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Embedded Systems Letters, IEEE

Issue 4 • Date Dec. 2012

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Displaying Results 1 - 15 of 15
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Embedded Systems Letters publication information

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C2
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  • Guest Editorial Special Section on Memory Architectures and Organization

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 81
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (93 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This special section is intended to address in part the advancement of techniques for novel memory architectures and organizations. Three letters were selected that cover novel techniques on MRAM as well as Flash memory. View full abstract»

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  • Combating Write Penalties Using Software Dispatch for On-Chip MRAM Integration

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 82 - 85
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1034 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent advances in the emerging memory technology magnetic RAM (MRAM) enrich the opportunities to build high density and low power embedded systems. One common way of utilizing MRAM is integrating it with conventional memories and distributing data to the appropriate type of memory to mitigate the high write penalty of MRAM. In this paper, we propose a software-based approach to identify data access characteristics and guide hardware to perform efficient data distribution. We use our technique to build an on-chip MRAM-SRAM hybrid cache and demonstrate an 86.8% reduction in leakage power, a 9.8% reduction in total power, and a 5% memory performance improvement, compared to a traditional static RAM (SRAM)-only cache. View full abstract»

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  • An Abstract Fault Model for NAND Flash Memory

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 86 - 89
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    We present an abstract fault model for NAND flash memory that describes precisely the effects of various faults during a flash operation. The abstract model is intended to be used to reason about fault-related correctness of key modules of flash memory management software such as a flash translation layer (FTL). We also introduce the concept of “SAO-compliance” to raise awareness about fault-related vulnerabilities of current flash memory management software and to promote much needed research to fix them. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Implementation of a Virtual Platform of Solid-State Disks

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 90 - 93
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (632 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This letter presents a virtual platform of solid-state disks (SSDs). Using a set of programming interfaces, users can quickly assemble an SSD based on their preferred flash chip organization and flash management algorithm, and a virtual disk then appears in the host system as a logical instance of the SSD. Unlike previous SSD simulation tools, this virtual disk performs block read/write with realistic I/O latencies as if this simulated SSD was real. This virtual platform provides a swift way to SSD hardware and firmware prototyping, and it is also useful for future research on the paradigm of host-device interaction. View full abstract»

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  • Hardware-Assisted Detection of Malicious Software in Embedded Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 94 - 97
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (385 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the critical security threats to computer systems is the execution of malware or malicious software. Several intrusion detection systems have been proposed which perform detection analysis in the software using the audit files generated by the operating system. Software-based solutions to this problem are relatively slow, so these techniques can be used forensically, but not in real-time to stop an exploit before it has an opportunity to do damage. We present a technique to implement intrusion detection for secure embedded systems by detecting behavioral differences between the correct system and the malware. The system is implemented using FPGA logic to enable the detection process to be regularly updated to adapt to new malware and changing system behavior. View full abstract»

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  • An Oblivious Routing Algorithm for 3D Mesh Networks to Achieve a New Worst-Case Throughput Bound

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 98 - 101
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (654 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    1/2 network capacity is often believed to be the limit of worst-case throughput for three-dimension (3D) mesh networks. However, this paper provides a new worst-case throughput bound, which is higher than 1/2 network capacity, for odd radix 3D mesh networks. In addition, we propose a routing algorithm called uniform solo-minimal (USM) routing that can achieve this new worst-case throughput bound in odd radix mesh networks. For the even radix case, we prove that USM achieves the optimal worst-case throughput, namely, half of network capacity. USM considers all routing paths with at most one dimensional minimal-distance routing and distributes the traffic loads uniformly to other two left dimensions. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that USM outperforms existing routing algorithms in worst-case throughput. Moreover, USM achieves good average-throughput and performs very well under different traffic matrices at the expense of (5/3)× minimal average hop count. View full abstract»

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  • QRTT : Stateful Round Trip Time Estimation for Wireless Embedded Systems Using Q -Learning

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 102 - 105
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (775 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless embedded systems such as sensor nodes and smartphones highlight the importance of reliable data transmission in their advanced applications. Such reliable transmission frequently exhibits a performance below expectation due to inherent resource constraints of the systems. Accurate estimation of round trip time, an important parameter of reliable data transmission, has the potential to significantly improve the performance withstanding the resource constraints. However, contemporary round trip time estimation schemes cannot significantly improve the performance using their stateless estimation schemes as two different states of transmission, success and failure, are equally prominent over wireless mediums. To address this key fact, we propose a novel stateful round trip time estimation scheme for wireless embedded systems, incorporating a light-weight artificial intelligence method. We apply the proposed scheme in a retransmission timeout mechanism of TCP and compare the efficacy of the scheme against that of contemporary estimation schemes. Exhaustive simulation and a testbed experiment reveal that our scheme significantly improves network throughput and average energy per bit compared to other schemes. View full abstract»

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  • Wireless Sensor Networks for Pilgrims Tracking

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 106 - 109
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (533 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Every year, and for five days, about three million pilgrims gather in the small city of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, to perform the rituals of Hajj (Pilgrimage). Tracking the movement of such a large number of people is crucial to the pilgrims themselves and the authorities managing the whole event. This letter reports a real-time pilgrim tracking system that has been designed and implemented. The system relies on a dedicated delay-tolerant wireless sensor network (WSN). This WSN is interfaced to the Internet through gateway(s) available from an internet service provider (ISP). Energy efficiency, robustness, and reliability are key factors in the design of the system. Each pilgrim is given a mobile sensor unit which includes a GPS chip, a microcontroller, and antennas. A network of fixed units is installed in the Holy area for receiving and forwarding data. Periodically, each mobile unit sends its user identification (UID), latitude, longitude, and a time stamp. A central server maps the latitude and longitude information on a geographical information system (GIS). The developed system can be used to track a specific or a group of pilgrims. The developed system was tested during the last two pilgrim seasons. The pilot system was able to successfully track all pilgrims who participated in the experiment. View full abstract»

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  • 2012 Index IEEE Embedded Systems Letters Vol. 4

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 110 - 114
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  • Call for papers: IEEE Embedded Systems Letters - Special Issue on Rigorous Modeling and Analysis of Cyber-Physical Systems

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 115
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  • Open Access

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): 116
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  • IEEE Embedded Systems Letters information for authors

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C3
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  • [Blank page - back cover]

    Publication Year: 2012 , Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

The IEEE EMBEDDED SYSTEMS LETTERS (ESL), provides a forum for rapid dissemination of latest technical advances in embedded systems and related areas in embedded software.

Full Aims & Scope

Meet Our Editors

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
Krithi Ramamritham
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay

DEPUTY EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
Catherine Gebotys
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Waterloo