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Sensors Applications Symposium, 2008. SAS 2008. IEEE

Date 12-14 Feb. 2008

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  • SAS 2008 - IEEE sensors appplications symposium proceedings

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): i
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  • 2008 IEEE sensors applications symposium

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): ii
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  • 2008 IEEE sensors appplications symposium proceedings

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): iii
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): iv - x
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  • Welcome message

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): xi - xii
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  • SAS 2008 Committee

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): xiii
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  • Plenary address

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): xiv
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1366 KB)  

    Provides an abstract of the plenary presentation and a brief professional biography of the presenter. The complete presentation was not made available for publication as part of the conference proceedings. View full abstract»

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  • Optical sensor platforms by modular assembly of organic electronic devices

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 1 - 3
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (749 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Organic electronic devices are ideal for incorporation in sensor devices due to their reduced thickness, weight, and flexibility. Here, we show that organic light emitting diodes (OLED) and organic photodiodes (OPD) can be used in a wide range of optical sensors. Printing technologies allow for cheap production of devices. Using a modular build up of these and additional components such as organic circuitry and/or embedded thinned silicon dies will allow for an almost 2 dimensional design with a variety of resulting products. The emphasis will be given on the design and the fabrication of modules for a pulse-oximeter device and integration into a wireless smart bandage. Results will be shown of a proof of concept device. View full abstract»

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  • A microwave frequency sensor for non-invasive blood-glucose measurement

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 4 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (720 KB)  

    A microwave sensor having features useful for the noninvasive determination of blood glucose levels is described. The sensor output is an amplitude only measurement of the standing wave versus frequency sampled at a fixed point on an open-terminated spiral-shaped microstrip line. Test subjects press their thumb against the line and apply contact pressure sufficient to fall within a narrow pressure range. Data are reported for test subjects whose blood glucose is independently measured using a commercial glucometer. View full abstract»

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  • Label-free electrical detection of antigens based on micro-channel gating

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 8 - 12
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Current microbiological techniques used for multi-analyte detection, necessary for medical diagnostics, involve expensive and time consuming methods based on sandwich immunoassays. Described below is the design, fabrication, and testing of a rapid and inexpensive sensor, involving the use of microelectrodes in a micro-channel, which can be used to detect target antigens electrically (label-free format) in real-time. As a proof of principle, we have successfully demonstrated real-time detection of target antigens by measuring instantaneous changes in ionic impedance. We have also demonstrated the selectivity of our sensors in responding to target antigens while remaining irresponsive to non-target antigens. Using this technique, an array of these sensors can be multiplexed onto a biochip and used to detect the various biomarkers present in a complex mixture. View full abstract»

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  • In-vivo external sensor for mitochondrial injury: Circulating cytochrome c

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 13 - 15
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (454 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Low-abundance, low-molecular-weight serum proteins are useful in diagnosing the change in expression of some serum proteins which may indicate an altered physiology and serve as biomarkers of the respective disease. Recent studies suggest the molecular mechanism responsible for the translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to the cytosol during apoptosis. We hypothesize that mitochondrial injury causes the final release of cytochrome c from cytosol to the bloodstream, which acts as a mitochondrial injury external sensor. Serum cytochrome c was dissociated from large, abundant proteins by acetonitrile precipitation pretreatment and then measured using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For quantification of serum cytochrome c levels, internal standard curves (0.2 to 20 mug/ml) were prepared using rat heart cytochrome c dissolved in serum obtained from healthy pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. Serum samples taken from severe mitochondrial injury animals (heart attack rats and diabetes mice) were measured and shown a dramatic increase in cytochrome c levels compared to healthy animals. Irreversible mitochondrial injury (death) occurred once serum cytochrome c level exceeded 2.0 mug/ml as the average cytochrome c level for healthy animals is reported less than 0.2 mug/ml. We conclude that serum cytochrome c may represent a novel in-vivo external sensor of mitochondrial injury. View full abstract»

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  • Bi2O3/Nb2O5 thick film capacitive pH sensor using AD5933 impedance converter

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 16 - 21
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5607 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The novel system is presented that utilises change in the resonant frequency and impedance as an indicator of the pH level of the solution, brought in contact with a sensor. Mixed metal oxides of Bi2O3 and Nb2O5 formed the basis for thick film capacitive sensors investigated in this research work. AD5933 impedance converter was used to monitor real-time changes in the electrical properties of tested capacitors. The system showed superior sensitivity to the pH level, with instant response being recorded. Heating the sensors restored their initial properties, and they were repeatedly used for pH sensing. It is envisaged that findings of this work would form the basis for compact system employed for real-time pH monitoring. View full abstract»

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  • An extensible model for the deployment of non-isotropic sensors

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 22 - 25
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (683 KB)  

    Existing approaches for determining the optimal deployment positions of sensors suffer from a number of critical drawbacks. First, homogeneous deployment models have been commonly assumed, but in practice deployments of heterogenous sensors are typical. Second, existing approaches assume isotropic sensing ranges but it has been found that hardware and environmental conditions cause imperfections in sensing. Third, existing models are very application-dependent. We propose an extensible modeling framework for the problem of determining optimal deployment positions for a set of heterogeneous, non- isotropic sensors to cover a set of points in an area. The problem is formulated using a genetic algorithm where the objective is to minimize the cost to cover all points. Our technique is to decouple the coverage determination method from the sensor deployment model. This allows the sensor deployment model to remain consistent and address the critical drawbacks of previous models. A homeland security application is presented to illustrate the capabilities of our approach. View full abstract»

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  • Capacitive flowmeter for gas-solids flow applications exploiting spatial frequency

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 26 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (662 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Non invasive flow measurement principles are required in various industrial and agricultural applications. Among other principles capacitive sensing offers an elegant solution to measure granular material flow. In this paper the principle of spatial filtering, which is widely used in the world of optical measurement, is applied for a capacitive flow meter. The paper introduces a useful electrode geometry as well as potential electrode excitation modes. The principle is tested and verified by means of simulations. To show the practical usability a flow sensor based on spatial filtering was built up and tested in a laboratory setup. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating the 3D sensitivity function for a capacitive flowmeter

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 31 - 35
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (884 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a capacitive cross-correlation flowmeter for the pneumatic conveying of bulk solids and the determination of the 3D sensitivity function of the sensor. A discrete perturbation approach is made for both the sensitivity determination by means of Finite Element Analysis and by means of measurement with a prototype sensor. The obtained sensitivities are compared and the applicability of Finite Element Analysis for capacitance-based flow measurement is discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Piezoresistive strain gauges for use in wireless component monitoring systems

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 36 - 39
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3709 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Wireless strain monitoring is a key part of helicopter component monitoring systems for rotating parts. Of particular interest are the pitch links, which control the angle of attack of the rotor blades. Because the pitch link is in constant motion, instrumenting these critical components is challenging. Wires cannot be easily run to areas where strains need to be measured. Thus, a wireless system must be able to run for extended periods on internal or harvested power. This places low power consumption as one of the top priorities for all parts of the system. This paper describes recent efforts in our group to design, fabricate and test piezoresitive strain gauges for wireless strain sensing applications. Relevant design parameters will be discussed, and the gauge design presented. Strain gauge test results will show the fabricated gauges response to loads on the order of 10 muepsiv, while dissipating only 14 muW of power. View full abstract»

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  • Detecting jamming attacks in Ubiquitous Sensor Networks

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 40 - 45
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (818 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In-house USNs (ubiquitous sensor network) can produce critical pieces of an accident-notification chain, thus they must be protected from failure. Denial of service attacks against such networks may permit fatal damage to the health and safety of people. Traditional intrusion detection schemes cannot work for USN due to its peculiar characteristics for instance, limited energy and computation resources. In this paper we propose a detection and traceback mechanism for jamming and selective forwarding attacks on USN by observing MAC layer abnormalities. The proposed scheme is light weight and requires minimum computation to detect a DDoS attack on miniature sensor nodes. View full abstract»

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  • Design and performance of an impedance analyzer for nondestructive moisture content determination of in-shell peanuts

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 46 - 50
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (861 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Moisture content (MC) in peanuts is measured at various stages of their processing and storage in the peanut industry. A method was developed earlier that would estimate the MC of a small sample of in-shell peanuts (peanut pods) held between two circular parallel-plates, from the values of capacitance and phase angle measured by a commercially available impedance analyzer, at three frequencies 1, 5 and 9 MHz. These values were used in an empirical equation, developed using the capacitance and phase angle values of samples of known MC levels, to obtain the average MC values of peanut samples with moisture contents in the range of 6 to 20% In the present work, a low-cost impedance analyzer, designed and assembled in our laboratory was used to measure the impedance and phase angles at 1, 5 and 9 MHz. The MC values predicted by the analyzer were compared with those obtained by the standard air-oven method. For 93% of the samples tested in the moisture range between 9% and 20% the MC values were found to be within 1% of the air-oven values. Ability to determine the average MC of in-shell peanuts without shelling and cleaning them, with a low-cost instrument, will be of considerable use in the peanut industry. View full abstract»

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  • Microwave dielectric sensing of moisture content in shelled peanuts independent of bulk density and with temperature compensation

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 51 - 53
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1343 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A dielectric method for rapid and nondestructive sensing of moisture content in shelled peanuts from free space measurement of attenuation, phase shift, and their corresponding dielectric properties at microwave frequencies is presented. Results of moisture prediction with three density-independent calibration functions are compared. For each function, the moisture calibration equation with temperature compensation is given. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of dielectric sensing for fruit quality determination

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 54 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (381 KB)  

    Permittivities of honeydew melons and watermelons, grown to provide a range of maturities, were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and impedance analyzer at frequencies from 10 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Measurements on fresh apples were also made over a ten-week storage period. Data were taken on the external surfaces of the fruit and on tissue samples from the edible internal tissue. Soluble solids content (SSC), indicative of sweetness, was used for melons as the quality factor for correlation with permittivity. Dielectric constant and loss factor correlations with SSC were low, but a high correlation was obtained between the SSC and permittivity from a complex-plane plot of dielectric constant and loss factor, each divided by SSC. However, quality prediction from this relationship was not very high. Dielectric properties of apples were relatively constant during the ten-week storage period even though firmness of apple tissues decreased significantly over that period. View full abstract»

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  • Higher-order cumulants for termite’s activity detection in the time domain

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 57 - 62
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1461 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with termite detection using higher-order statistics in the time domain. Sliding higher-order cumulants offer distinctive time instances, as a complement to the sliding variance, which only reveals power excesses in the signal, even for low-amplitude impulses. This sliding kurtosis reveals non-Gaussian characteristics (the peakedness of the probability density function) associated to non-stationary measurements, specially in the near ultrasound frequency band. Contrasted estimators have been used to compute the higher-order statistics. The results are shown via graphical examples and could be extrapolated to all impulse-like insect emissions in a non-destructive frame. Data acquisition stage has been performed using piezoelectric acoustic emission probes. View full abstract»

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  • Imaging algorithms for locating damage via in situ ultrasonic sensors

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 63 - 67
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5620 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Permanently mounted ultrasonic sensors arranged as a spatially distributed array are being considered for in situ monitoring of the integrity of structural components. Here we consider two imaging algorithms for locating damage based upon changes in received signals. All transducer pairs in the array are considered, with each transducer acting in turn as a transmitter and the remaining transducers as receivers. The first imaging algorithm is based upon spatially distributing the differenced signals between each transducer pair as per expected arrival times for discrete scatterers. The resulting images, which consist of concentric ellipses, are summed over all pairs to form the final image. The second algorithm is based upon the cross correlation between waveforms originating from the same transmitter and received by two different transducers. The cross correlation waveforms, which capture the time difference of arrival between two pairs, are similarly distributed and summed to form the final image via a hyperbolic rather than an elliptical relationship. Results are shown for artificial damage in an aluminum plate. View full abstract»

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  • Routing algorithm for network of homogeneous and id-less biomedical sensor nodes (RAIN)

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 68 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (469 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Rapid development in microelectronics and MEMS technology in recent years, have led to a wide-scale application of sensor networks. Since the tiny wireless nodes will be deployed in thousands in near future, it will not be possible to provide each of them with unique hardware identifiers. Existing routing algorithms for sensor networks, which assume that all the nodes in the network can be uniquely identified, will not be suitable for being used in such networks of id-less sensors. In this paper we consider a biomedical application of such id-less sensor nodes and propose a routing algorithm (RAIN), that can be used in an in-vivo network of homogeneous and id-less biomedical sensor nodes. Simulation results show that RAIN performs much better than C-FLOOD, a controlled flooding algorithm in terms of reducing the average temperature rise and average energy consumption of the nodes. View full abstract»

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  • Infrared and imaging application to measure emergence activity rhythms on Nephrops norvegicus (L.) population assessment

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 74 - 78
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (11631 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An automated system has been developed to measure the activity and behaviour of species. The system developed has a distributed topology with custom low cost acquisition and illumination devices and infrared cameras. These different systems use the USB interface and permit to acquire from photodiodes sensors to illuminate with a programmable photoperiod and to shot images. A computer controls all the systems connected and treats the information from sensors to show the activity and behaviour of the species under study. View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of ethanol and methanol water mixtures in the visible wavelength area using fibre-optic evanescent field absorption sensors based on a u-shaped, a coil-shaped and a meander-shaped probe

    Publication Year: 2008 , Page(s): 79 - 84
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8505 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An optical fibre evanescent field sensor for methanol (CH3OH) and ethanol (C2H5OH) solvents based on deformed optical fibre cores is reported. The sensitivity of an existing U-bend probe is increased by extending the exposed core to a coil shape of one and a half turns and by forming the core to a meander- shape with three bends. Using the visible wavelength area (VIS) and methanol/ethanol concentrations from 0% to 10% it is shown that the sensitivity of the meander shape sensor enables the determination of methanol concentrations of better than 0.5% and of ethanol concentrations of better than 0.2% at 650 nm. This facilitates the use of low cost optical sources and receivers provided for this wavelength range as well as the utilization of polymer optical fibres to guide the light to and from the sensor which results in low cost applications compared to all silica or polymer clad silica fibre solutions in the near-infrared (NIR) or ultra-violet (UV) wavelength range. View full abstract»

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