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Ultra-Wideband, 2007. ICUWB 2007. IEEE International Conference on

Date 24-26 Sept. 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 171
  • Recent Advances in Ultra Wideband Radar and Ranging Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 19 - 25
    Cited by:  Papers (5)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5551 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This invited paper describes advances in short pulse electromagnetics as applied to ultra wideband (UWB) radar and precision ranging. UWB sensors designed for perimeter intrusion detection, obstacle and collision avoidance and industrial safety applications was described. The design of a part 15 compliant, UWB radar development kit is also discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Real-time Imaging of Human Bodies with UWB Radars using Walking Motion

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 26 - 30
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4353 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    UWB (ultra wide-band) pulse radar is a promising candidate for surveillance systems used to prevent crimes and terror. The high-speed "SEABED" (shape estimation algorithm based on bst and extraction of directly scattered waves) imaging algorithm is deployed to apply UWB pulse radar in fields that require realtime operations. The SEABED algorithm is based on a reversible BST (boundary scattering transform) between the target shape and the received data. This transform does not require the iterative calculations needed by other algorithms such as the synthetic aperture method or the domain integral equation method. The SEABED algorithm assumes that omni-directional antennas are scanned to observe the scattered electric field in each location. However, in the field of surveillance systems, scanning antennas are impractical. In this paper, walking motion is used to replace scanning antennas. We propose a new algorithm to estimate the shape of a human body using the data provided by a human body passing stationary antennas. View full abstract»

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  • Detection and recognition of radar objects at sounding by high-power ultrawideband pulses

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 31 - 36
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4915 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    By present, ultrawideband (UWB) radiation sources with megavolt efficient potential have been created. This is technical basis for development of UWB radars for remote object sounding. The paper gives special attention to analysis of investigation results of methods for detection and recognition of remote radar objects at sounding by high-power UWB pulses. To detect UWB signals at the noise and interference background, an approach based on the joint use of matched filtering and inter-period correlation processing is suggested. A genetic function method and parametric methods were developed for object recognition. Compression of the data bank is of importance in the latter methods. View full abstract»

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  • UWB-GPR Data Processing for Identification of Anti-personnel Landmines under Rough Ground Surface

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 37 - 42
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A process for finding buried landmines by using GPRs is divided into two stages, detection and identification. In the detection stage, all buried objects including the desired landmines together with other clutter objects are detected. In the identification stage, the detected objects are classified and the landmines are differentiated from the other objects. In this research, we focus on the identification stage and propose a GPR data processing for identification of shallow!) buried antipersonnel landmines. After suppressing the ground surface reflection, we extract features related to waveform correlation from the GPR data. As an identification algorithm, an approach based on a matched filter is employed. In order to check the identification performance, Monte Carlo simulations are carried out using dataset generated by a 2D-FDTD method. Results are shown in the form of ROC curves and AUC values, and effects of soil condition (i.e. ground surface roughness, inhomogeneity, and moisture in soil) on identification performance are assessed. View full abstract»

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  • The Research Activities of Ultrawide-band (UWB) Radar in China

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 43 - 45
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1466 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The UWB signals for radar applications can be generated from time domain or frequency domain. Because of the limited energy, the time domain UWB signal or impulse signal is usually applied for short range radar, such as ground penetrating radar(GPR) and through-wall-imaging radar(TWIR). In opposition to it, the frequency domain UWB signals can be applied both for short-and far-range imaging radar, such as GPR, TWIR or airborne UWB synthetic aperture radar(SAR). The UWB radar research has been carried out from 1980s in China. But its really flourishing and mature era was from the middle of 1990s. This paper reviews the Chinese archives and the most recent results in UWB radar both for time domain and frequency domain. View full abstract»

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  • UWB measurement, complex-amplitude texture, and Walled-LTSA array in plastic landmine visualization

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 46 - 49
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe the importance of ultra wideband (UWB) reflection measurement in the adaptive target visualization. We use a complex-valued self-organizing map (CSOM) to deal with complex-amplitude texture obtained by stepped-frequency UWB reflection measurement. We distinguish targets from clutter by paying attention to the difference in texture in space and frequency domains. In the technique, a wideband measurement is desirable to obtain precise texture. We employ a newly developed antenna, walled LTSA, with which we can construct a wideband, dense array for high-resolution imaging. View full abstract»

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  • Recent Advances and Applications of M-Sequence based Ultra-Wideband Sensors

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 50 - 55
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6782 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) sensing is an upcoming technique to gather data from complex scenarios such as nature, industrial facilities, public or private environments, for medical applications, non-destructive testing and many more. Currently it is hard to estimate the full spread of future applications. The measurement approach traditionally used is based on stimulation of the test objects by either short sub-nanosecond impulses or sine waves which are stepped/swept over a wide spectral band. This paper deals with an alternative approach, which uses very wideband pseudo-noise binary signals such as M-sequences for example. Such devices have a very high time stability, enable high measurement speed and do not burden the test objects with high voltage peaks. Furthermore, the device concept promotes monolithic circuit integration in a low cost semi-conductor technology. In what follows, the basic device concept and some extensions will be considered as well as some selected applications will be discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Narrowband Interference Suppression in UWB Impulse Radar for Human Being Detection

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 56 - 61
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (534 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Narrowband interference (NBI) is a major source of performance degradation in human being detection applications using impulse radar and stroboscopic samplers. Implementation of notch filters results in undesired ringing of the target response. Four methods are developed and their performance analysed: two variations of the approach that extracts the NBI and subtracts its contribution and two variations of the approach that filters the NBI out and restores the missing spectrum. NBI is modelled as modified GSM signal. It is shown that latter methods perform better both in terms of NBI suppression, but also in terms of signal waveform and energy preservation. View full abstract»

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  • Bistatic UWB Radar System

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 62 - 65
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3533 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new GPR system using an optical electric field sensor was proposed. The system has a bistatic radar configuration, which is consisted from a TEM horn antenna as a transmitter and an optical electric field sensor as a receiver. The new system employs a time-domain data acquisition, and it made the data acquisition very fast. Laboratory measurements showed that a metallic sphere can be detected by the new system. Applications of this system will include landmine detection and through wall imaging. View full abstract»

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  • Subsurface Imaging with UWB Linear Array: Evaluation of Antenna Step and Array Aperture

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 66 - 70
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the investigation of antenna step and aperture size for an ultra-wideband (UWB) ground penetrating radar (GPR) with a linear array. The procedure includes the optimization of receiving array, verification of optimization results by EM simulation and experimental measurement for both surface and subsurface imaging. The imaging algorithm used for the evaluation combines the focusing of the array and the synthetic aperture radar technique in the mechanical scan direction. View full abstract»

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  • Time-of-Arrival Estimation of UWB Signals in the Presence of Narrowband and Wideband Interference

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 71 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1405 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ultrawide bandwidth (UWB) positioning techniques have gained significant interest in recent years especially in cluttered environments where signals from satellite navigation systems are not reliable. Range measurements required by UWB positioning systems are usually obtained from the time-of-arrival (ToA) estimation of the first path, which could be a challenging task in the presence of multipath and interference. This paper proposes a practical ToA estimation scheme to mitigate both narrowband and wideband interference. The performance of various practical ToA estimators for UWB ranging systems in the presence of narrowband and wideband interference is investigated. The effect of the interference is evaluated for different system parameters configurations in realistic multipath environments. For the case of simple ToA estimator based on thresholding with averaging filter, we provide a criteria to determine the suitable threshold level when narrowband interference (NBI) is present. View full abstract»

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  • A UWB based Localization System for Indoor Robot Navigation

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 77 - 82
    Cited by:  Papers (17)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3970 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For robots to become more popular for domestic applications, the short comings of current indoor navigation technologies have to be overcome. In this paper, we propose the use of UWB-IR for indoor robot navigation. Various parts of an actual implementation of a UWB-IR based robot navigation system such as system architecture, RF sub-system design, antennas and localization algorithms are discussed. It is shown that by properly addressing the various issues, a localization error of less than 25 cm can be achieved at all points within a realistic indoor localization space. View full abstract»

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  • UWB Reference-Free Self-Positioning with Electrical Scanning Directional Antenna

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 83 - 88
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1377 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An Ultra-Wideband (UWB) self-positioning system and its architecture are presented. It consists of a pulse-based transceiver for ranging from the surrounding objects, an electrical scanning antenna for direction detection, and baseband positioning algorithms. Self-positioning can be performed by using the ranging and direction information based on reflected signals in a room environment. It can also determine its own position in the presence of some blocking objects by employing the so-called multi-layer reflection algorithm. This reference-free self-positioning system operated in an office meeting room is shown to be capable of achieving 30 cm positioning accuracy with the 70% bound. View full abstract»

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  • Three-dimensional indoor localization in Non Line of Sight UWB channels

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 89 - 93
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1496 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem of indoor localization is lately gaining high interest in research and industry. In this context, Ultra-Wideband has the capability of fulfilling the task of precise localization. Non Line of Sight (NLOS) channels, however, can seriously degrade the positioning accuracy. This paper gives a contribution to the frequent case, where base station redundancy in a three-dimensional localization system in time-of-arrival (TOA) configuration is not available. Literature analysis shows that many existing NLOS mitigation algorithms cannot be applied in such a case. Therefore, an algorithm using geometrical projection is proposed in comparison to Kalman filtered range estimates. Both algorithms rely on NLOS detection, which is implemented using the change of SNR method. Finally, the algorithms are tested in a laboratory room using an UWB localization test bed. View full abstract»

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  • Measurements of UWB Antennas Backscattering Characteristics for RFID Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 94 - 99
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3331 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A measurement technique, which is carried out in indoor non-anechoic-chamber environment and can be employed to extract the backscattering characteristics of ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas for radio frequency identification (RFID) systems, is developed and presented in this paper. To validate the measurement technique, a type of UWB antenna, i.e., printed circular-disc monopole antenna (PCDMA), is simulated, fabricated, and measured. Backscattering characteristics of the PCDMA with three different kinds of terminations (i.e., open-circuit, short-circuit, and matched-load), including radar cross section (RCS) and UWB impulse response, are then extracted by the measurement technique. The measured results are theoretically verified by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method with Berenger's perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary condition (PML-ABC). View full abstract»

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  • High-Resolution UWB Ranging based on Phase-Only Correlator

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 100 - 104
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4002 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Phase-Only Correlator (POC) performs signal/pattern matching in the frequency domain using spectral phase information. A Modified Phase-Only Correlator (MPOC) is proposed in this paper to perform Time-of-Arrival (ToA) estimation for UWB ranging/positioning applications. Both simulation and measurement results show that the MPOC has significant advantages over the conventional sliding correlator and existing phase correlators, such as better sidelobe suppression and ability to resolve signals separated by less than a UWB pulse width. This is because the MPOC output is impulse like and has no sidelobes even in the presence of multipath signals. These strengths render the MPOC applicable for high-resolution multi-target UWB ranging and positioning. View full abstract»

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  • Overhead and Sensitivity to UWB Ranging Models within a Distributed Bayesian Positioning Solution

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 105 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2710 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For the last past years, many algorithmic solutions have been proposed to solve the positioning problem within IR-UWB wireless networks. Among them, distributed Bayesian schemes are likely to offer flexibility and immunity against the harmful effects of NLOS ranging biases on location precision and robustness. However, as these solutions theoretically require the use of refined ranging models, the availability, the representativeness, and the reliability of prior statistical information in real systems still have to be carefully discussed. In this paper, we firstly investigate the sensitivity of distributed Bayesian schemes to assumed ranging models, through the particular example of the cooperative maximization of the log-likelihood of pair-wise range measurements. More specifically, we evaluate the relevance of approximated solutions, as well as the impact of an erroneous or partial prior knowledge of underlying models and parameters, in comparison with optimal estimators under distinct UWB ranging assumptions. Finally, since distributed schemes are expected to reduce relaying constraints and network latency, an estimation of the overhead and traffic generated by the retained positioning algorithm is also provided. For this purpose, we rely on packet-oriented simulations carried out under realistic network/protocol constraints. View full abstract»

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  • A Signal Processing Framework for MIMO UWB Channels with Real Antennas in Real Environments

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 111 - 116
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5227 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An open issue from a signal processing perspective is the adequate inclusion of real UWB antennas, and, in particular antenna array's, in an overall channel model for communication and localization purposes. The knowledge of several antenna properties, like polarization, directivity and phase patterns, and mutual coupling between neighbouring antennas -on both the transmit and receive side -are required for optimizing overall system performance, e.g. a low BER for a given data rate or high localization accuracy for a given environment. This holds especially true for UWB signals, since all antenna parameters become frequency dependent for such large bandwidth so that their impact on the systems performance is a-priori not known. In our contribution, we present a signal processing framework where the antennas impulse responses are completely determined by an electromagnetic field simulator and the propagation pathes are calculated by ray tracing. The ray tracer allows to determine the angle of arrival (AoA) and angle of departure (AoD) of each multipath and in cooperation with the field simulator the overall systems impulse response for a real antenna setup in a real environment becomes computable. Some results will be presented and discussed at the end of the paper. View full abstract»

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  • Water-Filling Capacity of Wide Band 60GHz Channels with Antenna Directionality

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 117 - 122
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4115 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The 60GHz band is the most attractive candidate for the next generation of very high rate short range communication links. Directional antennas will be used in these systems to compensate for the high path loss at these high frequencies. Antenna directionality heavily affects the observed multipath and consequently the achievable capacity. Many applications that will use these systems only require point-to-point links. Hence, it will be feasible to use channel state information at the transmitter to improve the performance or the data rate. In this paper, we look at the effects of the directional antennas on the water-filling capacity of the wide band 60GHz channels. View full abstract»

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  • Short Range Gigabit Wireless Communications Systems: Potentials, Challenges and Techniques

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 123 - 128
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6335 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we discuss multi-gigabits per second wireless networks in the 60GHz millimeter wave frequency band. Despite the large unlicensed bandwidth offered by the 60GHz frequency band, severe technical challenges exist towards making multi-Gbps a reality. We discuss the challenges in three different layers: PHY, MAC and the application layers. We also discuss some important technologies in overcoming these challenges, including antenna array beamforming, baseband modulation, data aggregation. The worldwide 60GHz regulatory and the ongoing standardization efforts are reviewed as well. View full abstract»

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  • Development of CMOS Based Circuits for 60GHz WPAN applications

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 129 - 133
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3279 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent interest in the 60 GHz band for high data rate short range wireless links has led to the significant progress in the development of integrated circuits for RF front-ends. CMOS process technology is being widely discussed for low-cost, low power mm-wave radio systems applications. In this paper we discuss various CMOS based circuits which have been developed considering carefully all the aspects such as device characterizations, the circuit topology, the circuit layouts, integration on a lost packaging for high volume fabrication lowering the cost and opening huge commercial opportunities of millimeter wave technology in the consumer electronic market place in a fairly near future. View full abstract»

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  • Introduction of SG-BAN in IEEE 802.15 With Related Discussion

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 134 - 139
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6522 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Body area networks (BAN) can provide a wide range of applications including medical support, healthcare monitoring, and consumer electronics with increased convenience or comfort. To harmonize with the strong demands from both medical and healthcare societies and ICT industries, a study group referred to as IEEE 802.15.BAN (SG-BAN) was formally set up in November 2006. The objective of SG-BAN is to define project authorization request (PAR) and five criteria (5C) and to lead the group up to the next standardization step. This paper presents a general guidance of SG-BAN. The main up-to-data activities in SG-BAN are introduced. Current status and main issues are overviewed. Some critical and future works are suggested. View full abstract»

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  • Ensuring Protection of In-Band Services by Lmiting the UWB Activity Factor

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 140 - 145
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2330 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we show that constraining the activity factor of a low data rate UWB transceiver is an effective way to ensure protection of a licensed in-band service. This protection mechanism is efficient even in close vicinity of a UWB transceiver and yet flexible enough to preserve the interesting properties of UWB for realistic applications. It avoids reducing the UWB radiated power and thus preserves the range and link robustness. Based on both UWB and WiMAX technical requirements, activity factors are proposed. Measurement results prove the effectiveness of such an interference mitigation technique. View full abstract»

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  • A Non-Coherent 802.15.4a UWB Impulse Radio

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 146 - 151
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5091 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The new IEEE 802.15.4a standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) extends the capabilities of its popular predecessor IEEE 802.15.4, and enables accurate range/distance estimation between communicating devices. In addition to its ranging capabilities, the new standard also defines several new data rates ranging from 100 kb/s to 27 Mb/s and a variety of options that give IEEE 802.15.4a compliant devices a high degree of flexibility and scalability. In this article we describe our implementation of an UWB impulse radio device, which is compliant with the 802.15.4a standard. Our implementation uses non-coherent energy-detection based receivers both to demodulate data and to detect ranges. We will present our prototype system and discuss some implementation details (energy detection, sampling rates, acquisition/synchronization) specific to non-coherent receivers. The performance of our prototype system is discussed as well. The reported range estimation error is less than 30cm, which agrees well with theoretical predictions. View full abstract»

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  • UWB Radio Transceivers For Ultra Low Power and Low Data Rate Communications

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 152 - 157
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3155 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radio transceivers relying on impulsed radio UWB signals show a strong potential for low data rate communications at an ultra low power consumption. They are for instance proposed by the IEEE 802.15.4a low-rate wireless personal area networks standard (LR-WPAN) to support low data rates, low power and low complexity short-range radio communications. In this paper, we give an overview of our recent UWB radio front-end designs along with new system simulation results, and derive specifications for a 15.4a receiver. The system simulations are used to balance the partitioning of gain, noise and distortion for next generation transceivers and allow to analyze the expected communication range of IEEE 802.15.4a systems in various channel conditions. The free-space wireless channel loss as well as 9 propagation scenarios are taken into account. View full abstract»

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