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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IRE Transactions on

Issue 6 • Date November 1962

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 37
  • [Front cover - Nov. 1962]

    Page(s): f1 - f2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Index to IRE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Volume MTT-10, 1962

    Page(s): i - vi
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents - November 1962

    Page(s): 407
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • George L. Matthaei [Biography]

    Page(s): 408 - 409
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • 1962 Pgmtt National Symposium

    Page(s): 410 - 412
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    First Page of the Article
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  • Standards and the Microwave Profession

    Page(s): 413 - 415
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    The Keynote of the 1962 PGMTT Symposium was the reciprocal dependence between the National Bureau of Standards and the microwave profession. The fact that the Symposium was held at the NBS Boulder Laboratories symbolized our mutual interest. I would like to analyze this relationship and suggest the mutual benefits to be gained by fostering it. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave Band-Stop Filters with Narrow Stop Bands

    Page(s): 416 - 427
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    Band-stop filters can be used to eliminate a band of frequencies, or to separate such a band from other frequencies; if properly designed, the insertion loss at frequencies outside the stop-band can be minimized. The filters considered here have stop-band bandwidths up to a few per cent, and equiripple or maximally flat characteristics in the passband. Design formulas are presented. The effect of dissipation loss is included. A strip-line filter and a waveguide filter were constructed. Experimental results conform closely to the performance predicted by theory. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel High-Power Harmonic Suppressor

    Page(s): 428 - 431
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    The use of high-power harmonic suppressors, or low-pass filters, is becoming an accepted technique in the microwave state-of-the-art. The filter to be described is a novel version of the "leaky wall" type. A C-band fundamental frequency harmonic suppressor has been designed with attenuation characteristics verified through the fourth harmonic (K band). This filter exhibited attenuation of greater than 40 db for several harmonic modes, fundamental frequency insertion loss of less than 0.15 db, an input VSWR of less than 1.15 in the pass band and an input VSWR of less than 2:1 in the stop band. The over-all length of this device is 18 in with a cross section of approximately 7 in x 7 in. Data on a similar X-band low-pass filter are also presented. View full abstract»

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  • A Plasma-Column Band-Pass Microwave Filter

    Page(s): 431 - 439
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    A tunable band-pass filter using the dipole resonance of a plasma column has been investigated. The center frequency of the pass band can be electronically tuned over a large portion of a waveguide band. For the prototype investigated at S band, the insertion loss at the center frequency was less than 2 db, with isolation for frequencies outside the pass band on the order of 12 db. A typical 3-db bandwidth of this prototype was 150 Mc. It is expected that this figure can be improved by choice of better discharges than the positive column of the mercury discharge used here. An analysis of the external Q's for the input and output coupling is presented. From these calculations, it is possible to determine approximately the various coupling parameters that produce a given degree of overcoupling. View full abstract»

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  • Fine Grain Spectrum Analysis of Pulsed Microwave Amplifiers

    Page(s): 440 - 453
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    With the advent of microwave transmitter systems requiring high spectral purity, it has become important to control the interline noise and modulation products in the fine grain spectrum of CW or pulsed microwave amplifiers. Some of the causes of interline noise and modulation in high-power microwave amplifiers such as klystrons, TWT's and coaxial triodes are reviewed in this paper. A spectrum analyzer capable of resolving interline noise and modulation products in CW or pulsed microwave spectrums is described. This analyzer has a dynamic range of better than 50 db and a resolution of less than 2 cps. Some typical measurements made on transmitters operating in the UHF and L-band regions are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Ferrite Switches in Coaxial or Strip Transmission Line

    Page(s): 455 - 458
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    An examination of the properties of longitudinally-magnetized ferrite in coaxial transmission lines reveals regions of low and high attenuation which could be used for the ON and OFF conditions, respectively, of a switch. A strip line switch designed for fast switching and L band is described. Its performance includes approximately 0.l-db insertion loss and 45-db isolation over a 13 per cent band. View full abstract»

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  • Synchronous Branch Guide Directional Couplers for Low and High Power Applications

    Page(s): 459 - 475
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    Branch-guide directional couplers can be built in most types of transmission line. A design procedure is here developed which gives predictable and superior performance over a specified frequency band. A new chart was constructed from which the coupler impedances or admittances can be calculated quickly and with sufficient accuracy for nearly all practical applications. A five-branch, 6-db coupler and a thirteen-branch, 0-db coupler were constructed in waveguide. The measured points and computed curves were in excellent agreement. Over the frequency band of 1300 ± 130 Mc, the 0-db coupler had a VSWR of less than 1.07, its insertion loss was better than 0.05 db, and the couplings into the two remaining arms were weaker than 20 db. This coupler can pass at least 5 Mw of peak power in air at atmospheric pressure. View full abstract»

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  • A 6-kw Peak Power Varactor Duplexer

    Page(s): 476 - 479
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    A strip transmission line varactor duplexer was developed for 6-kw operation at 1600 Mc for a missile application. The insertion losses were 0.6 db from antenna to receiver, and 0.3 db from transmitter to antenna. Transmitter to receiver isolation was greater than 40 db. The paper discusses the parameters leading to the choice of varactor and circuit configuration as to provide the power handling ability. Also discussed are the characteristics of interest to system designers that are peculiar to the varactor duplexer. View full abstract»

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  • Interdigital Band-Pass Filters

    Page(s): 479 - 491
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    The design of band-pass filters using interdigital arrays of resonator line elements between parallel ground planes is discussed. Two approximate design procedures are described, both of which permit design directly from lumped element, low-pass, prototype filters. Both design procedures will work for either narrow or wide-band filters, but one procedure gives more practical dimensions for filters having wide bandwidths (such as an octave), while the other gives more practical dimensions for filters having narrow or moderate bandwidth. The resulting filters are very compact, have relatively noncritical manufacturing tolerances, and strong stop bands with the second pass band centered at three times the center frequency of the first pass band. The dimensions and measured performance curves are presented for a 10 per cent bandwidth design and an octave bandwidth design. View full abstract»

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  • Phase-Shift Characteristics of Dielectric Loaded Waveguide

    Page(s): 492 - 496
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    An investigation of waveguide phase-shifting techniques was conducted for the purpose of establishing the design criteria for a device capable of meeting the following specifications: a phase-shift variable over a minimum range of 360° and a maximum phase error of ± 5° at any phase setting over at last a 10 per cent frequency bandwidth. The dielectric loaded waveguide is the basis of a device which meets the design requirements. In this paper the analytical expressions applicable to the dielectric loaded waveguide cross section are derived using the transverse resonance procedure. A rigorous description of the propagation characteristics of this structure for various parameter values is obtained through the use of a high-speed computing machine. The excellent correlation between computed values and the data obtained from an experimental model is presented. View full abstract»

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  • A New Technique for Multimode Power Measurement

    Page(s): 496 - 505
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    A new and simple technique for measuring total power flow to within ± 1 db in an overmoded waveguide has been developed. A set of fixed probes (typically, 40 probes) samples the electric fields normal to the surface of an enlarged waveguide section. The enlarged waveguide and a dispersive line stretcher permit quick determinations of power delivered to a matched load when the power is propagating in a large number of modes. Extension to the case of a mismatched load is also discussed. This technique is useful for measuring spurious emissions of microwave transmitters and power flow in millimeter and submillimeter waveguides. View full abstract»

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  • Subtle Differences in System Noise Measurements and Calibration of Noise Standards

    Page(s): 506 - 516
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    Stringent system requirements and the lack of accurate standards have been the source of many controversies in low-noise receiver measurements. Some of the critical measurement problems where subtle errors commonly arise, and their significance in automatic noise temperature monitoring systems have been investigated at L-, S-, and X-band frequencies. Problems of interest include the following: 1) difficulty in determining losses associated with low-noise systems and measuring equipment, 2) differences in noise figure measurements depending upon the use of gated or nongated receivers, 3) discrepancies in excess noise ratios of secondary standard argon gas tubes, 4) non-uniformity in the output noise power of such gas tubes due to critical coupling from the gas tube proper to the waveguide (or coaxial) output flange. As a partial solution to these problems noise standards at liquid nitrogen temperature in coax and waveguide were developed at the aforementioned bands. View full abstract»

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  • Frequency-Selective Limiting

    Page(s): 516 - 520
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    In the usual microwave limiter, the presence of one more large signals above a certain threshold level produces a limiting action which can be explained as a change in insertion loss of the limiter so as to maintain a constant output power, regardless of the number of independent signals present. Experimental results of coincidence mode passive ferrite limiters in S band and C band are presented which show that they do not behave in this manner, but rather to a good approximation limit on a frequency-by-frequency or frequency-selective basis. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is presented, using the passive parametric limiter as a model. View full abstract»

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  • An Accurate Millimeter Wave Loss and Delay Measurement Set

    Page(s): 521 - 527
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    A millimeter wave loss and delay measurement set has been built which combines large dynamic range with high accuracy. Up to 80-db loss and 100-nsec envelope dela!y can be measured in the 50-60-Gc range. The accuracy for 0-40-db loss measurements is ± 0.05 db while beyond that accuracy is progressively diminished to ± 0.9 db at 80 db. Delay accuracy for low-loss devices (0-20 db) is ±0.2 nsec. The measurement method employs rapid comparison switching, heterodyne detection, precision IF loss and delay standards. The method, the test set and some new microwave components are described. Sources of measurement error are discussed and some typical measurements are included. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic Diffraction by a Planar Array of Circular Disks

    Page(s): 528 - 535
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    The diffraction of a plane electromagnetic wave by a planar rectangular array of perfectly conducting circular disks is considered. The diffracted field is calculated from the induced electric and magnetic dipole moments and higher-order multipole moments. Static and dynamic interactions between the induced dipole moments are being considered, first by using a plane-wave approximation for the dipole fields (for cases where the separation of the disks is large compared with the wavelength) and then by calculating the actual fields at each disk. The formulas are applied to calculate the input susceptance of a disk-loaded rectangular waveguide. Satisfactory agreement with experimental results is obtained. View full abstract»

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  • Ferroelectric Phase Shifters for VHF and UHF

    Page(s): 536 - 548
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    The analysis, construction, and performance of compact surface wave ferroelectric phase shifters suitable for operation in the100-to1000-MC frequency range are described. Although this ferroelectric loaded parallel-plane structure is a very low impedance structure, a satisfactory terminal impedance matching technique has been devised. Kilovolt level voltages are needed; but since the current required to maintain or rapidly shift phase is low, the over-all control power requirements are at least an order of magnitude less than those for comparable ferrite phase shifters. One of these room temperature operable phase shifters provided 348° of phase shift at 207 Mc. It had an insertion loss which varied from 3.7 to 2.2 db over a zero- to 4000-volt range of applied dc control voltage. View full abstract»

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  • An Automatic Microwave Phase Comparator

    Page(s): 548 - 550
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    A method for passively measuring the phase angle between two signals of the same frequency is described. While simple in concept, the system has no ambiguities throughout 360° and is independent of relative signal amplitudes because phase angle is displayed orthogonally to amplitude. Consisting principally of two hybrids with detectors and an X-Y indicator, the system contains no moving parts or active phasing devices. In addition to making routine phase measurements, it can be readily applied to automatic direction finders, polarization analyzers, and impedance plotters. View full abstract»

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  • The Synthesis of N-Port Circulators

    Page(s): 551 - 554
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    It is shown that there is a certain wide class of three-port network that can be transformed into a circulator by the addition of reactive elements. For such synthesis from a symmetrical three-port junction it is necessary and sufficient for it to be loss-free and for the moduli of the two transmission coefficients to be different. This approach may be used in the design of broad-band circulators. For junctions approximating to an n-port circulator with n>3, it is shown that when the n reflection coefficients are matched by reactive networks in each arm, n particular transmission coefficients also vanish. View full abstract»

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  • Propagation of Surface Waves on an Inhomogeneous Plane Layer

    Page(s): 554 - 558
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    The permittivity of a plane layer is assumed to vary continuously as a function of distance measured from the surface. Solutions for the field distributions of surface waves on the inhomogeneous layer are developed with the WKB technique. Transcendental equations for the phase velocity are derived for TE and TM modes. These equations are solved most conveniently with the aid of phase-velocity graphs which are included. The accuracy of the solution is verified by comparison with the rigorous solution for an exponential inhomogeneity. View full abstract»

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  • UHF Backward-Wave Parametric Amplifier

    Page(s): 558 - 563
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    This paper describes a breadboard model of a UHF varactor diode backward-wave parametric amplifier that can be electronically tuned over an octave tuning range (250-500 Mc). It operates in a mode that has a relatively constant idler frequency; however, it uses two forward-wave transmission lines in contrast to the backward-wave transmission line requirement previously reported. A theoretical discussion on the design considerations of this mode is presented and applied to the UHF model. Measurements taken in the conventional mode of operation (output frequency equal to the input frequency) yielded voltage gain bandwidth products in excess of 100 Mc and over-all effective receiver noise temperatures of less than 140°k. Detailed measurements in the mode where the constant idler frequency is used as the output were not taken because directional filters and circulators, which are necessary in this mode, were not available. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

This Transactions ceased publication in 1962. The current retitled publication is IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques.

Full Aims & Scope