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Electronics and the Environment, 2008. ISEE 2008. IEEE International Symposium on

Date 19-22 May 2008

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  • 2008 IEEE international symposium on electronics and the environment May 19–21, 2008, San Francisco, CA

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  • Recycling advanced batteries

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    This abstract introduces results from OnTo Technology's innovative recycling process to produce new materials for new batteries from materials from spent batteries. Recycling spent batteries is a growing problem for the consumer electronics electric vehicle industries. View full abstract»

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  • Quantifying the environmental impacts of labor

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    Quantitative values for the environmental impacts of labor are needed to improve the accuracy and expand the decision making capabilities of life cycle analysis. We present a method of calculating the environmental impacts of a worker-hour, finding one worker-hour of industrial labor in the U.S. corresponding to 58 MJ of primary energy use, 82 gallons of water use, and 4.6 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. View full abstract»

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  • Trends in the environmental impacts of CMOS manufacturing

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    A life cycle inventory model is presented in this study which describes resource demands and chemical emissions for the semiconductor manufacturing process flow of CMOS logic devices. The model is used to analyze several technology generations of chips, from the 1995-era 350 nm node to the 45 nm node, the most advanced CMOS design in current production. Detailed equipment-level data allows an understanding of the relative magnitude of resource demands and impacts by process step or chemical. The analysis illustrates trends in energy use and emissions, including hazardous, volatile organic and global warming gas emissions, over time and thus provides a means to forecast energy and water demands associated with near-future logic device manufacturing. View full abstract»

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  • RFID signalling to stimulate reuse of personal computers

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    A major obstacle to second hand use of computers is a lack of faith among buyers in the quality of the hardware. In the absence of a means for sellers to communicate system quality to buyers, the true value of second hand systems cannot be verified. This leads to sellers of quality goods having to accept a price which is less than the value of the system. Owners of high quality systems will be unwilling to sell for this lower price, and the market becomes flooded with lower quality merchandise, further reducing buyer confidence in the second-hand market, and so on. Although system integrity can be verified through testing of hardware, this is a time-intensive process, requiring significant technical awareness on the part of the individual consumer, and would be prohibitively costly to carry out on a large scale in a commercial environment. View full abstract»

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  • Life cycle inventories for nanomanufactured carbon nanotube products

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    Nanotechnology is moving from development to commercialization at a rapid rate, so too are calls for a more comprehensive understanding of the environmental impacts associated with various nanomanufacturing processes. The integration of carbon nanotubes (CNT) into applications such as electronics, sensors, interconnects, low-mass/high- strength structures, and EMI shielding is a promising venture. This is because of their unique electronic semiconducting properties and high thermal conductivity, tensile strength, and elastic modulus. However, as with any new emerging technology, identifying its environmental impact is critical to its success. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to analyze the environmental footprint of nanomanufacturing processes involving CNTs while still in the developmental phase. View full abstract»

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  • End-of-life management of cell phones in the United States

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    Cell phones are a unique niche in the electronic waste stream not only because of their high rate of replacement by consumers, but also because they have viable reuse and recycling markets. The main objective of this research is to recommend end-of-life (EoL) management schemes for cell phones in the United States. The research focused on the EoL markets for cell phones, and examined the different economic and environmental outcomes of various management schemes. The authors considered three options: reuse of phones, reuse of parts, and recycling of materials. View full abstract»

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  • Increased efficiency of wind generated electricity using demand side management

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    Because electricity is considered an indispensable resource in every home and workplace it is vital that the 'human factor' is a main concern during the development of any DSM algorithms. Appliances must be categorized as either time dependent or independent. Time dependent appliances would include TV's and cookers where the devices must operate at a user specified time. Water and space heating/cooling are examples of time independent devices. Here the user isn't concerned with the exact timing or intermittence of the devices operation provided its ultimate goal is achieved within reasonable limits. This paper will aim to demonstrate the concepts of demand side management, highlighting some of the methods used in its implementation. Also, using extracts of data from our own telemetry system, an example to show how increased efficiency is possible when DSM is employed. View full abstract»

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  • Characterizing architectural options for electronic waste recycling systems

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    Several electronic waste recycling systems now exist worldwide in many different forms. In order to determine the optimal system structure for a location, a methodology for comparison must be established. This poster outlines a framework developed to compare the environmental and economic performance of recycling systems through analysis of both context and system architecture options. An overview of the available architectural options for designing an e-waste system is presented, and then the comparison framework is applied to an analysis of systems operating in both European countries and US states. The analysis presented here focuses on the quantity of e-waste collected by each system. View full abstract»

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  • E-Market for e-waste

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    In the U.S., e-waste could be the fastest growing component of the municipal solid waste. This trend is likely to continue given the rapid rate of technological progress, increased adoption and subsequent decreasing life spans of electronic products. This poster proposes the e-market for returned deposit system as an option for future e-waste management system in the U.S. View full abstract»

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  • Halogen-Free FR systems for advanced printed circuit boards

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    Summary form only given. Halogen-free flame retardants are becoming increasingly popular to replace tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA) in printed circuit board (PCB) applications due to environmental pressures in the marketplace. While the PCB industry recognizes that one-to-one replacement of TBBA is difficult, there is growing recognition that mixtures of non-halogenated alternatives can perform synergistically to provide the cost and performance characteristics necessary for commercial success. Based on the target market, it is now possible to design a robust formulation that takes into account the resin and total flame retardant package to optimize performance and eliminate or reduce TBBA from the system. View full abstract»

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  • Energy and environmental flow model for a sustainable networked book delivery system in the United States

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    Information communication technology (ICT) has emerged as one the most significant industry sectors contributing to the United States' growth. E-commerce and Internet are the two most important developments not only in ICT but in the world of business as a whole. It allows many people to buy and exchange goods and services immediately with 24-hour availability. Also, by using the e-commerce, consumers can compare products and prices easily, and choose delivery options which have made shopping more enjoyable, less expensive and time consuming. E-commerce will be the fastest growing part in the U.S. retail marketplace for the foreseeable future. In this paper, we attempted to design and assess a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system for book delivery system to achieve significant reductions of energy consumption and environmental emissions of critical local pollutants and greenhouse gases due to growing local transportation in urban areas. View full abstract»

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  • Assessing the sustainability of the material recovery system for CRT glass

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    In recent years, electronic waste has emerged as a waste stream of concern for many reasons; including the need to handle hazardous or extract valuable materials. Within this e- waste stream, cathode-ray tube (CRT) glass waste, from televisions (TVs) and computer monitors, is of particular concern because of high recycling costs and low secondary material value. Economic issues are thus a significant consideration when assessing the sustainability of this material recovery system. In particular, there are questions as to whether the demand for recycled CRT cullet will remain sufficient to sustain the secondary material market. The authors present two models developed to characterize the global mass flow of primary and secondary CRT glass. The first model assesses future supply and the second evaluates potential future demand for secondary CRT cullet. View full abstract»

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  • Can renewable energy meet Africa’s development needs?

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    This work applies economic forecasting and energy analysis to explore the potential for Africa to meet electricity demand from its vast hydropower resources under various growth scenarios. The impacts of population growth and growth in demand for energy services are considered, as well as the effects of decreasing water levels on electricity generation. Total electricity demand under various growth scenarios is compared with total hydroelectric generating capabilities. Results show that in 24 countries, when operating at full capacity, the installed hydropower can supply more than enough electricity to meet current demand. But, under various growth scenarios, the current installation operating at full capacity would not be able to meet half of the projected electricity demand by 2030. Thus, further exploitation of hydro potential is needed. View full abstract»

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  • Power generation ’ sustainable or not?

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    One of the most threatening problems in the world at present is the depletion of fossil fuels. The world is facing an acute shortage of fuel sources. Some break-through has been achieved in the form of solar energy, hydrogen fuel cells, biofuels etc. The use of these alternatives decreases the dependency on the present fossil fuels and also reduces the pollution to a great extent. In this paper, the author's idea on chemical and biological processes to produce alternate fuels has been discussed. Moreover this fuel source can also be used to generate electricity to run household appliances.The other way of producing hydrogen is the use of Green Algae.The other alternate fuel source is biofuels. This is produced by the processing of any plant part of biofuel plant sources. The concept is to identify and isolate the gene responsible for the synthesis of triglycerides (hydrocarbons) in these plants, and transform it into commonly found plants, which have a short growth period and which could withstand the effects of the gene. The prime criterion, as a whole, is the quest for the most optimum renewable source to keep the world moving on its wheels, not only for now, but also for the future generations. View full abstract»

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  • Understanding population dynamics of WEEE recycling system in the developing countries: A SIR model

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    Literature indicates that it causes the growing concern over how the developing countries will manage largely volumes of e-waste (waste electrical and electronic equipment, WEEE) (Hicks et al., 2005). The reason is that e-waste disposal contains both highly valuable materials and toxic/hazardous substances, which may result in not only economical revenues but also negative impacts on human health and the environment when handling WEEE. Nowadays in South Africa, the formal sector, which is complying with international environmental standards, dominates handling WEEE industry. Whereas in some developing countries such as China, informal sector is the main WEEE processing system in which e-waste is treated by dangerous and inappropriate recycling practices (Widmer et al., 2005). Due to the nature of informal sector, the quality of informal processing activities and quantities of e-waste disposal are far than understood. Consequently, the existing situation of WEEE practices in the industrializing countries highlights the informal sector as a crucial and emerging issue, which is needed to be well understood and better governed. View full abstract»

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  • Forecasting computer sales and generation of end-of-life computers in the U.S.

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    Our goal is to characterize future trends in the generation of obsolete computers in the U.S. Our definition of obsolete is based on a user purchasing a replacement computer, after which the old one is stored, resold, or sent for waste management. Starting from historical sales data on new computers and assuming a plausible first life span distribution of desktop and laptop computers, the historical penetration rate is expressed in terms of the number of computers owned per capita. We then work to extrapolate the current trend to the future by using a logistic model [L.D. Frank, 2004], an S-shaped curve based on a rate constant and a carrying capacity, the latter expressing the asymptotic limit of adoption of the technology. View full abstract»

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  • Manufacturability and sustainability analysis of nano-scale manufacturing

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    In this project, atomic layer deposition (ALD) of Al2O3 high-k dielectric films on silicon wafers is studied as a model process of nanotechnology. The ALD process uses trimethyl aluminum as the metal source and water as the oxidant. View full abstract»

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  • The Dynamics of the availability of platinum group metals for electronics manufacturers

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    Platinum group metals (PGMs) are used in the manufacturing of hard disks and capacitors, components that are crucial to electronics. Between March 2007 and March 2008, platinum prices have gone from about $39/g to over $67/g with more than half the increase occurring in the beginning of 2008. Not only has demand outpaced growth in primary capacity, but also, primary producers in South Africa have not been able to operate at full capacity due to country-wide power shortages. The impacts of the power shortages on PGM supply are far-reaching because South Africa produces 77% of global primary platinum and 38% of primary palladium. The high dependence on one country for supplying the world's PGMs is a characteristic of a material with high risk of scarcity. High concentration of supply in one country, one region or one company is a structure-type metric for identifying materials with risk of scarcity through institutional inefficiency. Reclamation-type metrics which also identify institutional inefficiency and Malthusian and Ricardian-type metrics which identify physical constraint were also measured. A firm that identifies its risk for materials scarcity pre hoc can be better prepared for a price spike during periods of scarcity. View full abstract»

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  • Simultaneous disassembly of PCBs based on components reusability assessment

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    Disassembly is the first issue in the recycling of obsolete printed circuit boards (PCBs). Although high automation and robotics have been achieved in the industrial assembly of PCBs, the dismantlement of PCBs still keeps a low level of manual operation with simple tools, except some pilot or demonstration projects realized in research institutes. Consumption market of electrical and electronic equipments is very flourishing in China, which causes millions of used PCBs abandoned every year. Manual disassembly of PCBs is the most common method in China now. In order to improve the disassembly efficiency and evaluate the disassembled components, as well as to ameliorate working conditions and minimize the environmental pollution, it is necessary to develop a PCB disassembly and component reusability assessment system which is commercially feasible to industrial application. Under the support of National Key Technologies R&D Program of China, we quested for technological solutions for PCB disassembly and component assessment to catch up the demand of sustainable development. View full abstract»

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  • Improvement in electricity distribution efficiency to mitigate pollution IEEE ISEE (May 2008)

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    For electricity distribution companies, power theft is a problem of alarming proportions in developing nations. In addition to causing massive financial losses, it increases the pollution level due to unrestrained usage of free(stolen) power. Current methods to curb theft include the adoption of 11 kV LT distribution, HVDS (high voltage distribution system) employing pole-mounted transformers, etc. We have attempted to provide an economic and flexible method of detecting power theft using pole mounted FM band radio telemetry, which will allow distribution companies to find and fix such problems with greater ease. View full abstract»

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  • A LCIA weighting system based on China environmental policy and local manufacturing industry situation

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    This study attacks two problems that are generally ignored in existing LCIA (life cycle impact assessment) weighting system, namely: 1) how to reflect national and local environmental problems and policies, especially that of China, in the weighting system; 2) how to integrate local and regional environmental situation in the product life cycle impact assessment for specific manufacturing enterprise. View full abstract»

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  • Opportunity for landfill gas-to-energy projects in the U.S.

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    The article aims to evaluate total cost and benefit of landfill gas-to-energy projects. The evaluation takes into consideration not only the costs of installing and maintaining the necessary equipment and the revenues from selling the electricity or heat, but also potential revenue from carbon trading of the greenhouse gas emissions that are prevented by these projects and benefit from groundwater remediation. View full abstract»

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  • Design of the full biodegradable and single-use dishware mold based on automatic ejection technology

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    In this paper, new mold equipment based on automatic ejection technology is designed. The design of this mold is composed of automatic ejection design, radial steam line design, implicit steam line design, wedged automatic location design. View full abstract»

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  • A efficiency improvement methodology for active mode efficiency regulation

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    The impact on the environment, in regards to power supply energy efficiency, has attracted growing attention in the international community. This paper proposes a hybrid control method that combines the conventional hard-switched PWM operation and variable frequency quasi-resonant operation. The proposed approach reduces the switching loss at medium and light load effectively without increasing the conduction loss. The proposed scheme was implemented and tested with a 90~265Vac/5V, 30W off-line flyback converter. View full abstract»

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