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Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2007. ETFA. IEEE Conference on

Date 25-28 Sept. 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 223
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): i - xxxiii
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  • Life-cycle oriented data access for a maintenance framework

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Manufacturing Execution Systems as they are outlined by the IEC 62264 standard provide a variety of functions in the manufacturing domain, including the management of maintenance operations. For these operations access to equipment information is important. However, a suitable information model is still missing. In regard to the life-cycle of equipment, this paper motivates the generation of an equipment information model especially for the facilitation of deployment. The practical basis is a framework for predictive maintenance which aims at integration of a broad range of information sources. View full abstract»

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  • OWL based information agent services for process monitoring

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 9 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1235 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To determine the operational situation of a monitored industrial process, an operator needs efficient access to a wide range of information. Measurement data alone does not encapsulate the overall situation, but pieces of information have to be searched from different plant IT systems that unfortunately often have varying interfaces and data formats. Information agent and semantic Web techniques address similar challenges in the context of the Internet by annotating heterogeneous data with formal semantics provided by ontology languages like OWL, and by providing human users with autonomous assistants for information retrieval. This paper presents an agent based concept for process automation that provides operators with easily configured information retrieval and monitoring services, releasing them from tedious data harvesting tasks. View full abstract»

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  • Limits of increasing the performance of Industrial Ethernet protocols

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 17 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (31)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (409 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The evolution of industrial communication inexorably moves to Industrial Ethernet networks. One important reason for using Ethernet at the shop floor is to participate on the continuous advancements of standard Ethernet. Thus it seems to be the logical next step to change the bit rate from Fast Ethernet to Gigabit Ethernet to achieve better performance. The question is, how the cycle time as a relevant performance metrics of industrial automation systems can profit from increasing the bit rate to 1 Gbps. Because of its importance for the industrial automation domain this paper focuses on line topology. The analysis is based on EtherCAT and PROFINET, which are two popular representatives of different architectures for high performance Industrial Ethernet networks. View full abstract»

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  • Prediction of end-to-end deadline missing in distributed threads systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 25 - 32
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1172 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Distributed real-time threads are schedulable entities with an end-to-end deadline that traverse nodes, carrying their scheduling context. In each node, the thread will be locally scheduled and predictions about deadline missing allow that actions are carried out to improve system performance. This paper presents a task model and deadline partitioning algorithms that consider the possibility of a distributed thread to follow different paths. The future execution flow of the distributed thread is only probabilistic known before its execution. End-to-end deadline missing prediction mechanisms can be carried out through definition of estimated local deadlines. Simulations show that the proposed prediction mechanism presents good results in overloaded systems. View full abstract»

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  • Performance evaluation and prediction of a bluetooth based real-time sensor actuator system in harsh industrial environments

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 33 - 37
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (531 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with a performance evaluation of a Bluetooth based industrial real-time sensor actuator interface for stationary and mobile applications. The investigations were carried out in harsh industrial environments in the presence of parasitic machine emissions, intentional and unintentional interferers. The air paths were obstructed by moving machine parts and daily work traffic. As a result we can conclude, that wireless automation systems based on Bluetooth technology are extremely reliable due to their inherent system features like adaptive frequency hopping at high operating frequencies, error detection and correction. Neither parasitic machine emissions nor other radio systems or transceiver movements can impair the transmission, as long as distances are below 30 m. View full abstract»

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  • Formalised specification of a test tool for safety related communication

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 38 - 44
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1306 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Today's plants are equipped with decentralised automation systems. In these plants, industrial communication between the devices is required. Reliable communication standards ensure the exchange of information. To guarantee the correct implementation of the underlying communication standards, the communication interfaces of automation devices have to be checked using conformance and interoperability tests. This paper describes a formalised and continuous development process of a test tool used for conformance tests for safety communication interfaces. The application of this tool implies the test of the PROFIsafe profile for PROFIBUS DP and PROFINET 10. View full abstract»

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  • Embedded model control: principles and applications. part I

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 45 - 52
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1323 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The argument of the paper is the embedded model control that was developed and tested in the course of past years. The first aim of the method is to equalize implementation and design, which is obtained by explicitly including the design model as the core of the control unit: hence the name of embedded model. After four basic modelling axioms, the paper concentrates on the model error properties, concerning the plant-to-model discrepancies revealed by their output difference. Properties lead to a first theorem: the central error theorem. The theorem asking for model error reduction, the model error causes are investigated and partly included in the embedded model. Residuals will be treated in the Part II of the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Embedded model control: principles and applications. part II

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 53 - 60
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1518 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this second part, model error analysis is further pursued with the help of two theorems. The former one says how to retrieve noise in real-time so as to update Embedded Model. The source can only be the model error. The second theorem explains how the components of the residual model error entangle in the estimated noise, leading to feedback oddities and instability. By formulating the neglected dynamics as one component of the model error, the error loop is constructed and formulated, showing how model error affects stability and how stability may be recovered. Some design guidelines are mentioned leading to a weak separation principle. View full abstract»

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  • Embedded model control: sub-microradian horizontality of the nanobalance thrust-stand

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 61 - 68
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1259 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The measuring principle of the nanobalance thrust-stand is the high sensitivity to length variations of a Fabry-Perot cavity embraced by two balanced tilting plates. The nanobalance aims to thrust accuracy less than 1 muN. The plate flexible joints are fixed to an athermic spacer so as to minimize thermo-elastic deformations. Unavoidable plate unbalance makes the cavity length sensible to spacer lateral acceleration and tilt. At very low frequencies, less than 10 mHz, only tilt is significant as it may drift well above target accuracy. Tilt must be reduced to fractions of microradian in the instrument measurement bandwidth below 1 Hz. To cope with milliradian tilt, large stroke (>1 mm) piezoelectric actuators are coordinated with small-stroke. Coarse and fine clinometers allow large range and high accuracy. Embedded model control has been employed. View full abstract»

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  • Emerging technologies in the ESA science and earth observation programme

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 69 - 76
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1281 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several missions of the ESA Science and Earth Observation Programmes rely on three key technologies: interferometry, micro-propulsion and formation flying. Satellite-to-satellite laser interferometry allows detecting very small distance variations over very long baselines so as to detect gravity anomalies. Interferometry of the same light beams collected by a telescope formation may detect exoplanets close to a star. To this end, satellite formation geometry and alignment must be very accurate and must fly in permanent free fall, i.e. drag-free, only subject to gravity, which requires low-noise micro-propulsion. In this paper, key missions like DARWIN, LISA and a post-GOCE mission concept will be briefly reviewed emphasizing requirements and corresponding interferometry and drag-free technologies. View full abstract»

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  • Multilayer control of an optical reference cavity for space applications

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 77 - 84
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    The paper is concerned with multilayer and fine thermal control of an optical reference cavity for space applications, under development at National Metrology Institute, Turin, Italy. The cavity, made by ultra low expansion glass (Corning ULEreg), must be kept close to the zero-expansion temperature (close to 25degC) of the glass. The target can only be met by active control, while leaving the cavity free of sensor and actuators. This is obtained by two concepts: thermal bath and reference thermal sink, the latter allowing zero-expansion temperature to be reached by heaters in a wide environment range. Preliminary experiments of the two concepts leading to cavity design are detailed. View full abstract»

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  • Sensitization of symbolic runs in real-time testing using the ORIS tool

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 85 - 92
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (211 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We address the problem of test case selection and path sensitization in the process of testing real-time preemptive systems, following a formal methodology based on the theory of preemptive Time Petri Nets (pTPN) implemented in the Oris tool. We discuss practical factors that limit feasible behaviors in the implementation of a nondeterministic specification and we motivate the assumption of test cases defined as paths selected in the symbolic state space of a pTPN specification. Feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed sensitization technique are demonstrated through experimentation on a real-time operating system. View full abstract»

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  • Virtual execution environment for real-time TDL components

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 93 - 100
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (697 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Existing embedded software development methodologies can hardly cope with platform changes such as CPU upgrades, different RTOS or distributed systems. The timing definition language (TDL) enables the development of deterministic real-time components regardless of the deployment platform. The proposed virtual execution environment enables parallel execution and deterministic run-time composition of real-time TDL components with data dependencies. We focus on embedded code generation and the virtual machine that controls the execution of TDL components and their interaction patterns. View full abstract»

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  • Deriving exact stochastic response times of periodic tasks in hybrid priority-driven soft real-time systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 101 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (242 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aim of this paper is to allow for hybrid task sets in the context of stochastic real-time analysis. The paper goes beyond previous work by allowing for the presence of aperiodic tasks in the system. Instead of representing a task with a fixed activation period and a worst-case execution time (WCET), here a task is characterized by an arrival profile (AP) and an execution time profile (ETP), both given by random variables with known distributions. Any number of aperiodic tasks, with arbitrary arrival and execution time profiles, can be dealt with. To cope with the unbounded interference introduced by aperiodic tasks in the system, sporadic and aperiodic tasks are encapsulated within servers. The paper presents the calculus for obtaining the exact ETP of servers, which allows us to derive exact response time distributions of periodic tasks. Also, an example is used to show the potential and validity of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Uniprocessor scheduling under time-interval constraints

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 111 - 118
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (367 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a new task model for expressing timing constraints that do not naturally admit expression in terms of deadlines and periods. In our task model, jobs are divided into segments A, B and C which must execute following this order. Segment A is responsible for performing its computations and compute a time-interval wherein segment B should execute to fulfill some application constraints. Segment C is released after segment B has finished. We consider the execution of B as valid if performed inside that time-interval, otherwise, its contribution may be considered valueless to its task. The model uses benefit functions to express when a given action should be performed for the maximum benefit. We adapt some scheduling approaches from the literature and present a feasibility test for our scheduling problem. View full abstract»

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  • Resource management for dynamically-challenged reconfigurable systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 119 - 126
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To conserve space and power, and to incorporate dynamic adaptability in embedded systems, it is important to utilize hardware components as best as possible. The hardware customization of application kernels reduces the execution time and possibly the power consumption. Reconfiguring the same hardware to facilitate various customized kernels as execution proceeds greatly reduces the space requirements. When the kernel execution is carefully scheduled considering also the reconfiguration overheads, the obtained performance gain can offset such overheads. We present our policy and experiments of customizing and reconfiguring actual hardware for embedded benchmark kernels implemented on Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The results reveal substantial performance improvement and resource conservation. View full abstract»

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  • Reliable scheduling of a distributed real-time embedded application considering common cause failures

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 127 - 134
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (229 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many distributed real-time embedded systems often perform critical functions, which implicitly require high reliability. Consequently, the application designer for a distributed real-time embedded system is confronted with a challenge of deriving a reliable schedule for a real-time application in the presence of individual component and common cause failures of the system. This paper proposes a formal framework for reliable scheduling of a real-time application over a distributed realtime embedded system considering both failures. The framework derives an optimal reliable schedule for the real-time application, while not violating the constraints of the application and the system resources. View full abstract»

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  • A rapid configurable embedded development framework

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 135 - 140
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (291 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Early detection of system failure required continuous monitoring of electro-mechanical system which required embedded prognostics devices. Unfortunately, the current research and industrial solutions do not provide a user friendly and rapidly configurable environment to create 'adaptive microprocessor size with supercomputer performance' embedded solution in order to reduce downtime. Developing a solution for various industrial domains can be too time-consuming because the tools and rapid methods for creating embedded reconfigurable solutions are lacking. In this paper, we present a proof of concept of a rapid configurable embedded development environment using IEC 61499 Functional Blocks. Two test cases, which include an XOR Gate for Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a PID tank level controller for an ARM based Linux embedded system are used in the paper to discuss the potential of the framework. Finally, a research agenda towards a distributed cluster head/sensor nodes distributed prognostics concept is identified. View full abstract»

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  • The wireless sensor networks for factory automation: Issues and challenges

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 141 - 148
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (403 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The emerging technology of wireless sensor network (WSN) has changed the way people interact with the physical world. WSN produces myriad interdisciplinary research issues on information processing, control, communication and computation. It has also provided new paradigm for factory automation that has remarkable impacts on control, tracking, monitoring, and diagnostics of the manufacturing processes and equipments. This paper will provide a short survey on the research issues and implementation challenges coming with wireless networked control, distributed signal processing, condition-based maintenance and industrial efforts for standardization of communications, protocols and smart transducers. View full abstract»

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  • A service based multi-agent system design tool for modelling integrated manufacturing and service systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 149 - 154
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Intelligent software agent technology has wide ranging applications in automating processes that require learning and decision making. It has been demonstrated that multi-agent systems can serve the needs of a real-time distributed manufacturing environment [6]. It would be most rewarding if an integrated manufacturing and service system (IMSS) could be easily and efficiently modeled by a multi-agent system. However, although there are well established methodologies to model agent mental states, there is an absence of effective tools to convert the design into implementation. This paper proposes a service based agent system modelling and design tool - the Goal Net Designer, to bridge the gap between modeling a multi-agent system and automatically implementing the design to serve the purpose of an IMSS. View full abstract»

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  • Model-based monitoring and failure detection methodology for ball-nose end milling

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 155 - 160
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (270 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a model-based monitoring and failure detection approach in ball-nose end milling process. A mechanistic force model has been established for high speed milling on hardened stavax steel with 6 mm micro-grain tungsten carbide 2 flute ball-nose end mill. The threshold curve can be obtained off-line based on the process model as the cutting engagement conditions along the tool path are determined at the simulation stage. The measured cutting forces are monitored on-line to detect the faults by comparing them with the threshold curve at machining stage. If a fault is detected at certain position along the tool path, an intelligent predictive method is utilized to predict whether this fault will result in catastrophic failure. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. View full abstract»

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  • Fault detection methods for frequency converters fed induction machines

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 161 - 168
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (844 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper focuses on experimental investigation for stator faults detection and fault detection methods of electrical drive systems using voltage source inverter (VSI) fed cage rotor induction machines (CRIM). Two experimental investigations (one stator phase unbalance and one stator phase open) have been performed to study the behaviour of the electrical machine. A description of the measurement system including acquisition and processing of the data is presented and stator current signature, current Park's vector and instantaneous power as diagnostic techniques are considered. View full abstract»

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  • Semantic enhancement and ontology for interoperability of design information systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 169 - 176
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (501 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Semantic interoperability is one of the key challenges in integrating disparate design software systems. Ontology provides formal and explicit specifications to describe semantics of design information for interoperability. This paper examines how semantic metadata from proprietary design information models can be captured in semantic enhancements, while data meanings formalized in ontologies to support semantic interoperability of product design applications. The paper demonstrates the proposed approach with use scenarios in integrating and sharing design semantics across mechanical, electrical, and optical CAD applications and other design information systems. View full abstract»

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