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Optical Network Design and Modeling, 2008. ONDM 2008. International Conference on

Date 12-14 March 2008

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 42
  • Routing and wavelength assignment encompassing FWM in WDM lightpath networks

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (725 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A dynamic routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) algorithm encompassing physical impairment due to Four-Wave Mixing (FWM) is proposed. The FWM effect is one of the most severe physical impairments to be considered for the future unify either optical or photonic networks since the accumulation of FWM crosstalk causes a fatal degradation in the wavelength-routed optical network performance. A novel cost function is introduced based upon an impairment-constraint-based routing (ICBR) approach, taking into account the network utilization resources and the physical impairment due to FWM crosstalk. Simulations results show that the proposed algorithm leads to a more realistic system performance comparing to those related approaches of dynamic RWA without considering physical impairments into the routing scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Efficient availability evaluation for transport backbone networks

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (359 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The reliability of transport backbone networks is vital for the economy and security. Modern backbone networks use a mesh of fiber optic cables, which are, due to their ubiquitous deployment, prone to failures. The goal of this paper is to develop efficient computational methods for assessing the availability of such networks. We present both analytical and simulation approaches for this problem. Our analytical approach is based on cut set enumeration, while our simulation approach is based on Monte Carlo sampling techniques. To facilitate the computational process, we employ artificial intelligence methods based on genetic algorithms. We consider the expected loss of traffic (ELT) as the availability measure and show that ELT can be accurately estimated through an efficient procedure. View full abstract»

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  • An educational RWA network planning tool for dynamic flows

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the Dyn-MatPlanWDM tool, an educational network planning tool for wavelength-routing WDM networks. The tool considers the on-line or dynamic network operation. Traffic is composed of higher level traffic connections. The planning algorithms dynamically decide on the virtual topology design and the routing of the flows on top of it. The input parameters to the planning problem are the network physical topology, technological constraints like the number of transmitters, receivers, optical converters, the generator module and the planning module to test. The tool is implemented as a MATLAB toolbox. The set of generators and planning modules included can be easily extended. In particular, a set of libraries are provided to ease the composition of new heuristic algorithms. A graphical user interface is supplied which aids the user to test and trace the network evolution. The GUI is designed to support an educational use of the tool. View full abstract»

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  • Dimensioning an optical packet/burst switch — More interconnections or more delay lines?

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (541 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present performance evaluation of an optical packet/burst switch with internal fiber rings. Such a switch consists of multiple fabrics linked together by direct interconnections and optical delay lines. Having more number of optical delay lines and direct interconnections per fabric pair reduces contention and results in a reduced blocking probability. However, due to the size and cost of optical delay lines, it is desirable to minimize their number for a specific blocking probability. We propose an analytical model for the switch in order to study its scalability and packet/burst blocking probability. The switch is then dimensioned for given values of blocking probability and a given range of input load. Simulation results concerning switch scalability by taking into account the most relevant physical effects are also shown. We then consider the minimal practical switch size and discuss how the switch can be dimensioned with a combination of delay lines and direct interconnections to achieve our target of a certain blocking probability and range of input load using a minimum number of fiber delay lines. View full abstract»

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  • Solving large size instances of the RWA problem using graph partitioning

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (265 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a new heuristic to solve large instances of the Routing and Wavelength Assignment problem (RWA). First, the initial instance is split into several smaller instances that are optimally solved using the ILP formulation of the problem. This decomposition is obtained by partitioning the set of edges of the network and is such that the different instances can be solved independently. Then the local solutions are combined in order to obtain a feasible solution of the initial instance. Herein the method is used to solve the Static Lightpath Establishment problem (SLE), but can be easily applied to any RWA problem. We validate the proposed method on a real network and on large random instances. The obtained results are compared with the optimal ones or with those of a sequential algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Availability and cost estimation of secured FTTH architectures

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (582 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper are presented the availability and the relative deployment costs of secured and non secured GPON architectures. The perimeter considered ranges from the OLT shelf to the ONT. Unavailability and failure frequency of tree and bus architectures were reported for three distinct deployment scenarios. The same calculations were performed for four secured architectures based on tree and bus architectures. The relative deployment cost of the secured architectures compared to the tree architecture has been estimated. This study reveals that the tree and bus architectures have, with the input parameters considered in this study, an unavailability of about 1 hour. Unavailability falls below 5 min/year for a doubling of the costs in case of complete redundancy of the architecture. Comparatively to the tree architecture, a decrease of 9 min/year is acquired with an extra cost of about 10% in case the most shared part of the optical distribution network is protected against single fiber failure. For the four investigated secured achitectures, the relative cost extends from 2.3 to 1.1 with respect to the tree architecture. View full abstract»

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  • Guaranteeing packet order in Load Balanced distributed Schedulers for WASPENT optical packet switches

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (156 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In [5] we proposed the load balanced WASPNET scheduler (LBWS), a novel scheduling approach for WASPNET optical packet switching (OPS) nodes. Unlike the original WASPNET description, LBWS is fully distributed and its computational cost is independent of switch size. Since it predicts packet delays at packet ingress based on a deterministic evolution of the switch configuration, it is not necessary to emulate RAM memories. However, LBWS does not maintain packet sequence. In this paper we present the LBWS algorithm with packet ordering (OLBWS), the first proposal to prevent mis-sequencing in a LBWS scheduler. We show that, despite the simplicity of the algorithm, a reasonable throughput can be achieved. View full abstract»

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  • End-to-end service provisioning in carrier-grade ethernet networks: The 100 GET-E3 approach

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (859 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents and discusses issues of multi-domain, end-to-end service provisioning in Ethernet core networks from the perspective of the 100GET-E3 project, a German subproject under the umbrella of the CELTIC research initiative 100GET (ldquo100 Gigabit Ethernet Technologiesrdquo). We propose several multi-domain service provisioning scenarios in IEEEpsilas Provider Backbone Bridging Traffic Engineering (PBB-TE) networks. View full abstract»

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  • Analysis of the processing and sojourn times of Burst Control Packets in Optical Burst Switches

    Page(s): 1 - 3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (144 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In Optical Burst Switched networks, when a Burst Control Packet arrives at a core node, its scheduling algorithm looks up its internal reservation table for an available gap at which to accomodate the incoming burst. The processing time of the BCP is variable, and depends on the number of available gaps over which to perform the search. This work analyses the gap distribution in such reservation table, and derives an expression for the waiting time of BCPs, assuming LAUC-VF scheduling. Our findings can be applied to the dimensioning of the offset time values in OBS networks, for a realistic case of BCP variable processing times. View full abstract»

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  • Dimensioning aggregated voice traffic in MPLS nodes

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (278 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    MPLS offers a efficient transport scheme and traffic engineering capabilities for real-time VoIP. However, at the transport plane, the bandwidth reserved for voice traffic is a key parameter necessary to ensure performance guarantees for VoIP communications. This paper addresses this important piece of traffic engineering: determining the bandwidth requirements for voice traffic aggregated. To achieve our goal we first define a model for a generic voice source which embodies any current type of voice source (which we name Generalized VoIP source). Then, we extend the fluid model with our new GVoIP source to obtain a loss and delay prediction for each multiplexer node. Finally, we design a simple but efficient dimensioning algorithm that provides the bandwidth requirement for a desired performance when multiplexing a number of homogeneous GVoIP sources. Using of dimensioning algorithm we compare the bandwidth requirements for two transport schemes VoIP over MPLS and VoMPLS. Results confirm that our extended multiplexing analytical model improves the estimation of the bandwidth requirement of a voice traffic trunk over MPLS, whereas any other on-off based dimensioning model is not valid for these kind of codecs. View full abstract»

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  • A Computer Aided Design for optimization of optical networks

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (335 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    HiperionCAD is a computer aided design (CAD) software which allows the design and optimization of optical networks. The tool has been developed by means of the model driven development (MDD) approach. A graphical modeling framework (GMF) has been employed to model the domain, automatic code generation and graphic edition of the object models. We introduce the idea of a different CAD tool for design and optimization of optical network. The optimization of each component parameters comprising the network is performed using a genetic algorithm (GA) and the feasibility of this GA implementation is discussed by considering the different procedures. This paper is focused on describing the main characteristics and a demonstration of the implemented HiperionCAD tool for the optimization of optical networks by GA implementation. View full abstract»

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  • Analytical model for dynamic waveband switching

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (397 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present in this paper a novel framework to analytically model dynamic waveband switching in a multi-granular optical network. The scalable solution consists in modeling each potential carrier of waveband tunnels independently by a Markov chain while modulating the rate of critical transitions, i.e. reserving a new waveband tunnel, by the waveband setup availability computed from the solution of other potential carriers. An iterative procedure is repeated to obtain a consistent numerical solution all over the network. View full abstract»

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  • Extending the UCLP software with a Dynamic Optical Multicast Service to support high performance digital media

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (939 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Date-intensive high performance, high quality digital media traffic cannot be accommodated on traditional layer 3 networks. Alternative technologies to transmit this traffic through the network, such as optical multicast, are being investigated. A prototype of an optical multicast service was showcased during the 7th annual LambdaGrid Workshop celebrated in Prague last September. The prototype used time division multiplexing (TDM) technology as the data plane and user controlled lightpaths (UCLP) as the control/service plane. This paper describes the extensions that were done to the UCLP software to provide the dynamic optical multicast service and shows the results achieved during the Prague demonstration. View full abstract»

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  • Aggregation networks: Cost comparison of WDM ring vs. double star topology

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Due to the increasing demand for higher transmission capacity, originated from upcoming Triple-Play services, network operators are forced to increase the transmission capacity in the backbone and aggregation networks and drive down the costs per bit/s. Many concepts have been presented, optimizing backbone network and increasing the network capacity by introducing higher data rates or channel count. In this paper we focus on aggregation network architectures investigating appropriate architectures for the aggregation of broadband services for an incumbent European network operator. These architectures have to be cost effective and ensure high service availability. These requirements can be met by either aggregating via star topology, using several stages of Ethernet aggregation nodes, by a ring topology using cost effective optical add/drop multiplexers (OADM), or furthermore a mixture of star and ring topologies. The right choice depends on the traffic load, the traffic forecast, distribution of the traffic matrix and underlying fiber graph. View full abstract»

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  • Assessment and performance evaluation of PCE-based inter-layer traffic engineering

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (140 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multi-layer (ML) and multi-domain networks require path computation elements (PCE) for constraint-based path calculation. In this paper we introduce and evaluate qualitatively as well as quantitatively the PCE scenarios newly proposed by the IETF for PCE-based inter-layer traffic engineering. Requirements on additional communication, on hardware and on optimality of path computation serve as the qualitative metrics in our comparison. The path setup delay is derived analytically and serves as the quantitative metric. We derive the results using simulations on the ML German reference network with 17 nodes and back-up our results by two different ML TE routing algorithms. We show that one single ML PCE performs best in the overall qualitatively and quantitatively comparison. View full abstract»

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  • Differentiated survivability in a distributed GMPLS-based IP-over-optical network

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (218 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A key element of the survivability cost is the amount of the additional capacity embedded in the network for recovery purposes. Generally, Internet service providers (ISPs) have the obvious aim of achieving the required level of survivability with minimum resource consumption and network cost. Therefore, in order to achieve such a challenge, it is necessary to move towards the multilayer differentiated survivability concept. In this paper, the focus is given to the investigation of the application of differentiated survivability concept with pre-allocated restoration technique considering a distributed GMPLS-based IP-over-optical mesh network under single and dual-link failure scenarios. View full abstract»

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  • Performance analysis of a hybrid optical switch

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (634 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To cope with ever-increasing traffic demands in transport networks, all-optical switching is currently perceived as a solution to remove bottlenecks imposed by O/E/O conversions during data transfer. The successful realization of this concept is in large part dependent on the optical switch, which must support a wide range of traffic patterns, while remaining feasible to build both in an economical and practical sense. In this paper, we show a generic design for a hybrid optical switch composed of both slow and fast switching fabrics, and present a performance analysis to provide deeper insight in its behaviour. To this end, we propose and evaluate scheduling algorithms required at the edge of the network to map traffic on the different portions of the core switch, and present a simulation analysis covering a wide range of traffic parameters and switch design choices. These results show the effectiveness of the hybrid switch in catering for short-lived circuits (bursts) by only a limited amount of costly high-speed switching components. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-domain routing techniques with topology aggregation in ASON networks

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1057 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Thanks to the development of the automatic control plane (ASON and GMPLS standards) optical transport networks are able to provide bandwidth on demand service quickly and efficiently. But for this service to be really interesting to users the capability of seamlessly operating the network across multiple administrative domains should be developed. Multi-domain routing in ASON is a new challenging topic, especially if the target is a scalable solution. The paper investigates this topic and in particular it evaluates the effectiveness of the application of aggregation topology methods to the representation of network domains. These methods, initially devised for ATM networks, can be extended to ASON/GMPLS, as recommended by the Optical Interworking Forum (OIF). Topology aggregation limits the amount of topology information distributed throughout the network and the bandwidth occupation for control-plane signalling, improving scalability. On the other hand, concealing intra-domain topology details to other domains may limit the effectiveness of inter-domain routing. We analyze the behavior of the three topology-aggregation methods proposed by OIF (Simple Node, Full Mesh and Symmetric Star) comparing blocking probability in a multi-domain optical network under dynamic bandwidth-on-demand traffic. We further propose a new topology-aggregation scheme (Hybrid) with improved scalability and evaluate its performance in the case-study network compared to the other known schemes. View full abstract»

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  • OBGP+: A simple approach to drastically improve OBGP

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (241 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    During the last few years, the research community has shown an increasing interest in the subject of inter-domain routing in optical networks, so new approaches like the optical extension of BGP, namely OBGP, have arisen. However, it is widely accepted now that a multi-domain routing model mostly centered on the exchange of reachability information - like the one we have today or the one provided by OBGP - is not going to be enough in the future. Routing domains must be able to exchange both, reachability, as well as aggregated path state information (PSI). Understanding that there is a missing piece in the routing models provided by BGP and OBGP is easy nowadays, but contributing with solutions capable of highly improving the performance of these routing protocols without increasing the number and frequency of the routing messages exchanged between domains is a challenging task. This study makes the following contributions. First, we propose a straightforward strategy to compute highly aggregated PSI between routing domains. Second, we propose OBGP+, an extended version of OBGP that exploits this PSI to compute inter-domain lightpaths in a highly efficient way. Third, in order to avoid the typical increase in the number of routing messages associated with the update of PSI, we propose to piggy-back these updates in non-dummy Keepalive messages exchanged between OBGP+ neighbors. Extensive simulations made with OPNET in the PAN European network topology reveal that: i) OBGP+ is able to drastically reduce the blocking experienced with OBGP; ii) while even needing less number of routing messages than OBGP to achieve this performance. View full abstract»

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  • Emulating lossless, one-way signaling protocols in OBS networks with traffic prediction

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (586 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a new scheme for on demand reservation of capacity in OBS networks, emulating one-way signaling protocols. The proposed framework relies on the combination of a two-way reservation protocol and a burst assembly scheme with a burstification delay enforced to be the round-trip-time and which incorporates a Least Mean Square filter to predict burst length. Upon the arrival of the first packet in the burst queue, a control packet (setup message) is generated and transmitted to reserve resources, based on the prediction filter. In this way the reservation process starts/ends simultaneously with the burst assembly process. In this paper, we present the main features of the proposed scheme, evaluate its performance for both homogeneous and non-homogeneous traffic and we further propose an extension with aggressive over-provisioning of resources that can guarantee lossless operation even for extremely cases of bursty traffic. View full abstract»

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  • Multiobjective model for multicast overlay networks over IP/MPLS using MOEA

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (639 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Multicast plays an important role in supporting a new generation of applications. At present and for different reasons, technical and non-technical, multicast IP hasnpsilat yet been totally adopted for Internet. During recent years, an active area of research is that of implementing this kind of traffic in the application layer where the multicast functionality isnt a responsibility of the routers but that of the hosts, which we know as Multicast Overlay Networks (MON). In this article, routing in an MON is put forward as a multiobjective optimization problem (MOP) where two functions are optimized: 1) the total end to end delay of the multicast tree and 2) the maximum link utilization. The simultaneous optimization of these two functions is an NP-Complete problem and to solve this we suggest using Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEA), specifically NSGA-II. View full abstract»

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  • On provision of availability guarantees using shared protection

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Internet has traditionally provided an undefined level of availability based on a best-effort restoration scheme, while the telecommunication networks have provided a somewhat higher level, primarily achieved by dedicated protection. In the coming next generation network, the introduction of new services that have different quality of service (QoS) requirements combined with cost conscious customers who make cost/utility trade-offs, yields a need for the network operators to be able to offer different levels of guaranteed availability. The challenge is to find schemes that can provide the guaranteed availability level requested by each connection while at the same time use bandwidth efficiently. Path protection is a well-known technique to improve the availability of connections in optical networks. When availability guarantees are to be offered, dedicated path protection is easily applicable since the availability of the connections can easily be predicted. Shared path protection, however, is more difficult to apply since the computations usually are more involved. In this paper, two schemes for on-line bandwidth-efficient connection-establishment exploiting shared protection are proposed. The schemes are compared through simulation studies on two realistic network topologies. View full abstract»

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  • A mean value analysis approach for evaluating the performance of EPON with Gated IPACT

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (165 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Broadband Passive Optical Network (PON) technology is a promising approach to establish a cost-effective access network. It is intended to provide a simple, low cost, scalable solution capable of delivering broadband access to end users, by passively sharing a single optical fiber transmission system between several packets. While downstream traffic is broadcast to all packets, the access of upstream traffic to the fiber has to be arbitrated in order to avoid collisions. This arbitration mechanism and more generally, bandwidth distribution and QoS Provisioning, have been left to the implementer. Interleaved Polling with Adaptive Cycle Time (IPACT) is one of the earliest proposed schemes for bandwidth distribution in Ethernet PON (EPON) and has been extensively used as a benchmark by many subsequent allocation schemes. In this paper, we propose an analytical model which yields approximate values for mean queue length and mean packet delay in an EPON with the Gated IPACT scheme under the assumption of Poisson arrivals. We show by simulation that the model is remarkably accurate over the whole load range. We use the model to demonstrate that all ONUs experiment performance degradation in case of local overload by some ONUs, thus showing the necessity of correcting somehow the Gated policy in order to avoid this phenomenon. View full abstract»

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  • Provisioning lightpaths and computing resources for location-transparent scheduled grid demands

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (333 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we define a new problem of provisioning lightpaths and computing resources for a set of location- transparent scheduled grid demands in optical grid networks. A location-transparent scheduled grid demand specifies only an amount of computing resources needed in a specified time interval to process input data. The network node generating a demand is called a client node. There are several network nodes which have sufficient resources for a demand. These nodes are called resource nodes. An algorithm is used to choose a resource node to reserve a specified amount of computing resources and provision a lightpath between the resource node and the client node. Given a set of location-transparent scheduled grid demands, it is required to provision the best lightpath (i.e. wavelength resources) as well as computing resources available during the specified time interval for each demand so as to optimize a certain objective function. In our work, we develop integer linear programming (ILP) formulations for 2 objective functions: 1) Given a network capacity, maximize the number of demands accepted; 2) Minimize the total number of wavelength-links to honor a given set of demands. Because the ILP algorithms are computationally expensive, we also develop heuristics to deal with large networks. The simulation results show that our heuristics achieve good performance. View full abstract»

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  • Network delivery of live events in a Digital Cinema scenario

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (201 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The goal of this paper is to present a system able to support the network delivery of live events in an expected, future Digital Cinema scenario. This service can consume a large amount of network bandwidth, due to the large volume of transmitted data and to the number of receivers, thus multicast transmission proves to be very useful. Consequently, a key issue of the system is the request routing algorithm, the goal of which is to optimise the QoS-guaranteed delivery of live streams in the backbone, each one towards a set of theatres. We consider the Multi Protocol Label Switching, which has emerged as an elegant solution to meet traffic engineering and resource reservation requirements, and focus on the overall request routing procedure, the mathematical modelling of the problem, and relevant solving algorithms. We present the comparative performance evaluation of these algorithms by means of an extensive simulation campaign performed with the OMNET++ simulation platform. View full abstract»

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