state-of-the-art techniques for current-based fault monitoring of low voltage permanent magnet synchronous machines commonly used in safety critical applications such as hybrid vehicles and backup generators. This includes detection of stator winding faults, and bearing faults. In addition, a fault tolerant strategy is presented which can be used to operate the machine in a fault tolerant mode even in the presence of the stator turn fault. Experimental results show the efficacy of these methods which allow for use for PM machines even in automotive applications wherein the machine cannot be stopped. View full abstract»

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  • The essence of three-phase AC/AC converter systems

    Page(s): 27 - 42
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (657 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper the well-known voltage and current DC-link converter systems, used to implement an AC/AC converter, are initially presented. Using this knowledge and their space vector modulation methods we show their connection to the family of indirect matrix converters and then finally the connection to direct matrix converters. A brief discussion of extended matrix converter circuits is given and a new unidirectional three-level matrix converter topology is proposed. This clearly shows the topological connections of the converter circuits that directly lead to an adaptability of the modulation methods. These allow the reader who is familiar with space vector modulation of voltage and current DC-link converters to simply incorporate and identify new modulation methods. A comparison of the converter concepts, with respect to their fundamental, topology-related characteristics, complexity, control and efficiency, then follows. Furthermore, by taking the example of a converter that covers a typical operation region in the torque-speed plane (incl. holding torque at standstill), the necessary silicon area of the power semiconductors is calculated for a maximum junction temperature. This paper concludes with proposals for subjects of further research in the area of matrix converters. View full abstract»

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  • An analysis on turn-off behaviour of 1.2kV NPT-CIGBT under clamped inductive load switching

    Page(s): 43 - 47
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (344 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the first time, this paper analyses the turn-off-behaviour of the planar 1.2 kV/25 A NPT-CIGBT under clamped inductive load switching in detail through experiment and simulation. Turn-off behaviour of the CIGBT involves strong interaction between device and circuit parameters. The circuit parameter such as gate resistance was varied, in order to observe the di/dt, dv/dt and turn-off energy loss of the device. Experimental results are shown at 25degC and 125degC. In addition, numerical simulation results are used to enhance understanding of the internal physics of the NPT-CIGBT turn-off process. View full abstract»

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  • Turn-off behaviour of high voltage NPT- and FS-IGBT

    Page(s): 48 - 53
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (459 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A simple but physical based one dimensional model is used to characterize the turn-off of high voltage IGBTs. The dependence of the overvoltage and the peak electric field on the gate driving conditions is analyzed. The transition from a triangular to a trapezoidal electric field has a major impact on the turn-off behaviour. If this transition occurs during the voltage slope, the dv/dt increases significantly. If the field-stop layer is reached during the current slope, the current snaps off, which leads to a second voltage spike with a high absolute voltage but only a moderate peak field. View full abstract»

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  • Exact circuit power loss design method for high power density converters utilizing Si-IGBT/SiC-diode hybrid pairs

    Page(s): 54 - 60
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (355 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An exact design method of circuit power loss is developed. The method is useful for designing high power density converters utilizing Si-IGBT/SiC-Shottky-barrier-diode (SiC-SBD) or high voltage Si-IEGT/SiC-PiN-diode hybrid pairs. For the exact power loss calculation, an empirical method to extract device model parameters is introduced. The calculation results of the power loss are compared with experimental results, and the good agreements are confirmed. By using the method, the power loss of the 4.5 kV Si-IEGT/5 kV SiC-PiN diode hybrid pair is estimated to investigate the possibility of further increase of the switching frequency. View full abstract»

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  • A forward converter with a monolithic cascode device: Design and experimental investigation

    Page(s): 61 - 68
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1012 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A forward converter for switched mode power supply (SMPS) applications has been designed and realized, with a monolithic cascode device as active switch, looking for the performance enhancement. The operation of this device in a SMPS application is shown in detail, and results regarding electrical and thermal characteristics in comparison to the power MOSFET device solution are discussed. The experimental tests that have been carried out are targeted to show the suitability of this device when a 1000-1500 V operation is required and a single switch topology is the most appropriate. Some remarks about the driving circuit adopted for the cascode are also reported. View full abstract»

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  • Switching and conducting performance of SiC-JFET and ESBT against MOSFET and IGBT

    Page(s): 69 - 75
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (493 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Here the switching and conducting performance of a SiC-JFET, an Emitter-Switching Bipolar Transistor (ESBT) and conventional power semiconductors as MOSFET and IGBT with Si- and SiC-diode is presented. The variety of power semiconductors is growing and there is a need to get rules to select them for the application given. The structure and special characteristics of the new devices are explained. The switching and conducting behavior of the devices is measured and investigated. The test circuit and the measurement method are presented. Based on the measured waveforms the power losses are calculated. The results of the switching and conducting performance of these power semiconductors are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • In-service life consumption estimation in power modules

    Page(s): 76 - 83
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (381 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Health management and reliability form a fundamental part of the design and development cycle of electronic products. In this paper compact real-time thermal models are used to predict temperatures of inaccessible locations within the power module. These models are then combined with physics of failure based reliability analysis to provide in-service predictions of crack propagation in solder layers and at the bond wire joints as a result of thermal cycling. The temperature estimates are combined with lifetime based reliability models to provide a tool for life consumption monitoring. Rainflow counting algorithms are applied to the temperature vs. time data to extract the occurrence frequencies of different thermal cycling ranges. Knowledge of the life consumed for each different cycle then allows the remaining life time to be estimated under arbitrary operational conditions. The technique can be employed to provide functions such as life consumption monitoring and prognostic maintenance scheduling. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of temperature sensitive parameter characteristics of semiconductor silicon and silicon -carbide power devices

    Page(s): 84 - 87
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (498 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, results of laboratory investigation of representative samples of semiconductor silicon and silicon carbide power devices, such as PiN diode, Shottky diode, IGBT and JFET, are presented. With use of a thermal chamber the characteristics of temperature sensitive parameters for selected types of devices were determined by measurements within the range 25 - 150degC. The measurement was done using short pulses, which are not able to change measured temperatures. The results have to enable identification of junction temperature in the case of other tests, especially those oriented on energy losses, efficiency, and thermal management. View full abstract»

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  • Unsymmetrical gate voltage drive for high power 1200V IGBT4 modules based on coreless transformer technology driver

    Page(s): 88 - 96
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (516 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The performance of the new IGBT4 chip technology in PrimePACKtrade high power module housing is presented here together with the coreless transformer technology driver IC for the first time in this paper. These modules usually are driven using symmetrical gate drive voltage of +/-15 V. The driver presented here uses unsymmetrical gate drive voltage of -7V and +15V. This alternate approach results in different dynamic module behaviour compared to classical. Thus, this paper discusses differences in both concepts and brings a solution which allows to use the unsymmetrical concept as well as symmetrical. View full abstract»

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  • A novel RESURFed double gates IGBT with superior performance

    Page(s): 97 - 101
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (471 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we proposed a novel RESURFed double channels LIGBT which can achieve high breakdown voltage. The proposed structure, incorporating trench gate and planar gate, can significantly improve the capacity for handling high current and conductance modulation. P-top layer and deep n-drift/p-sub junction have been adopted, which results in a 745 V breakdown voltage with the drift length of 44 mu m only. Reduction in drift length can not only reduce on-resistance but also raise current density. Simulation results demonstrate that the forward voltage drop can lower by 12% relative to the conventional one while breakdown voltage can increase by 18%. View full abstract»

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  • An empiric approach to establishing MOSFET failure rate induced by Single-Event Burnout

    Page(s): 102 - 107
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1172 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although the detrimental effect of single-event burnout on semiconductors has been known for over two decades, component manufacturers publish little related data. Through extensive testing, the authors have established trustworthy reliability figures and demonstrate that single-event burnout has a remarkably high impact on power converter failure rate. A standard testing method is proposed for improved power semiconductor qualification testing. View full abstract»

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  • Comparative study on paralleled vs. scaled dc-dc converters in high voltage gain applications

    Page(s): 108 - 113
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (485 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Today power converters are present in many commercial, medical and industrial applications. A lot of them are high power and high current applications. In order to increase power handling capability several transistors or diodes are paralleled often. However such paralleling may lead to converterpsilas performance degradation or switches quick failure. A parallel modular converter built of many paralleled modules may be an interesting alternative, while a modular converter provides well known advantages like scalability, improved reliability and lower cost. This paper investigates possibility of improving an efficiency by intelligent usage of a modular boost converter in a high voltage gain application. View full abstract»

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  • A low-loss DC-DC converter for a renewable energy converter

    Page(s): 114 - 118
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (265 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The maximization of energy transfer from a low-voltage source to a grid is investigated. The converter has two stages, a DC-DC converter followed by an inverter. Attention to the DC-DC converter losses shows how its energy transfer is maximized and found to be acceptable. View full abstract»

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  • A single active edge-resonant snubber cell-assisted ZCS half-bridge DC-DC converter with constant frequency asymmetrical PWM scheme

    Page(s): 119 - 126
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (402 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A newly-developed zero current soft-switching (ZCS)-PWM cell-assisted asymmetrical half-bridge (AHB) DC-DC converter topology with a high frequency (HF) link is presented in this paper. The soft-switching half-bridge DC-DC converter consists of a PWM-controlled single-ended half-bridge HF inverter and a center-tapped rectifier linked by a HF transformer. In order to attain the wide range of ZCS commutation in the primary-side HF inverter, the active edge resonant snubber cell composed of a switched capacitor and a lossless inductor is adopted in the half-bridge leg, providing ZCS commutation for a wide range of output power under constant switching frequency. The operation characteristics of the proposed DC-DC converter are described, and its feasibility data is demonstrated and evaluated with simulation and experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • A new approach to high efficiency in isolated boost converters for high-power low-voltage fuel cell applications

    Page(s): 127 - 131
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new low-leakage-inductance low-resistance design approach to low-voltage high-power isolated boost converters is presented. Very low levels of parasitic circuit inductances are achieved by optimizing transformer design and circuit lay-out. Primary side voltage clamp circuits can be eliminated by the use of power MOSFETs fully rated for repetitive avalanche. Voltage rating of primary switches can now be reduced, significantly reducing switch on-state losses. Finally, silicon carbide rectifying diodes allow fast diode turn-off, further reducing losses. Test results from a 1.5 kW full-bridge boost converter verify theoretical analysis and demonstrate very high efficiency. Worst case efficiency, at minimum input voltage maximum power, is 96.8 percent and maximum efficiency reaches 98 percent. View full abstract»

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  • New modulation strategy with low switching frequency and minimum baseband distortion

    Page(s): 132 - 138
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (465 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on a novel modulation strategy for generation of band limited signals with binary switches, which was originally developed for audio power amplifiers, and on applying it to energy conversion. This modulation strategy has the extraordinary advantage that the signal band is free of harmonics or carrier intermodulation products. This so called ldquoZero-Position-Coding with Separated Basebandrdquo (SB-ZePoC) operates at low switching frequencies and thus combines the advantages of PWM and offline-optimised pulse patterns. The advantages and drawbacks are discussed in this paper, considering a single-phase converter application. View full abstract»

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  • A bit-stream based PWM technique for variable frequency sinewave generation

    Page(s): 139 - 143
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (161 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a unique technique suitable for the generation of variable frequency sinusoidal waveforms with high quality. Arithmetic operations on the bit streams are performed through digital blocks. The proposed technique is simple and can be implemented on an field programmable gate array (FPGA). Results of a prototype single-phase inverter module with custom built power stage, are presented with simulations. Experimental results indicate that the technique can generate sinusoidal waveforms of frequencies from 20 Hz-60 Hz with total harmonic distortion (THD) 1.4-4%, respectively, and therefore the technique would be an ideal candidate for variable speed motor applications. View full abstract»

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  • Control strategies of the quasi-resonant DC-link inverter

    Page(s): 144 - 147
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (413 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Control strategies of a parallel quasi resonant dc link voltage inverter (PQRDCLI) for electrical drive applications are considered. The main objectives of the proposed strategies are feasibility and robust operation of the PQRDCLI vis-a-vis output voltage dU/dt limitation and stable duration of zero voltage intervals. The first strategy is based on controlling equal charge and discharge of the input series capacitor bank. By applying in the second strategy, external dc link voltage power supply converters one can precisely stabilize both the output voltage derivatives and zero voltage interval. Finally, in the third sensorless strategy - constant intervals are applied with the floating capacitor midpoint potential variations. View full abstract»

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  • Consideration for input current-ripple of pulse-link DC-AC converter for fuel cells

    Page(s): 148 - 153
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (258 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper mentions the static characteristics of pulse-link DC-AC converter for fuel cells, and considers the input current-ripple reduction method. Fuel cells have weakness about current-ripple because the chemical reaction time is much slower than commercial frequency. Therefore, the input current-ripple reduction is essential factor in the DC-AC converter for fuel cells applications. Input current-ripple from fuel cells gives damage the fuel consumption and life time. The conventional DC-AC converter has large smoothing capacitor between boost converter stage and PWM converter stage, in order to reduce input current-ripple. That capacitor prevents from reduction the size of unit. Authors have proposed a novel topology called as pulse-link DC-AC converter. The pulse-link DC-AC converter topology is no need to insert large capacitor. Furthermore, the series-connected LC circuit between two stages connected in parallel works as ripple canceling. This paper shows the mechanism of current-ripple reduction. View full abstract»

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  • New practical approach to input current shaping in AC-DC power converters

    Page(s): 154 - 158
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (401 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In principle, a distortion of a waveform shape of AC/DC converter current could be corrected by use of a fast-controlled impedance-matching transformer. Changes in the converter input impedance can be eliminated by means of the varying transformation ratio of this transformer. The paper considers a practical performance of the fast-controlled impedance-matching transformer on a basis of a non-conducting converter. It is found that the shape of current waveform can be made sinusoidal if the instant power passing through a converter is proportional to the squared instant value of the supply voltage and/or the output voltage and the output current of the converter are in inverse proportion. A non-conducting converter with alternating of parallel and series resonance meeting requirements is considered. The converter topology, an operating principle and output voltage control are described. The basics of the converter calculation and the converter current waveform modeled on computer are presented. View full abstract»

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  • LLCC-PWM inverter for driving high-power piezoelectric actuators

    Page(s): 159 - 164
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (683 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this contribution a novel LLCC-PWM inverter is presented for driving ultrasonic high power piezoelectric actuators. The proposed system of a pulse-width modulated inverter and LLCC-type filter is designed in a way to reduce the total harmonic distortion of the motor voltage and to locally compensate for the reactive power of piezoelectric actuators. In order to limit the switching frequency, a pulse width modulation using elimination technique of selected harmonics is designed and implemented on a FPGA. Due to local compensation of reactive power and high dynamic behavior of LLCC PWM inverter, the whole power supply shows an optimal performance at minimized volume and weight compared to LC and LLCC resonant converters. View full abstract»

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  • Modelling and analysis of a matrix-reactance frequency converter based on buck-boost topology by DQ0 transformation

    Page(s): 165 - 172
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (686 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with a three-phase matrix-reactance frequency converter (MRFC). The analysed MRFC topology is based on buck-boost matrix-reactance chopper (MRC) one with source synchronous connected switches (LSCS) set arranged as in the step-up matrix converter (MC). The MRFC in question makes it possible to obtain a load output voltage much greater than the input voltage. Presented in this paper is a description a method for the analysis of the steady and transient state properties of presented MRFC. The static and dynamic characteristics of the presented converter under the control strategy proposed by Venturini are fully analysed on the basis of the circuit model development by the DQ0 transformation. Various static converter characteristics such as voltage and current gain, input power factor are completely analysed. Transition characteristics are also analysed by a small-signal model. The usefulness of the models is verified through computer simulations with good agreements. View full abstract»

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