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Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, 1997., IEEE 1997

Date 1-5 March 1997

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  • Proceedings of IEEE 1997 Annual International Symposium on Virtual Reality

    Publication Year: 1997
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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 224
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Visualizing the structure of virtual objects using head tracked stereoscopic displays

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 114 - 120
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    The study investigated the effects of stereopsis and head tracking on presence and performance in a desktop virtual environment. Twelve subjects viewed the virtual image of a bent wire and were required to select the correct representation of the virtual wire from one of three drawings presented on paper. After each trial, subjects completed a questionnaire designed to access their level of presence in the desktop virtual environment. The results indicated that neither stereopsis nor head tracking improved the accuracy of selecting the correct paper representation of the virtual wire. However, responses to the presence survey indicated that head tracking significantly improved the reported level of presence, whereas the addition of stereopsis did not. Implications of the results for the design of desktop virtual environments are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Distributed virtual reality for everyone-a framework for networked VR on the Internet

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 121 - 128, 217
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (6)
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    The success of VRML-the Virtual Reality Modeling Language-which has established itself as the standard for 3D data on the Internet, shows that virtual reality is no longer limited to research labs but will become a part of everybody's life. Although VRML has just made its first steps from a static scene description language to an interactive VR specification, the realization of distributed virtual reality for everyone will only be the next step. We introduce a network architecture to support multiuser virtual environments on the Internet. The key issues of our approach as realized in our current prototype are scalability and interactivity. For that reason we consider a world wide distribution, large numbers of participants and the composition of very large virtual worlds View full abstract»

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  • Contact sensation in the synthetic environment using the ISU force reflecting exoskeleton

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 192 - 198, 218
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Force feedback from the virtual world can greatly enhance the sense of immersion even for simple applications. The ISU force reflecting exoskeleton enables the user to interact dynamically with simulated environments by providing an electromagnetic haptic interface between the human and the environment. The paper describes the high bandwidth electromagnetic haptic interface and how it has been used to provide the sense of contact in the synthetic environment. The air gap between the magnetics, carried by the robot, and the coils attached to the human's digits, allows for small relative motion between the human and the robot without affecting the transmission of forces. This flexibility allows the robot to track the human as well as develop appropriate forces from the virtual world. Three different typical synthetic environments are programmed and tested using the ISU force reflecting exoskeleton haptic interface device. The experimental results shows that the magnetic interface gives adequate force levels for perception of virtual objects, enhancing the feeling of immersion in the virtual environment View full abstract»

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  • The sensitivity of presence to collision response

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 95 - 103, 216
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The paper describes an approach to collision detection and response, and an experiment to examine the sensitivity of subjective presence to varying collision response parameters. In particular, a bowling game scenario was used with 18 subjects, and parameters representing elasticity, friction and accuracy of collision detection were varied. Presence was assessed through a questionnaire following the experiment. The results suggested that presence was sensitive to variation in these parameters, and in particular to the value of the parameter representing friction View full abstract»

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  • Panel-human performance in virtual environments

    Publication Year: 1997
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    The panel embraces a number of pertinent design issues in this rapidly advancing technologic area. The issues to be discussed include: telepresence I/O device design issues to include haptic design issues for telesurgery; cybersickness issues and perceptual inputs; general HF design issues and lessons learned in VR; perceptual motor requirements and behavioral goals/ID of optimal display media and system object manipulation paradigms; VR issues in medical systems; VR tool development and perceptual considerations; and immersive object manipulation methods View full abstract»

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  • Haptic display of visual images

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 188 - 191
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    The authors describe an implemented system for touching 3D objects depicted in visual images using a two-dimensional, force-reflecting haptic interface. The system constructs 3D geometric models from real 2D stereo images. The force feedback at each position is computed to provide the sensation of moving a small ball over the surface of the 3D object View full abstract»

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  • Gorillas in the bits

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 69 - 76, 216
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The Virtual Reality Gorilla Exhibit is a system for teaching users about gorilla behaviors and social interactions. The system includes an accurate model of the Zoo Atlanta gorilla habitats, anthropometrically correct gorilla models and true-to-life behaviors. In the virtual environment the user assumes the persona of an adolescent gorilla. By exploring the habitat and interacting with other gorillas, the user learns about issues in gorilla habitats and about gorilla social hierarchies. Results from preliminary user testing indicate that the system successfully accomplishes its goals View full abstract»

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  • The use of a virtual environment for FE analysis of vehicle crash worthiness

    Publication Year: 1997
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The advances in computer graphics technology plus the increased complexity of finite element (FE) simulations of the crash behavior of a car body have resulted in the need for new visualization techniques to facilitate the analysis of such engineering computations. The VR system VtCrash provides novel computer-human interface techniques for intuitive and interactive analysis of large amounts of crash simulation data. VtCrash takes geometry and physical properties data as input and enables the user to enter a virtual crash and to interact with any part of the vehicle View full abstract»

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  • Interpolation synthesis for articulated figure motion

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 156 - 160
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
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    Realistic real time articulated figure motion is achieved by reprocessing a stored database of motions. Motions are created to exact specification by interpolation from a set of example motions, effectively forming a parameterized motion model. A pre-processing step involving iterative calculations is used to allow efficient direct computations at run time. An inverse kinematics capability is shown that is based on interpolation. This method preserves the underlying qualities of the data, such as dynamical realism of motion capture, while generating a continuous range of required motions. Relevant applications include networked virtual reality and interactive entertainment View full abstract»

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  • Virtual actors and avatars in a flexible user-determined-scenario environment

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 170 - 177, 218
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
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    VRaptor, a VR system for situational training that uses trainer-defined scenarios is described. The trainee is represented by an avatar; the rest of the virtual world is populated by virtual actors, which are under the control of trainer-defined scripts. The scripts allow reactive behaviors, but the trainer can control the overall scenario. This type of training system may be very useful in supplementing physical training View full abstract»

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  • Transition between virtual environment and workstation environment with projective head mounted display

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 130 - 137
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (3)
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    The construction of virtual worlds often requires the user to use various tools in different environments to create several types of elements which have geometrical properties and behavioral characteristics. Due to the inconveniences associated with this task, a compound environment for the task of constructing virtual worlds was proposed. This environment contains both the popular workstation as well as a surrounding virtual world. To realize this compound environment, a Projective Head Mounted Display (PHMD) prototype was developed, which effectively minimized the difficulty of going and coming between workstation and virtual environments. The PHMD was also able to address the problem that is common to traditional HMDs which involve false images. The concept and development behind the PHMD and the compound environment are discussed, and the prototype PHMD and the prototype application examples are constructed View full abstract»

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  • Evaluation of the effects of frame time variation on VR task performance

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 38 - 44
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (2)
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    We present a first study of the effects of frame time variations, in both deviation around mean frame times and period of fluctuation, on task performance in a virtual environment (VE). Chosen are open and closed loop tasks that are typical for current applications or likely to be prominent in future ones. The results show that at frame times in the range deemed acceptable for many applications, fairly large deviations in amplitude over a fairly wide range of periods do not significantly affect task performance. However, at a frame time often considered a minimum for immersive VR, frame time variations do produce significant effects on closed loop task performance. The results will be of use to designers of VEs and immersive applications, who often must control frame time variations due to large fluctuations of complexity (graphical and otherwise) in the VE View full abstract»

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  • A haptic object-oriented texture rendering system

    Publication Year: 1997
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    In the quest for visual realism in computer graphics, surface textures are generated for objects based on a texture image or some procedural model. Similar approaches can be used to make objects feel more realistic with a haptic interface. By using an object oriented approach, a software structure was created to allow the inclusion of various texture rendering algorithms for a 3 DOF haptic device View full abstract»

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  • A dead-reckoning algorithm for virtual human figures

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 161 - 169, 217
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (2)
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    In networked virtual environments, when the participants are represented by virtual human figures, the articulated structure of the human body introduces a new complexity in the usage of the network resources. This might create a significant overhead in communication, especially as the number of participants in the simulation increases. In addition, the animation should be realistic, as it is easy to recognize anomalies in the virtual human animation. This requires real-time algorithms to decrease the network overhead while considering characteristics of body motion. The dead-reckoning technique is a way to decrease the number of messages communicated among the participants, and has been used for simple non-articulated objects in popular systems. The authors introduce a dead-reckoning technique for articulated virtual human figures based on Kalman filtering, discuss main issues and present experimental results View full abstract»

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  • An introduction of a direct vestibular display into a virtual environment

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 80 - 86
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
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    The US Air Force Armstrong Synthesized Immersion Research Environment Facility is currently investigating the development and potential application of direct vestibular displays. The Electrical Vestibular Stimulus (EVS) technology described in the paper uses electrodes located behind the ears to deliver a low level electrical current in the vicinity of the eighth cranial nerve of the central nervous system to produce a compelling sensation of roll motion about the body's fore-aft axis. In the study described, subjects experienced the EVS display while simultaneously observing a large field of view visual display which depicted curvilinear motion through a tunnel. Both EVS and visual displays were driven in a sinusoidal fashion at various phase relationships relative to one another. After observing the two displays, subjects were asked to rate various aspects of quality and magnitude of self motion. Results revealed that the fidelity of the motion experience depended upon the phase relationship between the EVS and visual displays. Results also indicated that when an appropriate phase relationship was used, the vestibular display significantly improved the fidelity of the motion experience when compared to a visual only display View full abstract»

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  • An extensible interactive visualization framework for the virtual windtunnel

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 106 - 113
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The paper describes a software framework for the virtual windtunnel, a virtual reality based, near real time interactive system for scientific visualization. This framework meets the requirements of extensibility, interactive performance, and interface independence. Creating a framework which meets all of these requirements presented a major challenge. We describe this framework's object oriented structure and process architecture, including interprocess communications and control. Device independence of both the command and display structures are developed, providing the ability to use a wide variety of interface hardware options. The resulting framework supports a high performance visualization environment which can be easily extended to new capabilities as desired View full abstract»

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  • Shape identification performance and pin-matrix density in a 3 dimensional tactile display

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 180 - 187
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    Tactile display devices use an array of pins mounted in the form of a matrix to present three-dimensional shapes to the user by raising and lowering the pins. With a denser matrix of mounted pins, it can be expected that shape identification will become easier and the time required for identification will also become shorter, but that problems of difficulty in fabrication will arise. It is necessary to consider such trade-offs in the development of such devices. The authors conducted experiments to study the effect of pin pitch on shape identification as part of the fundamental investigation of this subject. The experiment used three tactile display devices with pin pitches of 2 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm for geometrical shape identification, with response time and rate of misidentification taken as the performance data. Surfaces, edges and vertices of three-dimensional shapes were used as the shape primitives for displayed shapes and several of each type were selected for presentation. The results obtained revealed that performance has different relationships to pin pitch with different shape primitives View full abstract»

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  • Factors influencing operator interaction with virtual objects viewed via head-mounted see-through displays: viewing conditions and rendering latency

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 138 - 145
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
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    A head mounted visual display was used in a see through format to present computer generated, space stabilized, nearby wire like virtual objects to 14 subjects. The visual requirements of their experimental tasks were similar to those needed for visually guided manual assembly of aircraft wire harnesses. In the first experiment subjects visually traced wire paths with a head referenced cursor, subjectively rated aspects of viewing, and had their vision tested before and after monocular, biocular, or stereo viewing. Only the viewing difficulty with the biocular display was adversely effected by the visual task. This viewing difficulty is likely due to conflict between looming and stereo disparity cues. A second experiment examined the precision with which operators could manually move ring shaped virtual objects over virtual paths without collision. Accuracy of performance was studied as a function of required precision, path complexity, and system response latency. Results show that high precision tracing is most sensitive to increasing latency. Ring placement with less than 1.8 cm precision will require system latency less than 50 msec before asymptotic performance is found View full abstract»

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  • An adaptive multi-resolution modeling technique based on viewing and animation parameters

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 20 - 27, 214
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    Because most existing multi resolution methods are slow, a common approach is to pregenerate a few key models of the object at different resolutions. During run time, the object's distance from the viewer determines which model to use for rendering. Although this approach is simple, it suffers from the sudden change in resolution as the object moves across the threshold distance. In addition, the model used to represent an object at a particular frame is not optimized for the given dynamic viewing and animation parameters. The quadtree type of methods for arranging the surface model may allow adaptive multi resolution modeling in a simple way and it reduces the sudden change of resolution from the object level to the node level. However, the square shape of the node, together with the four-time increment in size for representing surfaces, limits the types of surfaces that it can handle without creating excessive nodes. We present a real time adaptive multi resolution method for models of arbitrary topology View full abstract»

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  • Travel in immersive virtual environments: an evaluation of viewpoint motion control techniques

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 45 - 52, 215
    Cited by:  Papers (40)  |  Patents (2)
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    Presents a categorization of techniques for first-person motion control, or travel, through immersive virtual environments, as well as a framework for evaluating the quality of different techniques for specific virtual environment tasks. We conduct three quantitative experiments within this framework: a comparison of different techniques for moving directly to a target object varying in size and distance, a comparison of different techniques for moving relative to a reference object, and a comparison of different motion techniques and their resulting sense of “disorientation” in the user. Results indicate that “pointing” techniques are advantageous relative to “gaze-directed” steering techniques for a relative motion task, and that motion techniques which instantly teleport users to new locations are correlated with increased user disorientation View full abstract»

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  • Smooth levels of detail

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 12 - 19
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
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    Levels of detail (LODs) are used in interactive computer graphics to avoid overload of the rendering hardware with too many polygons. While conventional methods use a small set of discrete LODs, we introduce a new class of polygonal simplification: Smooth LODs. A very large number of small details encoded in a data stream allows a progressive refinement of the object from a very coarse approximation to the original high quality representation. Advantages of the new approach include progressive transmission and encoding suitable for networked applications, interactive selection of any desired quality, and compression of the data by incremental and redundancy free encoding View full abstract»

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  • An optical tracker for augmented reality and wearable computers

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 146 - 150
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (2)
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    Augmented reality provides factory workers and other touch laborers with visual information overlaid upon the workcell to aid in the performance of their tasks. This application of virtual reality technology requires high accuracy, wearable, tetherless, inexpensive, mechanically robust, and lightweight head tracking systems that operate in a highly noisy environment. The paper describes a prototype head tracking system, currently under development and testing, that is based on one small, lensless, quad-cell detector and a set of fixed location, active optical beacons, that can potentially meet these requirements View full abstract»

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  • Navigating through virtual flight environments using brain-body-actuated control

    Publication Year: 1997 , Page(s): 30 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
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    Alternative control technologies enable users to control human machine systems without using their hands For example, the CyberlinkTM interface, a brain body actuated control technology, employs a combination of EEG and EMG signals produced at the user's forehead to generate computer inputs that can be used for a variety of tasks. An experiment was conducted in which participants used the CyberLinkTM interface to navigate or “fly” along a virtual flight course displayed on a wide field of view dome display. Tracking performance significantly increased across experimental sessions, while measures of perceived mental workload decreased across sessions. Ratings of cybersickness were relatively low and did not vary across experimental sessions. The results indicate that brain body actuated control, achieved using the CyberLinkTM interface, provides a viable means for performing simple, single axis, continuous control tasks without using one's hands View full abstract»

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