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Foundations of Computer Science, 2007. FOCS '07. 48th Annual IEEE Symposium on

Date 21-23 Oct. 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 74
  • 48th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science - Cover

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s): c1
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  • 48th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science - Title page

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):i - iii
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  • 48th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science - Copyright

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s): iv
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  • 48th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science - TOC

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):v - x
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  • Forward

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s): xi
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  • Conference organization

    Publication Year: 2007
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  • Reviewers

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s): xiii
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  • Structure and Randomness in Combinatorics

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):3 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Combinatorics, like computer science, often has to deal with large objects of unspecified (or unusable) structure. One powerful way to deal with such an arbitrary object is to decompose it into more usable components. In particular, it has proven profitable to decompose such objects into a structured component, a pseudo-random component, and a small component (i.e. an error term): in many cases it... View full abstract»

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  • A Brief Look at Pairings Based Cryptography

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):19 - 26
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (257 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    This note provides a brief summary of how a new algebraic tool, bilinear groups, is transforming public-key cryptography. For the examples mentioned, the best solutions without bilinear groups either do not exist or are far less efficient. Many of the systems discussed in this note were implemented by Lynn [45] in a software library freely available under the GPL. View full abstract»

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  • Spectral Graph Theory and its Applications

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):29 - 38
    Cited by:  Papers (15)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (475 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Spectral graph theory is the study of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices associated with graphs. In this tutorial, we will try to provide some intuition as to why these eigenvectors and eigenvalues have combinatorial significance, and will sitn'ey some of their applications. View full abstract»

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  • Pseudorandom Bits for Polynomials

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):41 - 51
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (315 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We present a new approach to constructing pseudorandom generators that fool low-degree polynomials over finite fields, based on the Gowers norm. Using this approach, we obtain the following main constructions of explicitly computable generators G : FsrarrFn that fool polynomials over a prime field F: (1) a generator that fools degree-2 (i.e., quadratic) polynomials to within ... View full abstract»

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  • Extractors and Rank Extractors for Polynomial Sources

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):52 - 62
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In this paper we construct explicit deterministic extractors from polynomial sources, namely from distributions sampled by low degree multivariate polynomials over finite fields. This naturally generalizes previous work on extraction from affine sources. A direct consequence is a deterministic extractor for distributions sampled by polynomial size arithmetic circuits over exponentially large field... View full abstract»

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  • Polylogarithmic Independence Can Fool DNF Formulas

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):63 - 73
    Cited by:  Papers (10)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We show that any k-wise independent probability measure on {0, 1}n can O(m2ldr2ldr2-radick/10)-fool any boolean function computable by an rn-clauses DNF (or CNF) formula on n variables. Thus, for each constant c > 0. there is a constant e > 0 such that any boolean function computable by an m-clauses DNF (or CNF) formula can be in m-e-fooled by any ... View full abstract»

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  • Derandomization of Sparse Cyclotomic Integer Zero Testing

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):74 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (286 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The zero testing and sign determination problems of real algebraic numbers of high extension degree are important in computational complexity and numerical analysis. In this paper we concentrate an sparse cyclotomic integers. Given an integer n and a sparse polynomial f(x) = Ckxe(k) + ck-1xe(k-1) + ... + c1xe(1)over Z, we present a ... View full abstract»

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  • Computing Equilibria in Anonymous Games

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):83 - 93
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (267 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We present efficient approximation algorithms for finding Nash equilibria in anonymous games, that is, games in which the players utilities, though different, do not differentiate between other players. Our results pertain to such games with many players but few strategies. We show that any such game has an approximate pure Nash equilibrium, computable in polynomial time, with approximation O(s View full abstract»

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  • Mechanism Design via Differential Privacy

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):94 - 103
    Cited by:  Papers (107)  |  Patents (3)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (209 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We study the role that privacy-preserving algorithms, which prevent the leakage of specific information about participants, can play in the design of mechanisms for strategic agents, which must encourage players to honestly report information. Specifically, we show that the recent notion of differential privacv, in addition to its own intrinsic virtue, can ensure that participants have limited eff... View full abstract»

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  • Balloon Popping With Applications to Ascending Auctions

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):104 - 112
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (289 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We study the power of ascending auctions in a scenario in which a seller is selling a collection of identical items to anonymous unit'demand bidders. We show that even with full knowledge of the set of bidders' private valuations for the items, if the bidders are ex-ante identical, no ascending auction can extract more than a constant. times the revenue of the best fixed-price scheme. This problem... View full abstract»

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  • On the Complexity of Nash Equilibria and Other Fixed Points (Extended Abstract)

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):113 - 123
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (338 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We reexamine, what it means to compute Nash equilibria and, more, generally, what it means to compute a fixed point of a given Brouwer function, and we investigate the complexity of the associated problems. Specifically, we study the complexity of the following problem: given a finite game, Gamma, with 3 or more players, and given epsiv > 0, compute a vector x' (a mixed strategy profile) that i... View full abstract»

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  • Paths Beyond Local Search: A Tight Bound for Randomized Fixed-Point Computation

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):124 - 134
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (367 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    In 1983, Akhus proved that randomization can speedup local search. For example, it reduces the query complexity of local search over grid [1 : n]d from ominus(nd-1) to 0(d1/2nd/2). It remains open whether randomisation helps fixed-point computation. Inspired by the recent advances on the complexity of equilibrium computation, we solve this open problem b... View full abstract»

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  • Exponential Time/Space Speedups for Resolution and the PSPACE-completeness of Black-White Pebbling

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):137 - 149
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (354 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The complexity of the Black-White Pebbling Game has remained open for 30 years. It was devised to capture the power of non-deterministic space bounded computation. Since then it has been applied to problems in diverse areas of computer science including VLSI design and more recently propositional proof complexity. In this paper we show that the Black-While Pebbling Game is PSPACE-complete. We then... View full abstract»

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  • Parameterized Proof Complexity

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):150 - 160
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (246 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We propose a proof-theoretic approach for gaining evidence that certain parameterized problems are not fixed-parameter tractable. We consider proofs that witness that a given propositional CNF formula cannot be satisfied by a truth assignment that sets at most k variables to true, considering k as the parameter (we call such a formula a parameterized contradiction). One could separate the paramete... View full abstract»

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  • Non-Linear Index Coding Outperforming the Linear Optimum

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):161 - 168
    Cited by:  Papers (30)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (234 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    The following source coding problem was introduced by Birk and Kol: a sender holds a word x epsi {0,1}n, and wishes to broadcast a codeword to n receivers, R1,..., Rnmiddot. The receiver Ri is interested in x;, and has prior side information comprising some subset of the n bits. This corresponds to a directed graph G on n vertices, where ij is an edge if... View full abstract»

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  • Can you beat treewidth?

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):169 - 179
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (278 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    It is well-known that constraint satisfaction problems (CSP) can be solved in time nO(k) if the treewidth of the primal graph of the instance is at most k and n is the size of the input. We show that no algorithm can be significantly better than this treewidth-based algorithm, even if we restrict the problem to some special class of primal graphs. Formally, let g be an arbitrary class o... View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Simulated Annealing: A Near-optimal Connection between Sampling and Counting

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):183 - 193
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (291 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    We present a near-optimal reduction from approximately counting the cardinality of a discrete set to approximately sampling elements of the set. An important application of our work is to approximating the partition function Z of a discrete system, such as the Ising model, matchings or colorings of a graph. The standard approach to estimating the partition function Z(beta*) at some desired inverse... View full abstract»

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  • Reconstruction for Models on Random Graphs

    Publication Year: 2007, Page(s):194 - 204
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (300 KB) | HTML iconHTML

    Consider a collection of random variables attached to the vertices of a graph. The reconstruction problem requires to estimate one of them given far away' observations. Several theoretical results (and simple algorithms) are available when (heir joint probal)ility distribution is Markov with respect to a tree. In this paper we consider the case of sequences of random graphs that converge locally t... View full abstract»

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