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Applied Electronics, 2006. AE 2006. International Conference on

Date 6-7 Sept. 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 69
  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): 1
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  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): 1
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  • [Commentary]

    Page(s): i
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  • [Commentary]

    Page(s): iii
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  • Contributor Listings

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): v - vii
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  • [Society related material]

    Page(s): 1
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  • Improved Safety and Security through Vehicle Electronics?

    Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (875 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Summary form only given. Electronics have become the main subject and a fundamental innovation engine in the automotive industry. According to ongoing studies the share of electronics in vehicles will increase by 5 percent annually on the average. By the use of modern electronics and software it is today possible to improve classical functions such as power windows and to give the customers a variety of new safety and security features that would not be imaginable without electronics, e.g. the ESP system. The development of such electronic systems is demanding for all parties involved. Processes must be harmonized with each other and robust systems must be realized. In addition to consumer acceptance the quality and reliability are the keys to success. The first part this presentation highlights some innovations and trends in vehicle electronics. Especially in the driver assistance and information systems new applications are possible through the intelligent combination of existing sensors and actuators. These new applications allow improved safety and security in vehicles. But those new applications also make an issue out of the reliability which is being controversially discussed. The second part of this presentation will focus on these arguments and discuss some methods to cope with the new reliability requirements associated with more complex electronic systems. The higher demand for safety and security on the one hand and the reliability requirements on the other points out the areas of conflict in which both the automobile manufacturer and the customer are caught in between. In the last part of the presentation those contradictions was discussed, and a path was pointed out how to resolve the matter of dispute: is it possible to have improved safety and security through vehicle electronics? View full abstract»

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  • A Wideband CMOS Current-Mode Operational Amplifier and Its Use for Band-Pass Filter Realization

    Page(s): 3 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2725 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a CMOS current-mode operational amplifier (COA) based on a novel, class A input stage and a folded-cascode output stage is presented. The amplifier provides a 95 dB DC gain and a gain-bandwidth product exceeding 200 MHz. The COA is operated under plusmn1.5 V voltage supplies and designed with 0.35-mum CMOS process. Additionally, COA-based band-pass filter is realized. In a multiple feedback band-pass filter topology, COA can be used instead of voltage amplifier to enhance the bandwidth of operation. The center frequency of the filter is 10 MHz. View full abstract»

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  • Architecture of A Wavelet Packet Transform Using Parallel Filters

    Page(s): 7 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4116 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, based on the word-serial pipeline architecture and parallel filter processing, a new architecture for direct and inverse wavelet packet transforms is introduced. This architecture increase the speed of the wavelet packet transforms. In this design a word-serial architecture able to compute a complete wavelet packet transform (WPT) binary tree in an on-line fashion, but easily configurable in order to compute any required WPT sub tree, is proposed. In this architecture, a high-pass filter and a low-pass filter are used concurrently, in order to compute the new coefficients. This architecture is suitable for the high speed on-line applications. With this architecture, the speed of the wavelet packet transforms is increased with a factor 2, but the occupied area of the circuit is less than double. This architecture can be applied to any levels tree structure with any filter coefficients length. View full abstract»

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  • Fractal Antenna and their Multi-band Performance Evaluation

    Page(s): 11 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3138 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes fractal antennas and compares their performance with a standard dipole antenna. Characteristics such as compactness, multi-band operation, broad bandwidth and high efficiency all play an important role these days in wireless communications. However, conventional technologies being used are reaching their limits of improvement to meet the market requirements. An alternative to these conventional technologies is applying fractal structure to antenna design. The fractal properties of self-symmetry and structure at all scales can provide great advantages when applied to antenna designs. Here a very simple fractal antenna -a 2nd stage Koch curve dipole antenna is simulated using the MMANA software and is compared to a standard dipole antenna simulated in the same environment. Results obtained prove the superiority in performance of the Koch curve dipole to that of the standard dipole antenna. View full abstract»

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  • Cardiac Problem Diagnosis with Statistical Neural Networks and Performance Evaluation by ROC Analysis

    Page(s): 15 - 18
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4493 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electronic medical imaging technologies are growing rapidly and simplifying diagnosis in medical area. The proper use of this technology requires a better understanding, interpretation, and development of new, efficient algorithms. Processing and recognition techniques of patterns related to these medical devices are becoming more important. Among these techniques artificial neural network structures are very promising in the diagnosis decision support mechanisms. In this paper, it is aimed to present the performance of statistical neural network structures on classifying cardiac problems which are obtained from SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) images. Principal component analysis has been used to overcome excessive dimensionality of data. After classification we used Receiver Operation Characteristics (ROC) analysis to evaluate system performance. Results show that proper neural network based statistical pattern recognition models will play a fundamental role in medical signal processing and image analysis. View full abstract»

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  • Blood Flow Detector Output Signal Digitalization

    Page(s): 19 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3845 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The digital demodulation of an acoustic indication signal generated by a simple Doppler continuous wave (CW) ultrasound blood flow detector is the topic of the presented work. Digital signal processing and digital data output significantly enhance capabilities of the ultrasound instrument. The main effort led to application of digital signal processing algorithms such as fast Fourier transform (FFT) and digital filtering in a signal processor with high computation power. Thanks to combination of a modern processor and an integrated development environment, testing of sophisticated algorithms written in the C programming language was possible very effectively. View full abstract»

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  • Complex data clustering using a new competitive learning algorithm

    Page(s): 23 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4243 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces and discusses some competitive learning algorithms for complex data clustering. A new competitive learning algorithm, named the dynamically penalized rival competitive learning algorithm (DPRCL), is introduced and studied. It is a variant of the rival penalized competitive algorithm and it performs appropriate clustering without knowing the number of clusters, by automatically driving the extra seed points far away from the input data set. It doesn't have the "dead units" problem. The results of simulations, performed in different conditions, are presented, showing that the performance of the new DPRCL algorithm is better if compared with other competitive algorithms. View full abstract»

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  • Modelling and Recognition of Movement Related EEG Signal

    Page(s): 27 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4611 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Our previous study was aimed at the classification of right index finger movement direction by means of the movement-related EEG signal. The EEG database we used was originally recorded for a physiological research; from our point of view it has one significant drawback: there is no continuous non-movement related (resting) EEG of sufficient length (>10 sec) in the database. To overcome this limitation we decided to generate artificial resting EEG signal. This article describes method and process of non-movement related (resting) EEG signal generation along with the reached new classification results including the false alarm rate. Artificial EEG signal was generated by AR modelling. The AR model parameters were estimated from short segments (3 sec) of resting EEG already present in the database using the autocorrelation method. Owing to large intra-and inter-personal variability one set of parameters had to be estimated for each person and electrode. The artificial EEG was used for the classification with satisfactory classification results. View full abstract»

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  • Detection of Spots on Materials Using the FPGA Circuit

    Page(s): 31 - 34
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4312 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is focused on the detection of spots on fast moving materials. A new detector is proposed for this purpose, which is compiled from several units: a field programmable gate array (FPGA), an analog monochrome line scan camera, an interface between camera/FPGA/PC, an illuminator and a computer. The used FPGA circuit allows that the speed of the camera control is sufficient and that search or service algorithms can be used easily. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of Rogowski Coil Constant

    Page(s): 241 - 243
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3159 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Method of determination of Rogowski coil (RC) constant at 50 Hz frequency is described in the article. The RC constant determining dependence between output voltage and measured current is checked and also a phase displacement of these two quantities is measured. Analysis of measurement uncertainties is also presented. View full abstract»

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  • Stability of Electrical Resistance of Isotropic Conductive Adhesives within Mechanical Stress

    Page(s): 35 - 38
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3958 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This work is focused on investigation of influence of dynamic mechanical load (bending of testing boards) on resistance of the adhesive joints. The load has been induced by a definite deflection of testing boards (fiberglass laminated PCB assembled with 1206 SMD resistors). There were used four different types of isotropic electrically conductive adhesives (two types of one-component, one type of two-component adhesive and one type of conductive lacquer). The frequency of one cycle per second (1 Hz) has been used for generation of the dynamic load (2000 cycles of bend have been applied). For the analysis of adhesive joint resistance has been used precision LCR meter HP 4284A with continual measuring software (WEE Pro v6.0). The dynamic load has caused changes of basic electrical parameters of the bonds The more of deflections has been applied the more changes of parameters have been found. Nevertheless increasing of joint resistance is not linear and it is not same for all tested adhesives - initial rising of resistance is in most cases higher than changes after few cycles. From our experiment it is evident that for low deflection of testing board there are both of permanent and also elastic deformations in adhesive joints (graphs of joint resistance have not continual rising trend). View full abstract»

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  • Study of influences on the changes of the surface tension

    Page(s): 39 - 42
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3333 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The knowledge of actual value of surface tension is important for the understanding to several soldering aspects, such as wetting, joint shape, fluxing action and, particularly, for the quantification of solderability testing. High surface tension is required for wave soldering. Values of surface tension are mainly caused by measurement conditions (temperature, ambient -air, inert atmosphere of the different composition etc.). In measurements we changed conditions such as temperature of the molten solder, oxygen concentration and surface finish of part of the sample, which is immersed under molten solder. Together with the change of these conditions we ware able to measure changes of the wetting force, which is given by the change of the surface tension. View full abstract»

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  • Block RAM versus distributed RAM implementation of SVM Classifier on FPGA

    Page(s): 43 - 46
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4893 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Support Vector Machines are widely used in pattern recognition, being the newest achievements in neural network structures. This paper presents a Block RAM -based implementation example of an SVM classification function using a Spartan3 FPGA, compared versus a distributed LUT-based RAM one The number of required clock periods and the maximum clock frequency is calculated and a speed comparison of the implemented system with software running on a PC targeting the same application is also made Keywords: SVM, Block RAM, LUT-based RAM, FPGA. View full abstract»

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  • Full Field Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Page(s): 47 - 50
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4918 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive interferometric imaging technique offering millimeter penetration depths of a sample with outstanding axial resolution. In this work a parallel Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD OCT) system is presented which records full tomograms of the sample structure in parallel. A fully parallel FD OCT system allows fast real time imaging of biological tissues. View full abstract»

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  • Permanent magnets using for reed switches control

    Page(s): 51 - 54
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3241 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    At first, the main properties of reed switches and permanent magnets are discussed. Then, there are compared the results of magnetic flux density measurement and calculations in the axis of free permanent magnet via approximate formula and per FEM -without presence of reed switch. In the end of paper there are shown results of magnetic flux density FEM computations with presence of a reed switch. View full abstract»

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  • Thumb Motion Classification using Discrimination Functions

    Page(s): 55 - 57
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2714 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper deals with the classification of three dimensional thumb motions. The thumb motion is parameterized tracing a special mark on the thumb, the coordinates of thumb trajectory are computed during the parameterization. The discrimination functions used for the classification of thumb motion are derived in this paper. The discrimination functions are based on statistical data analysis. The functions are derived from the Bayes theorem. The normal distribution of motion parameters is assumed. The parameters of discrimination functions are estimated using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation. The presented classification is used in biomedical engineering for research on correlations between a human brain function and a muscle activity. View full abstract»

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  • New Method for Measuring of Natural Frequency of Tensometrical String Sensors

    Page(s): 59 - 62
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4172 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This page presents new method for exiting string tensometrical sensors for mechanical tense measurement. This method is based on the synchronized discrete exciting of the string and measuring the string oscillations. The main requirement was self-acting function of the whole system without an external exciting and controlling. The method has been verified on a functional sample. View full abstract»

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