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Microelectronics, 2008. MIEL 2008. 26th International Conference on

Date 11-14 May 2008

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  • 2008 26th international conference on microelectronics

    Page(s): c1
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  • 27th international conference on microelectronics

    Page(s): I
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  • 2008 26th international conference on microelectronics

    Page(s): i
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  • [Copyright notice]

    Page(s): ii
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  • Steering Committee

    Page(s): iii - iv
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  • Contents

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  • MIEL 2006 Best Paper Awards

    Page(s): xv
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  • Workshop nanotechnologies

    Page(s): 1
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  • Sculptured—thin—film plasmonic—polaritonics

    Page(s): 3 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (310 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The solution of a boundary-value problem formulated for the Kretschmann configuration shows that the phase speed of a surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) wave guided by the planar interface of a sufficiently thin metal film and a sculptured thin film (STF) depends on the vapor incidence angle used while fabricating the STF by physical vapor deposition. Furthermore, it may be possible to engineer the phase speed by periodically varying the vapor incidence angle. The phase speed of the SPP wave can be set by selecting higher mean value and/or the modulation amplitude of the vapor incidence angle. View full abstract»

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  • Role of plasma processing in nanobiotechnologies

    Page(s): 9 - 10
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    One of the major challenges for the development of new tools for biological analysis relies on the ability to design advanced surfaces with appropriate surface chemistries and topography from micrometers down to few nanometers. For instance, structuring surfaces with adhesive and non adhesive zone in order to preferentially guide the cell growth is one of the most interesting tools for the development of cell chips and for tissue engineering. Moreover, recent works have shown that hetero functional nano-structured surfaces containing contrasted chemical response towards proteins (adhesive and repellent) lead to an increase of the immuno-reaction sensitivity recognition (= higher binding capacity) between antigens and antibodies couples, when compared to the non structured surfaces.To fulfill these requirements, plasma assisted techniques are interesting since they can provided functionalized surfaces with different chemistry with a good adhesion of several kind of materials and due to their high degree of reticulation are resistant to most of the solvent. In this presentation, we will show some examples of micro- and nano-functional surfaces provided by plasma processes in combination with optical lithography, electron beam lithography and colloidal lithography for applications in different biosensing devices. View full abstract»

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  • Micro- and nanosystems based on vibrating structures

    Page(s): 11 - 18
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    Invention of the scanning force microscope in 1986 and development of micro and nanofabrication technologies yielded a new generation of vibration based miniature sensors of physical, chemical and biological parameters, with sensitivity which could not be achieved before. This promoted again the research of micro and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) in the fields that have been dominated by semiconductor electronics for more than a half of century. In this paper the principles of operation of the miniature vibrating structures are given. A particular attention is given to the fact that the mass of these structures is of the order of tens of picograms, and that their dimensions can be in the sub- micrometer range, where the effects of Brownian motion of particles in the surroundings become significant. These effects are expressed as thermomechanical noise which in most cases determines the ultimate sensor performances. Also, adsorption and desorption (AD) of particles (atoms, molecules) on the surface of miniature vibrating structures generate the AD noise. Vibrating micro- and nanostructures are important not only for the new sensor components, but also for a multitude of other applications. As an illustration, I will mention a new generation of MEMS oscillators, which successfully replaces the traditional quartz oscillators in some contemporary applications. Also, a new generation of processors which utilize built-in miniature mechanical structures is envisioned. View full abstract»

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  • Top down nano technologies in production of integrated circuits and surface modification of materials

    Page(s): 19 - 24
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    As microelectronic devices continue to shrink and process requirements become ever more stringent, plasma modeling and simulation becomes increasingly more attractive as a tool for design, control and optimization of plasma reactors. Nowadays, plasma- etching processes are expected to produce patterns from the nanometer to the micrometer range. Charging effects in the etching of dielectrics due to ions accumulation in the shallow trenches or contact hole cause damage such as notching and earlier etching stop. In this article, a brief overview of the plasma etch process with emphasis on charging induced damage has been made. In addition, a level set method was applied to the 3D simulation of the etching profile of high aspect ratio trenches into silicon. Calculations were performed in the case of simplified model of Ar+/CF4 non-equilibrium plasma etching of SiO2. The time dependence of the profile charging as well as charging on profile during SiO2 etching in plasma are presented. We shall also illustrate the properties of etching of organic low-k dielectrics. View full abstract»

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  • Silicon based nano-MOSFET: New materials, new device architectures, and new challenges for device simulation

    Page(s): 25 - 29
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    In this paper selected applications of Monte Carlo simulation of semi-classical carrier transport are reviewed, including the analysis of quasi-ballistic transport, the determination of the RF characteristics of deca-nanometric MOSFETs, and the study of non-conventional device structures and channel materials. View full abstract»

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  • Silicon quantum dot devices

    Page(s): 31 - 34
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    Quantum dot structures, where electrons are confined three-dimensionally in the below 10 nm scale, show characteristics quite different from conventional bulk structures. Recent progress in the fabrication technology of silicon nanostructures has made possible observations of novel electrical and optical properties of silicon quantum dots, such as single electron tunneling, ballistic transport, visible photoluminescence and electron emission. Electron transport and photonic properties of silicon nanocrystals prepared by plasma processes are described with particular emphasis on fabrication of monodispersed silicon nanocrystals, high-density assembly of silicon quantum dots, silicon nanodot memory, NEMS devices, and silicon photonic devices. View full abstract»

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  • Nanofabrication Simulation as a processes research tool

    Page(s): 35 - 41
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    Nanofabrication simulation is evolving continuously. Ever higher and faster digital computer calculating and processing power automates further the algorithms. General simulators can tackle mainstream processes. Special cases call for individualized simulation approach. Information of the physical process and initial conditions of the optical line of positive photoresist on reflective substrate is derived by using the X-ray tracing algorithm that demonstrates initial value starting surface segment widths for etch ray "launching" in the sub Angstrom region; Furthermore, ray-crossing and ray-scarce regions delineate the feed through pathways for the etchant to reach the final profile. In another case, that of exposed cluster of lines in negative resist where the developer [etchant] is heated up, by validating the experimental results via the calibrated simulator, we validate also the initial hypothesis of the physical and chemical processes that come into play such as the thermodynamics of the resist - etchant medium front that produce negative slant angle line walls. View full abstract»

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  • Plenary Sessions

    Page(s): 43
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  • Global green energy conversion revolution in 21st century through solid state devices

    Page(s): 45 - 54
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Rising demands of energy in emerging economies coupled with the green house gas emissions related problems around the globe have provided a unique opportunity of exploiting the advantages offered by solid state devices (photovoltaic devices, thermoelectric devices, light emitting devices etc.) for green energy conversion. Similar to cell phones, power generation by photovoltaics (PV) can reach over two billion people worldwide who have no access to clean energy. Only silicon based PV devices meet the criterion of clean energy conversion (abundance of raw material and no environmental health and safety issues). Using larger size glass substrates and manufacturing techniques similar to the one used by liquid crystal display industry, the manufacturing cost of amorphous silicon thin films of $1/wart can be achieved in the next one or two years. This will open a huge market for grid connected PV systems and related markets. With further R&D, this approach can provide a manufacturing cost goal of $0.50/watt in the next 10 years. At this cost level, PV electricity generation is competitive with any other technology and PV generation can be a dominant electricity generation technology in the 21st century. In the areas of thermoelectric devices and light emitting diodes, more focused research is required to penetrate the market in a dominant way. Based on silicon CMOS technology, ambient energy harvesting will create its own niche market driven by the desire to produce communication, sensing and computing integrated systems with small form factor and no battery. View full abstract»

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  • Counting single electrons in a CMOS circuit

    Page(s): 55 - 60
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    We describe a device compatible with CMOS technology, which permits to detect a single charge by multiplying it to an easily measurable level. The device is a bipolar transistor optimized for the operation in the Geiger avalanche mode. A single electron, injected through the base- emitter junction, triggers avalanche breakdown in the collector- base junction. The breakdown is then rapidly stopped by a quenching circuit. This cycle produces a voltage pulse at the collector, which corresponds to the injection of a single electron. By counting the pulses, currents down to the atto-Ampere range are measured. The device can be used as a bitstream-generator in a delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter. View full abstract»

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  • SiC on Si as platform technology

    Page(s): 61
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    It can be stated that silicon carbide, in particular its 4H and 6H polytypes, has matured as a semiconductor material. Device-quality wafers up to 100 mm in diameter are commercially available, enabling the development of discrete devices for applications such as power and RF electronics and providing substrates for GaN-based optoelectronics. Perhaps the most intriguing electronic property of silicon carbide is that it is the only semiconductor material other than silicon that can have electronically passivated surface to industrial standards. The surface passivation is the main reason for the dominance of silicon but, in addition to that, silicon carbide has superior bulk properties. This combination of factors raises the question whether silicon carbide can play a role in mainstream electronics (integrated-circuit based complex systems). This question is addressed in this presentation. Analysis of both technical and commercial factors and challenges leads to a conclusion that developing a silicon-carbide film on silicon wafers is the most promising way for silicon carbide to enter the mainstream electronics. Furthermore, the development of nonvolatile memory elements in SiC is identified as the application that can spearhead the development of SiC on Si. The main technical challenges for the development of 3C SiC films on Si are due to the relatively large mismatch in crystal- lattice constant and thermal-expansion coefficient. Although these are formidable challenges, it may be argued that they are much easier to solve than the challenges associated with any of the non-semiconductor materials that have attracted large investments as potential memory materials deposited on Si wafers. In addition to memory applications, SiC films deposited on Si wafers could be utilized for a number of other potential applications, including smart power devices and superior micro-electromechanical systems. This is why SiC on Si is referred to as the platform technology. The strateg- - y of SiC on Si as a platform technology is pursued at the newly established Queensland Microtechnology Facility at Griffith University. View full abstract»

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  • Electronics from the bottom up: An approach to 21st century electronic devices

    Page(s): 63 - 67
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    The dimensions of electronic devices are now firmly in the nanometer regime, but we continue to think about devices and to educate the next generation of device engineers using concepts that were developed for micrometer sized devices. This presentation will outline a new approach and argue that it is time to incorporate new ways of thinking in device engineering research, practice, and education. View full abstract»

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  • Comprehensive modeling of electromigration induced interconnect degradation mechanisms

    Page(s): 69 - 76
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    The reliability requirements on modern interconnect and the physical complexity of electromigration phenomena demand close and systematic application of experimental and TCAD based methods for the assessment of interconnect failure and the development of sophisticated layout design rules. We present and discuss state-of-the art electromigration models for both phases of failure development: void nucleation and void evolution. The discussion includes the role of copper microstructure, mechanical stress, capping layer, and void nucleation conditions. A concept for usage of the presented models for prediction of time-to-failure in three- dimensional interconnect geometries is given and demonstrated on examples. The results of simulations are discussed and verified with results of accelerated interconnect testing. View full abstract»

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  • The minimum energy for a one bit computation: A proof of the Landauer limit

    Page(s): 77 - 80
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    This paper describes a design, based on adiabatic digital circuit approach, where the difference between an irreversible and a reversible logical use of a gate gives rise to the theoretical Landauer limit for a one bit computation. View full abstract»

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  • Session Nanotechnologies

    Page(s): 81
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  • Modeling and measurement of optical response of 1D array of metallic nanowires for sensing and detection application

    Page(s): 83 - 86
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (434 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have investigated 1D nanosized metallic wires with subwavelength dimensions in which localized surface plasmon (LSP) and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) can exist. Elaboration of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) based device for scaling down to nanometric dimensions, which provide significant flexible design is the aim of this paper. Modeling of the interaction of the incident light with the periodic system of nanowires (differential formalism) and measurements of the optical (transmittance, extinction) properties of the structures under consideration were performed to reveal the general trends in the design of the gold nanostructure geometry to optimize sensitivity of sensor system. View full abstract»

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  • Metal nanowire arrays with ultralow or negative effective permittivity for adsorption-based chemical sensing

    Page(s): 87 - 90
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    We investigated wire-mesh media with plasmalike dispersion of dielectric permittivity as a potential medium for nanoplasmonic sensors utilizing adsorption of chemical, biochemical or biological analytes. Such structures belong to the ultra-low refractive index metamaterials and are typically used as one of the building blocks for zero- or negative index metamaterials. We analyzed a 2D array or conductive arrays with either a monomolecular/monatomic adlayer on the wire surface or fully immersed into analyte. We calculated the spectra reflection dip caused by the tuning of the effective electromagnetic properties of the wire mesh structure due to the adsorption of the analyte. We investigated the influence of various wire mesh media parameters, including conductivity, mesh geometry, etc., but also of the adsorbed analyte itself (effective optical properties, adlayer thickness). We considered the applicability of the structure in a reflection-based readout scheme without any special configurations for signal extraction. View full abstract»

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