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Date 17-20 Sept. 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 104
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): c1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Copyright notice]

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): c2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Technical program table of contents

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): iii - xxviii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Designing for mission capability support, a case study in embedded, automated, remote diagnostics

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (298 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper will outline the strategy and process for developing products that have been designed for automated diagnostics. It will also give an example of how this process is being applied today in Agilent and BAE Systems products. Ultimately, it will show that by adding diagnostics into the design process, a revolutionary reduction in support risk and cost can be realized in contrast to the evolutionary reduction that have been realized in the past. View full abstract»

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  • Design for diagnosability guidelines

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 6 - 15
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The concept of design for diagnosability (DfD) is introduced as a different concept than design for testability (DfT). Separating design for diagnosability guidelines from those of the more general design for testability guidelines enables circuit designers to distinguish between those guidelines that separate good circuits from faulty ones and guidelines that are aimed at improving the repair process. Comprehensive fault detection does not result in cost effective repair without unambiguous fault isolation. A model is used to demonstrate the distinctions between test and diagnostic goals. Diagnoses related terminology is introduced and diagnostic complications are discussed. Hidden faults, cannot duplicates (CNDs), retest OK, fault isolation ambiguity, false remedies and false alarms are explored in great detail. A Venn diagram model is used to further explain Diagnosability and the diagnostic complications. The term Distinguishability is added to our vocabulary as the positive dual of ambiguity. The paper probes the possible causes of the various diagnostic issues and provides guidelines designers can incorporate to eliminate them. The paper offers specific design guidelines to achieve a more diagnosable or diagnostic-friendly circuit design. In doing so, diagnostic complications can be reduced, resulting in lower cost repairs and maintenance. View full abstract»

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  • Navigating the diagnostics career labyrinth

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 16 - 21
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (324 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Integrated diagnostics is a career field for which there currently exists no standard set of basic qualifications, few educational opportunities to study at the university level, no clear processes within most organizations for practicing integrated diagnostics as a systems engineering activity and often no uniform method of sharing techniques and lessons learned with new employees. Several authors have stated the importance of increased training in test ((M. Choi et al., 2003), (M. Katara, 2005), (W. Moorhead and S. Demidenko, 2002),(L.Y. Ungar, 1997), (L.Y. Ungar, 2000), (S. Demidenko and W. Moorhead, 2006). Studies have found that the majority of test engineer training is on-the-job, rather than knowledge acquired as part of a higher education degree program or a formal training process (L.Y. Ungar, 1997). Few authors, however, have focused on the need for a well-defined career path which leads from higher education, or formal training, to a career in diagnostics. This paper is an attempt to describe what such a career path may look like. First, the need for a formal career path will be established from published literature and interviews conducted with engineers from industry, academia and United States (US) government. This paper will then describe actions that are necessary first steps in creating and maintaining a career path that is required for the sustainment of a knowledgeable and well-trained pool of diagnostic engineers needed to meet future technology challenges. A case study of engineers from the Naval Air Systems Command's (NAVAIR's) Integrated Diagnostics and Automated Test Systems (IDATS) team in Lakehurst, New Jersey is presented to illustrate the very diverse and dissimilar backgrounds and training of diagnostic engineers within one group in one organization. View full abstract»

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  • Action-driven automation test framework for Graphical User Interface (GUI) software testing

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 22 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (368 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we describe the design and implementation of an action-driven automation test framework especially for GUI software testing. The idea of action-driven automation test framework comes from the core concept of "quality assurance (QA)". Better quality can be ensured by increasing the coverage of test cases on the software but the process of creating large number of test cases has to be optimized. With this goal the framework was designed to primarily increase the efficiency and flexibility in composing test cases and simplify the process of learning the test cases. This paper describes the background, features, and implementation details of the framework. View full abstract»

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  • Statistical measurment analysis of automated test systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 28 - 33
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (410 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The innovation of automated test system technology necessitates continued process improvements to legacy test program software. These improvements to the test program software require verification and validation of their performance to support functional and diagnostic testing of units-under-test (UUT). Since measurement uncertainties in automated test systems (ATS) should not impact the pass/fail criteria when testing a UUT, statistical measurement analysis can be used to evaluate ATS measurement uncertainty. This paper discusses several statistical methods that can be applied to evaluate ATS measurement capability. Paired observations between two ATS were analyzed to evaluate preliminary performance measurement capability of the reconfigurable-transportable consolidated automated support system (RTCASS) to the consolidated automated support system (CASS). Utilizing the paired t-test a comparison was made with a 95% confidence interval. In addition, ANOVA gauge repeatability and reproducibility is demonstrated for evaluation of test program set performance between RTCASS and CASS, the UUT's and operators. A method for analysis of this system is discussed. Statistical tests were based on the evaluation of preliminary test program set (TPS) measurement data between RTCASS and CASS. View full abstract»

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  • A use of Bayes' theorem for insight of false alarm rates

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 34 - 39
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (390 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Using Bayes' theorem, the false alarm rate is shown to be a function of the reliability of the monitored functional system, the reliability of the built-in-test (BIT) system, and the coverage by the BIT of the monitored functional system. Partial differentiation of the false alarm rate formula reveals that the false alarm rate varies inversely with BIT reliability, inversely with BIT coverage, and directly with the monitored functional system reliability. Improving a functional system's reliability increases the false alarm rate, even though there is no change in the frequency of false alarm events. Therefore a false alarm rate requirement may deter functional circuit design improvement. This paper advocates categorizing the sources of false alarm events in a system since false alarms rates can sometimes be relatively high due to the complexity of an adequate BIT. View full abstract»

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  • Intermittency detection and mitigation in Ball Grid Array (BGA) packages

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 40 - 49
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1090 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An update on a method (SJ BISTtrade) to detect intermittencies in Ball Grid Array (BGA) packages is presented, and another method (SJ Monitortrade) is introduced. SJ BISTtrade is primarily firmware embedded in the FPGA application; SJ Monitortrade is hardware on an IC chip. Failure of monitored I/O pins on operational, fully-programmed FPGAs is reported by SJ BIST and SJ Monitor to provide positive indication of damage to one or more I/O solder-joint networks of an FPGA on an electronic digital board. The board can then be replaced before accumulated fatigue damage results in intermittent or long-lasting operational faults. View full abstract»

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  • Instrument certification as part of a modular test platform architecture

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 50 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (449 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The use of modular test systems for depot, intermediate, and factory test applications has increased dramatically in the last two decades. Starting with the VME Extensions for Instrumentation (VXI) architecture in the early 1990's, card modular architectures have become an integral part of today's Automatic Test Systems (ATS) for military -aerospace components and systems. Today, the primary card modular architecture is based on the PCI Extensions for Instrumentation (PXI) standard with thousands of PXI-based systems in use today and with next generation ATS platforms for military programs transitioning to PXI as well. The flexibility and configurability associated with today's modular architectures has also created new challenges for the calibration and certification of these systems. Historically, the process for re-certification of modular instruments has been to remove and return the modules to the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) or a 3rd party test house, resulting in system down time. However, a better certification method for a card modular architecture is to develop an overall methodology and implementation that allows recertification of modules within the host system, including the possibility to extend this process to include recertification of "box" instruments as well. This paper discusses the features and benefits of a PXI-based standards module which provides the basis for implementing a system level certification strategy. By employing only one standards module in the system, recertification logistics and maintenance can be simplified, resulting in extended system up time and offering test managers added flexibility for supporting in-house certification of modular test system components. By incorporating frequency, resistance and voltage standards and source / measurement facilities, a certification strategy can be developed for an ATS platform that is based on specific test application accuracy requirements. View full abstract»

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  • Advances in DoD'S ATS framework

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 57 - 63
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (543 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Automatic Test System (ATS) Executive Directorate (ED) is charged with developing objectives for the Department of Defense (DoD) ATS modernization. The DoD ATS Framework Working Group (FWG) was established by the ATS ED to create a Framework addressing these objectives. The FWG consists of two sub-groups; Management, that includes members from all of the DoD Services, and Technical. The Framework is made up of key elements and associated specifications and standards that form the open system architecture approach for DoD ATSs. In addition to creating and updating key element definitions, the FWG focuses on identifying commercial ATS related specifications that might satisfy the elements in the Framework. The standards specified in the DoD ATS Framework are documented in the DoD's Information Technology Standards Repository (DISR) and thereby become a mandatory requirement for all DoD ATS acquisitions. The Framework is also being specifically called out in DoD ATS requirements documents so that its standards are incorporated in future DoD ATS acquisitions, such as the Navy's eCASS. Although the ATS Framework was originally defined more than 10 years ago, it continues to evolve as test technology evolves. A function of the FWG is to continually assess the Framework and plan the development and demonstration of specifications and standards to satisfy ATS Framework requirements. The FWG is currently participating in the standards development process via standards organizations, consortia, and working groups. The FWG is evaluating these standards in terms of applicability to the twenty plus key elements defined in the Framework. The FWG is also continually evaluating new test and information technologies to further refine and add new key elements. When necessary, the FWG provides requirements and potential solutions to standards development teams so that the resulting standard will fit within the Framework. When these standards are published and proven to meet the - requirements of a particular Framework element, the FWG makes recommendations to the DoD's ATS Management Board (AMB) regarding how these standards should be represented in the DISR. Standards which are mandated will be required by the acquisition process, and vendors' products acquired by the DoD must conform to them. This paper will provide a summary of the current activities and issues impacting the ATS Framework with a discussion of the near term plans of the FWG. It will provide status on the key elements that the FWG members are currently working on. These elements include the Adapter Functional and Parametric Data (AFP), Diagnostic Data (DIAD), Diagnostic Services (DIAS), Instrument Functional and Parametric Data (IFP), Master Conformance Index (MCI), Maintenance Test Data (MTD), Resource Adapter Interface (RAI), Run Time Services (RTS), Prognostics and Health Management (PHM), and Test Station Functional and Parametric Data (TSFP). The standards that satisfy or partially satisfy these key elements, and the current status of these standards are discussed. The paper also describes the purpose of, and the FWG's role in, several industry working groups; including LAN extensions for Instrumentation (LXI), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standards Coordinating Committee 20 (SCC20), Interchangeable Virtual Instruments (IVI), and Synthetic Instruments Working Group (SIWG). Finally, current issues, such as how signal modeling is to be incorporated within the Framework, the relationship to the DoD's efforts with those of the UK Ministry of Defense (MoD), the use of the DISR mandated elements in upcoming DoD ATS acquisitions, and how O-level test capabilities could be incorporated in the Framework are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Validation of XML data against an EXPRESS schema using XSLT translation to part 21 format

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 64 - 71
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (366 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes an approach for validating XML data that are governed by an ISO 10303-11 EXPRESS schema. The approach relies on transformation from XML to a temporary file in ISO 10303-21 format. The approach does not require tailoring the transformation script to a particular EXPRESS schema, so long as one follows a regular pattern when mapping the EXPRESS schema to XML. The original motivation for this work was the EXPRESS schemata defined in the IEEE AI-ESTATE standard, but the approach should work for other schemata as well. View full abstract»

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  • SEPT - Improving JSECST/ECSAMS in concert with the ATS framework

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 72 - 79
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1093 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The AN/USM-670 Joint Services Electronic Combat Systems Tester (JSECST) is the current standard in Electronic Combat (EC) system flight line level test -supporting a wide variety of EC systems across multiple platforms. The Electronic Combat Stimulus and Measurement System (ECSAMS) is a JSECST-compatible product designed to support vertical testing of EC systems across multiple levels of test. View full abstract»

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  • Fully automated large form factor (2′ X 3′) four-port differential 20 Ghz vector network analyzer test system with real time link characterization

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 80 - 88
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (902 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present the hardware, software, and operational details of a fully automated robotic flying head tester capable of measuring 4-port S-parameters on large (up to 2'times3') printed wiring boards (PWBs). The system features real-time complex compliance testing based on frequency domain analysis, time domain analysis, and/or a Fourier-transform-based technique enabling very rapid time domain link simulation of measured nets in a complete system environment. The system is equipped with a flexible, compliant-pin, differential probe design that supports frequencies up to 6 GHz. The system employs a corresponding SOLT-based calibration method that places the calibration references plane at the probe tips. View full abstract»

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  • Digital test program re-hosting considerations and applications

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 89 - 96
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (419 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Military electronics enjoy the same advancement and improvements in technology that everyone has come to expect in commercial applications. But military electronics obsolesce much more slowly: instead of each upgrade replacing old technology every few years, each new design adds to the inventory of electronic systems that must be maintained and repaired. This paper examines the problem of upgrading digital test system technology, while both maintaining compatibility with older test programs and minimizing conversion cost. It draws upon experience transporting digital test programs across three generations of Teradyne digital test equipment. Specific attention is given to the design of the current fourth-generation digital test instrument. This instrument adds performance to keep pace with new designs, but also has features that were specifically introduced or retained to ease conversion of old test programs. View full abstract»

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  • TPS rehost from CASS to LM-STAR®

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 97 - 102
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (463 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Galileo Avionica has successfully designed, developed and integrated test program sets (TPS) on the consolidated automated support system (CASS) for various units under test (UUTs). Galileo Avionica also has recently purchased an LM-STARreg test system from Lockheed Martin simulation, training and support (LM-STS) for their factory production. This paper will describe in detail the successful TPS rehost results and experiences going from CASS to LM-STAR. This paper will also describe the system software architecture utilized that allowed this rehost to LM-STAR to be successfully performed. LMSTS customers including Galileo Avionica are requesting solutions that protect their legacy TPS investment and provide them the latest hardware, software tools, and development environments for new TPS development. Fielded weapon systems and test systems of today must be maintained and supported many years beyond their original projected life expectancy. We will also discuss our plan forward for new TPS development written in languages other than ATLAS that will employ the same underlying system software architecture. View full abstract»

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  • Lessons learned during the successful execution of a legacy Automated Test System (ATS) re-host

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 103 - 112
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (445 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    To ensure the Minuteman Intercontinental Ballistic Missile System remains fully operational and supportable through 2020, the Air Force realized that the support capability of its legacy automated test system (ATS) for the operational ground support electronics subsystem would need to be completely replaced. Unless replaced with new hardware and upgraded test program sets (TPS's), the needed long-term support could not be provided to the weapon system. During the execution of this re-host effort, here were several valuable lessons learned hat can be applied to similar type programs. Some of the lessons learned include: (1) Utilization of a software development environment "fly-off" during the prototype phase. (2) Application of a "design to build" concept for the interface test adapters. (3) Implementation of "tiger teams" to various phases of the software development lifecycle. (4) Execution of a "beta test" period during the deployment phase of the program This paper provides an overview of the program and discussion of the valuable lessons learned. View full abstract»

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  • Asset-specific bayesian diagnostics in mixed contexts

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 113 - 122
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (459 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we build upon previous work to examine the efficacy of blending probabilities in asset-specific classifiers to improve diagnostic accuracy for a fleet of assets. In previous work we also introduced the idea of using split probabilities. We add environmental differentiation to asset differentiation in the experiments and assume that data is acquired in the context of online health monitoring. We hypothesize that overall diagnostic accuracy will be increased with the blending approach relative to the single aggregate classifier or split probability asset-specific classifiers. The hypothesis is largely supported by the results. Future work will concentrate on improving the blending mechanism and working with small data sets. View full abstract»

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  • Augmenting fielded test systems with diagnostic reasoner technology

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 123 - 128
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (335 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper will show how diagnostic reasoner technology can be used in the automated test industry. It will briefly explain how diagnostic reasoners can reduce overall logistics support costs by reducing test time and more accurately identifying failed components. It is believed that diagnostic reasoner technology can be applied to both new and legacy test program sets (TPSs) and test systems. The paper will describe some issues and lessons learned while integrating with legacy components and will provide some recommendations that should be considered when designing new test systems and TPSs. View full abstract»

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  • Practical considerations in systems diagnosis using timed failure propagation graph models

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 129 - 136
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1093 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Timed failure propagation graphs (TFPG) are causal models that capture the temporal aspects of failure propagation in dynamic systems. In this paper we present several practical modeling and reasoning considerations that have been addressed based on experience with avionics systems. These include the problem of intermittent faults, handling test alarms, dealing with limited computational resources, and model reduction for large scale systems. View full abstract»

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  • Careful what you wish for - Risk mitigation for unplanned behaviors in distributed diagnostic software systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 137 - 146
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There are several efforts underway to standardize interfaces between software components responsible for various elements of system test and diagnosis. Frameworks currently being defined by the DoD ARI and ATML Consortium seek to define data exchange interfaces across application boundaries with the goals of creating distributed information systems that will realize efficiencies of scale through the reuse of information. This paper makes the case that engineering common sense be applied to minimize the risk associated with ad hoc distributed system design to acceptable levels and realize the expected benefits. This demands that one must gain a sufficient level of understanding of the archetypical information elements within each of the distributed components, the relation of these elements across distributed components, and the transformations that occur as information flows between distributed system components. This understanding can be provided by treating the development of the proposed distributed system as an analytical engineering exercise to understand and model fundamental system component relationships and interactions. View full abstract»

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  • Synthetic instruments options for searching for unknown spurs

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 147 - 151
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper discusses synthetic instrumentation, and its ability to perform demanding measurements like spur searches. It gives a brief overview of synthetic instrumentation, and discusses the justification for moving measurements to synthetic systems. It then discusses a specific demanding measurement, the search for unknown spurs. It outlines the specific challenges faced when making this measurement using a synthetic implementation, as well as the advantages that a synthetic system has over traditional hardware. Possible approaches and solutions are outlined for each of the identified challenges. The paper concludes with a discussion of other possible advances that could be made when using synthetic implementations for these demanding measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Descriptive development system for true instrument synthesis

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 152 - 156
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (347 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Synthetic Instruments are software entities, but there has been little dedicated support for them in available software tools. We claim that given the proper tools, the tasks of specifying, synthesizing, operating and maintaining synthetic instruments are simpler than the same tasks performed with natural instruments. We have developed a comprehensive software environment focused specifically on synthetic instrument technology. This new system fully synthesizes instruments and it does so automatically. Every aspect of the instrument is synthesized: the User Interfaces, the upward Automated Test Equipment drivers, the data persistence in files or databases, the calibration strategy, the visualization, and, of course, the measurement itself. Using this new architecture, we can synthesize, simulate, and implement instruments, automatically without end user coding. View full abstract»

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  • Vector signal analyzer implemented as a synthetic instrument

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 157 - 166
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (830 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Synthetic Instruments use the substantial signal processing assets of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to perform the multiple tasks of targeted digital signal processing (DSP) based instruments. The signal conditioning common to many instruments includes analog spectral translation, filtering, and gain control to align the bandwidth and dynamic range of the input signal to the bandwidth and dynamic range capabilities of the A-to-D converter (ADC) which moves the signal from the analog domain to the sampled data domain. Once in the sampled data domain, the signal processing performed by the FPGA includes digital spectral translation, filtering, and gain control to perform its chartered DSP tasks. A common DSP task is spectral analysis from which frequency dependent (i.e., spectral) amplitude and phase is extracted from an input time signal. Another high interest DSP task is vector signal analysis from which time dependent (i.e., temporal) amplitude and phase is extracted from the input time signal. With access to the time varying amplitude-phase profiles of the input signal, the vector signal analyzer can present many of the quality measures of a modulation process. These include estimates of undesired attributes such as modulator distortion, phase noise, clock-jitter, l-Q imbalance, inter-symbol interference, and others. Here, the boundary between synthetic instruments (SI) and software defined radios (SDR) becomes very thin indeed. Essentially this is where the SI is asked to become a smart SDR, performing all the tasks of a DSP radio receiver and reporting small variations between the observed modulated signal parameters and those of an ideal modulated signal. Various quality measures (e.g., the size of errors) have value in qualifying and probing performance boundaries of communication systems. View full abstract»

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