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Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2007. IWPSD 2007. International Workshop on

Date 16-20 Dec. 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 249
  • Preface

    Page(s): i - xxxiv
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Quantum cascade lasers: Quantum design, high performance technology for mid- and far-infrared photonics and commercialization

    Page(s): 3
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    The physics of quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) will be reviewed.1 The unipolar nature of these devices combined with the capabilities of electronic and photonic bandstructure engineering leads to unprecedented design flexibility and functionality compared to other lasers. Topics to be discusses also include: high-power room temperature cw QCLs grown by MOCVD2, nonlinear optical QCLs based on the integration within the active region of a nonlinear optical element with giant nonlinear susceptibility such as recently developed Terahertz coherent source based on difference frequency generation3, single mode spiral lasers based on chaotic resonators, mid-ir plasmonic laser antennas following our previous work in the near ir4, ultrabroadband QCL sources for lab-on-a-chip and optofluidic QCLs5. The talk will conclude with applications to chemical sensing and trace gas analysis along with the ongoing commercialization of this technology. View full abstract»

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  • Probing ultrafast processes in semiconductors and devices with ultrashort optical pulses

    Page(s): 4
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    Summary form only given. Faster and smaller- that has been a major goal in semiconductor device R and D. High speed semiconductor devices operating on a picosecond time scale are already available indicating that the nonequilibrium carrier dynamical processes occur in these devices on an ultrafast time scale. Just as it is interesting to be able to resolve smaller and smaller geometrical features of material structures by advanced microscopy, it is exciting to have a window into the ultrashort time domain to probe the ultrafast processes that occur after electrons and holes are injected in a semiconductor. A very convenient way of investigating this is to excite the semiconductor with an ultrashort laser pulse and monitor the linear and nonlinear response of the carriers using ultrafast time resolved optical measurement techniques. A large body of knowledge is now built in this area over the past several years. In this talk, the author will describe some of these developments with an emphasis on results obtained in our laboratory. View full abstract»

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  • New CMOS devices and compact modeling

    Page(s): 5 - 7
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    FinFET provides several advantages over the planar MOSFET structure-less short-channel effect, less variation in threshold voltage, and higher carrier mobility, allowing scaling to 5 nm gate length. Using embedded SRAM as the entry point, FinFET may enter manufacturing at the 32 nm node. BSI M-MG is a turn-key compact model of multi-gate MOSFETs fabricated on either SOI or bulk substrates. A compact model of multi-gate transistors will facilitate their adoption. View full abstract»

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  • Spin control in semiconductors: Variations on a theme

    Page(s): 8 - 10
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    The manipulation of electron spins in semiconductors is a core concept in semiconductor spintronics. We review recent experiments that show how optical, electrical and exchange fields allow the control of spin-dependent phenomena in semiconductor devices. The first example addresses the all-electrical generation of electron spin polarization in conventional semiconductors via the spin-orbit interaction. Our experiments show that current-induced spin polarization and the spin Hall effect can be observed even in wide band gap semiconductors such as ZnSe, despite a relatively weak spin-orbit coupling parameter. The next example shows how circularly polarized photons allow us to both pump and probe spin polarized states in semiconductor microcavity lasers, resulting in the surprising finding that the spin dephasing time is correlated with the Q-factor of the cavity and the onset of stimulated emission. Finally, we discuss how we exploit the exchange interaction between local moments and band electrons to manipulate electronic and local moment spin dynamics in magnetic semiconductor quantum structures. View full abstract»

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  • AlGaN based UV LEDs and high frequency transistors

    Page(s): 11 - 15
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    We discuss the recent advances in UV optoelectronic and high frequency electronic devices based on the AlGaN material system. The paper addresses the physical, electrical and optical properties of the material system and how they impact the device performance. We also describe the innovative approaches that lead to the solution of the growth and processing problems and thus enable the fabrication of high efficiency optoelectronic and electronic devices. View full abstract»

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  • Physical and technological challenges of nanoelectronics devices for the end of the roadmap and beyond

    Page(s): 16 - 21
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    The microelectronics industry is facing historical challenges to down scale CMOS devices through the demand for low voltage, low power and high performance. The implementation of new materials and devices architectures will be necessary. HiK gate dielectric and metal gate are among the most strategic options to implement for power consumption and low supply voltage management. Multigate architectures increase MOSFETs drivability, reduce power, and allow new memory devices opportunities to develop future applications. By introducing new materials (HiK, Ge, III-V, carbon based materials like diamond, graphene and CNTs, molecules,...), Si based CMOS will be scaled beyond the ITRS as the system-on- chip platform. View full abstract»

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  • Electronics on plastic: A solution to the energy challenge, or just a pipe dream?

    Page(s): 22
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    For over 50 years, conjugated organic compounds have been recognized as an important class of electronic semiconductor materials, with potential application to light emission and detection. Very recently, these materials have been shown to generate extremely high efficient white light, and can also have high detection efficiencies. Due to their very low cost and low deposition temperatures, this suggests that organic thin film semiconductor light emitting diodes and solar cells may present a practical solution to mankind's greatest challenge: the use and generation of low cost renewable, and largely pollution free energy. In this talk, I will address both the reality and fantasy of this suggestion. While organic thin film devices can have extremely high performance, they also suffer from shorter operational lifetime than conventional semiconductor (e.g. silicon) devices. And, although their low cost has yet to be proven in large scale manufacturing environments, the potentially unlimited promise of this materials class is driving a substantial global research effort to determine their ultimate applicability to meeting our energy challenges. View full abstract»

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  • Quantum cascade laser based techniques for the detection of explosives, chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    Page(s): 23
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    Worldwide occurrence of terrorist activities has made it imperative to use the best available technology for identifying and defeating terrorism involving improvised explosive devices (IED), chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Early and unequivocal detection of the explosives, CWAs and TICs require highly sensitive measurement techniques that are not confused by the presence of the multitude of interferents present in the normal environment. Furthermore, to minimize economic disruption, the detection of these substances must be carried out with very low probability of false alarms. View full abstract»

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  • Manufacturing technology of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon solar cells

    Page(s): 24 - 27
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    The last two decades have witnessed tremendous progress in the science and technology of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon-based photovoltaic. Advances in the understanding of materials and devices have led manufacturers to expand their production capacity; the production of solar panels based on this technology exceeded 85 MW in 2006. In this paper we shall review the properties of the optimum material for device application, the cell design to obtain high efficiency, the manufacturing technology and the production status. View full abstract»

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  • Nanomanufacturing for electronics and energy: A perspective on challenges and opportunities

    Page(s): 28
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    Advances in nanotechnology and translation of these advances to practical nanomanufacturing platforms, and processes have been the primary driver in advancing the march of Moore's law to ever shrinking device dimensions. Challenges with nanopatterning, introduction of new materials, interface and surface engineering are turning out to be fundamental issues of importance to understand and control to extend the semiconductor technology to sub -50 nm design rules. In this talk, we will detail the challenges and opportunities facing the electronics, and energy industries and how advances in nanomanufacturing may be able to provide innovative solutions to these problems. View full abstract»

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  • TFT-LCD manufacturing technology — current status and future prospect —

    Page(s): 29 - 34
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    Current status and future prospect in the thin-film-transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) manufacturing technology are reviewed. Amorphous Si (a-Si) and low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) TFT-LCDs are discussed in this paper. Each device structure and fabrication process is outlined. Future trends in TFT-LCD manufacturing technologies are described in terms of substrate size enlargement and In-cell integration technologies. View full abstract»

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  • Interface properties of Hf-based high-k gate dielectrics —O vacancies and interface reaction—

    Page(s): 37 - 41
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    We have investigated, theoretically the cause of the substantial threshold voltage (Vth) shifts observed in Hf-related high-k gate stacks with p+poly-Si and p-metal gates, by focusing on the ionic nature of HfO2. The oxygen vacancy (Vo) level in ionic HfO2 is located in a relatively higher part of the band gap. This high position of the VO results in a significant elevation of the Fermi level for p+poly-Si and p-metal gates, if Si can interact with high-k HfO2. Vo formation in the HfO2 induces a subsequent electron transfer from HfO2 to gates, causing a substantial Vth shifts in MISFETs. View full abstract»

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  • High-k/Metal Gates- from research to reality

    Page(s): 42 - 45
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    Miniaturization of the Si MOSFET required in order to attain higher transistor performance and greater economies of scale have spurred the need for significant materials innovations. This is most apparent in the search for the ideal high-k/metal gate stack as replacement for conventional SiON/Poly-Si gate stacks. In this paper, some of the key advances that have made high-k/metal gate stacks a reality will be reviewed. The innovations included optimized metal and interfaces for improved electron mobility in HfO2/metal gate stacks and insertion of nanoscale gp. IIA and IIIB elements layers between the HfO2 and metal electrode stack for band-edge nMOSFETs. Significant hurdles prevented similar solutions for pMOSFET stacks, primarily due to the presence of thermally activated point defects. However, by careful engineering optimization, pMOSFETs have also been realized, resulting in scalable high performance CMOS using High-k/metal gate stacks. View full abstract»

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  • Multiscale modeling of point defects in strained silicon

    Page(s): 46 - 51
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    A multiscale Green's function method is described for modeling impurities in strained silicon. The model seamlessly links the length scales from atomistic to macro. The model accounts for the discrete lattice effects, elastic anisotropy, nonlinear effects, and the presence of point defects as well as surfaces and interfaces in the solid. An effective force, called the Kanzaki force, is defined, which is a characteristic of the defect configuration. This force can be calculated and stored for later use, which makes the method numerically convenient for subsequent calculations. The Kanzaki force is used to calculate the dipole tensor that is a measure of the strength of the defects and can be directly used to calculate the strains from the familiar continuum Green's function. Numerical results are presented for the lattice distortion and the dipole tensors for various point defects (vacancy and substitutional germanium and carbon impurities) in strained silicon. Calculated values of elastic constants are reported for strained silicon. View full abstract»

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  • Strained-Si heterostructure field effect devices: Strain-engineering in CMOS technology

    Page(s): 52 - 56
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    Meeting performance targets of 22 nm Si- CMOS and beyond, as per 2006 ITRS update, will require innovation at all levels of CMOS development, including new channel materials, device design, integration, circuit design, and system architecture. In new channel materials, some of the options under consideration include (a) local and global strain, (b) Si surface orientation, and (c) non-Si materials including Ge and III-Vs. This invited paper is focused to address present and future CMOS performance challenges via advanced materials and processes and discuss the latest developments in strain engineering in Si CMOS devices. The materials and device technology of MOSFETs utilizing strain- or stress-engineered heterostructure channels are also reviewed. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling circuit variability

    Page(s): 57 - 61
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    In order to design integrated circuits which can be manufactured with high yield the variations which can occur during manufacturing must be included with the compact models. The manufacturing variations comprise a complex correlated set of statistical distributions. This paper presents some of the current options and challenges in modeling variation. Improving the prediction of statistical circuit behavior will require coordinated improvement in models, netlisting tools and simulators. View full abstract»

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  • Approaches to nanoscale MOSFET compact modeling using surface potential based models

    Page(s): 62 - 67
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    The objective of this paper is to provide an appraisal of the recent advances in MOSFET compact modeling using the surface potential based approach. MOSFET technology has been at the forefront of the digital and analog circuits for very large scale integration. As a result, development of accurate and efficient MOSFET models becomes critical. The surface potential based models not only lead to a more clear understanding of MOSFET device physics but also provide a better platform to develop an advanced model for circuit simulation. These core models can in general be categorized into either iterative or closed form approximate solutions, but some basic similarities do exist among some of the models developed from the two different approaches. Core compact surface potential based models are discussed and a comparison in terms of accuracy and complexity is presented. View full abstract»

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  • Monte Carlo modeling of nanometer scale MOSFETs

    Page(s): 68 - 73
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    Recent developments in the Monte Carlo method for the simulation of semi-classical carrier transport in nano-MOSFETs include the treatment of quantum-mechanical effects in the simulation (using either the Multi-Subband approach or quantum corrections to the electrostatic potential). In this paper, after reviewing recent progress in this field, selected applications are presented, including the analysis of quasi-ballistic transport, the determination of the RF characteristics of deca-nanometric MOSFETs, and the study of non-conventional device structures and channel materials. View full abstract»

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  • Propagating variability from technology to system level

    Page(s): 74 - 79
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    As CMOS technology feature sizes decrease, variability more and more jeopardizes system level parametric and functional yield. This paper proposes a framework that can capture variability at all levels in the design flow. It offers a correlated view on yield, timing, dynamic and static energy. Preservation on rare events in variability distributions is obtained by the Weighted Monte Carlo technique. View full abstract»

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  • Novel devices in ESD protection

    Page(s): 80 - 85
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    ESD protection circuits are part of any electronic circuit to ensure robustness against electrical surges. The choice of the ESD protection concept strongly depends on the IO devices. The integration of devices like DeMOS for high voltage interfaces in system on chip applications and multigate FETs in advanced CMOS requires new process optimization strategies taking into account the high current behavior of these devices. The specific thermal behavior of fin structures and the base push out in DeMOS devices during an ESD event are found to be detrimental. However, by the presented process and design modifications the initially very low ESD robustness of < 0.1 mA/mum can be raised to levels which are compliant with IC design constraints. View full abstract»

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  • ‘wet N2O oxidation’ process and interface state density characterization of nanoscale nitrided SiO2 for flash memory application

    Page(s): 86 - 91
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    In this paper we first present the 'wet N2O furnace oxidation process to grow nitrided tunnel oxides in the thickness range 6 to 8 nm on silicon at a temperature of 800degC. Electrical characteristics of MOS capacitors and MOSFETs fabricated using this oxide as gate oxide have been evaluated and the superior features of this oxide are ascertained .The frequency response of the interface states, before and after subjecting the MOSFET gate oxide to constant current stress, is studied using a simple analytical model developed in this work. View full abstract»

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  • Phase change memory — opportunities and challenges

    Page(s): 92 - 95
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    This paper reviews the current development status of Phase Change Memory (PCM) and discusses an advanced scaling demonstration of this technology. A prospective view of possible applications for PCM is also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Multiple gate MOSFETs: The road to the future

    Page(s): 96 - 101
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    The advantages of multiple gate MOSFETs (MuGFETs) are discussed. The interesting concept of operation of a fully depleted single gate SOI MOSFET as a virtual double gate MOSFET is highlighted. Also, the advantages of lower gate leakage current and short-channel effects in MuGFETs are discussed in detail. View full abstract»

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  • Challenges in large area, large volume amorphous-silicon based solar module manufacturing

    Page(s): 102
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    Summary form only given. Advances in amorphous silicon technology (a-Si:H) and large area liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturing have led to a truly green thin film photovoltaic manufacturing methodology with no toxic waste. Manufacturing with this technology is relatively mature for areas ~1 m2 . In the last ten years several organizations have been producing commercial products from 1 W to 100+W with production capacities in the 5-40 MW / year. Scale-up in substrate size from calculator modules (~3 cm2 , 1984) to the largest module (5.6 m , 2008) is a fascinating story of congruence of developments from several industries and multiple non-solar applications. Moser Baer Photovoltaic (MBPV) is building the largest monolithically integrated a-Si:H based solar modules manufacturing plant in Greater Noida, U.P. This plant has a designed capacity of 40 MW/ Year. This plant will produce modules on glass with dimensions 2.2 m times 2.6 m. A full size module will produce > 360 W. Products with flexibility in size and voltage configuration will also be made ranging from > 80 W to 360 W. The turn key plant is built and supplied by Applied Materials (AMAT). In this presentation we will discuss some historical developments and some technical challenges in scale-up of the thin films (a-Si:H, ZnO, etc) and monolithic integration laser ablation of very large area modules. View full abstract»

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