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Robotic and Sensors Environments, 2007. ROSE 2007. International Workshop on

Date 12-13 Oct. 2007

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  • [Front cover]

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  • Copyright statement [2007 International Workshop on Robotic and Sensors Environments]

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  • Table of contents

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  • An Automated Camera Orientation Recovery Algorithm for an Eye-in-hand Robotic Manipulator

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    A novel approach to recovering the camera orientation of an eye-in-hand robotic manipulator is presented in this paper. The algorithm is completely automated, iteratively performing a sequence of rotations and translations until the camera frame is aligned with the manipulator's world frame. The manipulator must be able to translate and rotate its end-effector with respect to its world frame. We have fully implemented and tested the system on a Stdubli RX60 manipulator using an off-the-shelf Logitech USB camera. View full abstract»

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  • An Enhanced Vision Processing Algorithm for a Micro-manipulation System

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    As the physical sizes of many electrical devices and their components shrink to sometimes only a few microns, expanding dextrousness and obtaining rapidity of a precise micro-manipulation system become one of the major issues in the industry. Especially for an assembly process that handles complicated mechanical alignments of many tiny objects in the three-dimensional space, a proper identification of the alignment errors and a fast decision of manipulation plan should be guaranteed in order to keep the manufacturing costs in an affordable range. In most of the current precise manufacturing processes, identification of the misalignment is normally carried out by machine vision systems. And the limited data process speed of the vision system usually hampers enhancement of overall system performance. In the present work, a modified binary region median filter combined with a labeling based segmentation scheme for the enhancement of a machine vision system is introduced. The suggested algorithm shows not only shows improved data processing speed but provides a better accuracy on the identification of a target object. View full abstract»

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  • Vision-based Exploration Algorithms for Rough Terrain Modeling Using Triangular Mesh Maps

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    The purpose of this paper is to develop a new exploratory approach based on a triangular mesh map for automatic modeling of a large rough agricultural environment. A triangular mesh map was used to represent the agricultural field surface because of its ability to represent large rough areas efficiently. A terrain map is built incrementally during exploration, using 3D image sensor readings. A 3D image sensor model, with attributes similar to a camera or laser sensor, was used in the simulation. A two-stage exploring policy was used to plan the next-best view by considering both the distance and elevation change in the cost function. In the first stage of exploration, the robot travels to the outer boundary between the explored and unexplored terrain, while in the second stage it fills in the hole left by the first stage. Previous work considered distance as the only traveling cost. In this work, the slope factor is also included in the cost function because the mobile robot needs more energy to overcome the changes in elevation. A line sweeping approach based on the bug concept is also presented to identify a path for complete coverage of the terrain. The two methods are implemented and validated in simulation. A complete comparison of the traveling distance, time consumption, and number of scans recorded using the two methods is presented to show the effectiveness of the two-stage exploration algorithm. View full abstract»

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  • Real-time Rotationally Invariant Features for Environmental Feature Detection by Mobile Robots Sensor Networks

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    We introduce a mobile and/ or remote sensor framework for computationally fast rotationally invariant feature detection. The sensor and computational system is small enough to be carried by a mobile robot platform with a relatively low power requirement allowing the system to be deployed without the need for frequent recharges of the batteries. The rotationally invariant Haar-like features are introduced and evaluated both at feature level and in classifiers. Other invariant approaches such as moment based approaches do not offer the same discriminatory power as the Haar-like rotationally invariant features to detect complex objects such as hands and faces. View full abstract»

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  • Integrated Sensor System for Humidity Sensing of Robots Using Analog Mixed CMOS Technology

    Page(s): 1 - 4
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    Integrated humidity sensor system with Op amp was designed using analog mixed CMOS technology and their electrical properties were investigated. The integrated sensor system consisted of Wheatstone-bridge HUSFET (humidity sensitive field effect transistors) sensor blocks, a resistive humidity sensor block, a diode temperature sensor, and Op amp blocks. Simulated Op amp revealed that DC gain was over 84 dB, unity gain bandwidth was about 10 Mhz, and slew rate was over 10 V/uS. The drain current of an n-type HUSFET increased from 0.83 to 1.14 mA as relative humidity increases from 10 to 70 %RH.. View full abstract»

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  • Lossless Compression Techniques in Wireless Sensor Networks: Monitoring Microacoustic Emissions

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3279 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Collapse of rock faces and stability assessment of buildings is related to the geological substrate or the nature of the concrete and the presence of fractures which influence the stability properties of the envisaged material. A wireless sensor network-based approach has been suggested to monitor crack formation which, due to the high sampling rate of sensors, requires both online temporal identification of the event and compression of the same before transmittal to a remote control room (the action containing the energy consumption of the unit by triggering and reducing the radio activity). The paper proposes a simple -yet effective-algorithm for detecting microacoustic emissions generated by formation/organization of cracks and identifies a suitable lossless technique for microacoustic event compression. Finally, to satisfy real time performance, the optimal processing chain has been implemented on a FPGA chip to be mounted onto the WSN units. View full abstract»

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  • A Wheel-Claw Hybrid Manipulator and its Grasping Stability for the Mobile Robot Rolling/Crawling Along Flexible Cable

    Page(s): 1 - 6
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    A new type of wheel-claw hybrid manipulator for the mobile robot rolling/crawling along flexible cable with obstacles is put forward in this paper. First design the schematic of such wheel-claw hybrid manipulator, which is consisted of one driving wheel-claw and driving unit, and seven driven wheel-claws. Second, derive the static force and moment equilibrium equations of the hybrid manipulator. Then, adopt the grasping stability configuration theory of multi-fingered robotic hands to obtain its grasping stability evaluation function. Last optimize the stable grasping conditions of such wheel-claw hybrid manipulator by utilizing stability performance evaluating indicators. The proposed wheel-crawl hybrid manipulator is available for stably grasping the flexible cable and the obstacles along the moving flexible path. View full abstract»

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  • Robotic Interaction with Deformable Objects under Vision and Tactile Guidance - a Review

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    This paper overviews the modern concepts adopted by the robotics community during the past decade related to 3D deformable object grasping and manipulation mainly guided by vision and force/tactile sensing. It also examines the new trends on rigid objects manipulation which can be extended to deformable objects. This constitutes a challenging area of research because of the complexity of interactions between the robot manipulator and the deformable object due to its deformation. To this effect, there are many issues to be considered in order to develop a truly autonomous robotic system that can successfully manipulate 3D deformable objects. This investigation concludes by proposing viable solutions for designing an intelligent robotic framework to manipulate 3D deformable objects without any human intervention. View full abstract»

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  • Time-Delay Compensation and Disturbance Rejection in the Control of Robots with Visco-elastic Joints Using Loop-Shaping Approach

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3997 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In many medical applications, it is necessary to precisely control a robot to achieve exact positioning. In such cases, some components of robot which had been considered rigid should be modeled with visco-elastic elements to present more exact model of robot, and hence controllers designed under the assumption of rigidity may not accurately control them, especially when time-delay and disturbances have been appeared in the closed-loop system. In this study, we present a new control approach to force such robots to have rigid and exact motions, while they have visco-elastic components. Time-delay in the feedback path defects transient state response, while disturbances change the steady state response. Therefore different controllers are required to correct the robot behaviors. In this regard, robot dynamics is extracted and converted to the characteristic equation. Then, by an appropriate system identification method, an order-reduced model is obtained. Loop-shaping technique is exploited on the magnitude frequency response to design different model-based controllers for principal zones of the frequency response. The simulation results illustrate appropriate time-delay compensation and disturbance rejection in the time response. View full abstract»

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  • Artificial Neural Network Control of a Flexible-Joint Manipulator Under Unstructured Dynamic Uncertainties

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    This paper proposes a position control strategy based on artificial neural networks (ANN) in the face of structured and unstructured dynamic uncertainties. The control structure consists of a feedforward multilayer perceptron (MLP) to approximate the manipulator's inverse dynamics online, a feedback radial basis function (RBF) neural network to compensate for the residual errors, and a reference model that defines the desired error dynamics. The online adaptation of the RBF neural network is is accomplished through two methods: (i) the least mean squares (LMS), and (ii) the recursive least squares (RLS) algorithms. A comparison study is conducted to evaluate the efficiency of both algorithms on the tracking ability of the proposed control scheme. Simulation results highlight the performance of the proposed control structures in compensating for the highly nonlinear unknown dynamics of the manipulator and its robustness in the presence of model imperfections. View full abstract»

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  • Design, Control and Implementation of 2-DOF Motion Tracking Platform using Drive-Anti Drive Mechanism for Compensation of Backlash

    Page(s): 1 - 6
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    This paper is concerned with the elimination/reduction of Backlash, which is a source of problem in precision of mechanical design of tracking platforms. A lot of work has been done to eliminate/reduce backlash and development of harmonic drives, pressurized gears and pre-loaded gears is of great importance, but these techniques for backlash reduction are very expensive and not readily available. Backlash models have been developed and different control schemes using these models are designed, but due to these models control scheme becomes very difficult to implement, so this technique to eliminate backlash is not so feasible. In this research work we have presented new cost effective technique to reduce/eliminate backlash, which is easy to implement, we name this technique as drive-anti drive mechanism. The results illustrate that we have developed two degree of freedom platform using this technique quite successfully. This paper describes all the processes for the simulations and implementation of this scheme. View full abstract»

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  • Hexapod Robot Locomotion using a Fuzzy Controller

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    Fuzzy logic has features that are of particular interest in the area of mobile robotics that allow a system to operate smoothly in light of some uncertainty and imprecision. This paper presents a fuzzy logic controller for a hexapod robot that is able to move freely on an uneven surface environment without tipping over. The robot has the feel of the surface it's on through touch sensors located at the bottom of each of the six legs. View full abstract»

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  • Sensors and Robotic Environment for Care of the Elderly

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    This paper describes some development work of a system for elder care configured around sensors and robotic environment. A few sub-systems have been amalgamated to achieve the desired objective. The integrated system is able to support people who wish to live alone but, because of old age, ill health or disability, are at risk and are a cause of concern for their family and friends. The first part of the integrated system, named Selective Activity Monitoring (SAM) system, works on the principle of using sensor units (SU) to monitor various electrical appliances in a house. Rules, based on the daily activities of a person, are defined for the appliances to be monitored. The system can detect violation of the rules and generate an alarm. The rules are flexible and can be user-defined. The second part of the system is a low-cost Physiological Parameters Monitoring (PPM) system, called Medicmate, which can be used to monitor physiological parameters of a human subject such as body temperature, blood oxygen level and heart rate. It can also detect a fall. The third part of the system is a Web-enabled, robot-based vision system. The robot, operating in a home environment, can be remote controlled by a computer over the Internet. The camera, mounted on the robot, can be used to send a picture of the affected area. View full abstract»

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  • A Hierarchical LLC Routing Algorithm for WSNs

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    In WSNs and tiny cooperating wireless robots, unit and communication faults (permanent or transient), energy availability for the units and environmental changes may modify the communication network topology over time. Traditional hierarchical routing algorithms combine adaptability to changing environments with energy-aware aspects. In this paper we propose a k-level hierarchical extension to low-power localized clustering (LLC). For the first time, we take into account the effects introduced by finite unit bandwidth on the routing capabilities of the proposed algorithm. A second novel content of the paper is that, differently from the existing algorithms, the proposed solution guarantees a uniform distribution of alive units in the deployment area. This feature is particularly appealing since it is associated with the QoS of the network over time. The effectiveness of the suggest approach has been validated with a large experimental campaign. View full abstract»

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  • eBML: A Formal Language for Behavior Modeling and Application Development in Robotic Collectives

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    The new trend of miniaturizing the electronic devices leads to the necessity of small, relatively independent entities which can interact with each other and with other entities forming collective, associative environments. This paper describes the formal specification of the eBML modeling language and its use in programming intelligent terminals like robots or intelligent sensor nodes which compose such collaborative robotic environments. View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive Teleoperation of a Mobile Robot under Communication Time Delay

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    In this paper, we present a concept of adaptive teleoperation of a mobile robot, and describe the theoretical background and experimental results with a real mobile robot. It is not so easy for users to operate a mobile robot in remote environment by observing video sequence of the robot's view, because the communication time delay in both control and image data becomes a serious problem. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a novel method by utilizing a predicted image sequence generated from the image history obtained from the on-board camera on the robot. Moreover, the robot is operated not only by direct human's operation, but also in an autonomous manner according to the situation. We discuss that this adaptation mechanism plays an important role in the remote-controlled robot under communication time delay. View full abstract»

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  • Implementation of Sensors and Control Paradigm for a Hybrid Mobile Robot Manipulator for Search and Rescue Operations

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    This paper presents the control paradigm and embedded sensors for a mobile robot manipulator whereby the mobile platform and manipulator arm are designed as one entity to support both locomotion and manipulation simultaneously and interchangeably in several configuration modes. Along with the description of the novel design architecture, we developed, constructed and tested a novel paradigm for on-board RF data communication among robot's joints. This paper also describes the sensor and camera layout and their implementation in the mobile robot manipulator. A modular and extensible power source system design with major key elements that allow for easy reconfiguration and expansion was also developed, implemented and tested for the hybrid mobile robot manipulator. View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent Parallel Parking of a Car-like Mobile Robot Using RFID Technology

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    This paper is devoted to design and implement an intelligent control scheme for a car-like mobile robot that possesses an automatic parallel parking capability using Radio Frequency IDen-tification (RFID) technology. The present manuscript focuses on the navigation module of the overall parking system. Navigation using a few analogue features of an RFID system is a promising alternative to a variety of existing navigation techniques in the state of the art. The proposed approach exploits the ability of a mobile robot to navigate in an unstructured environment and park itself parallel to a wall using RFID tags and some analogue features provided by the RFID system interfaced with the mobile robot. This paper describes how this is achieved by placing the RFID tags in unknown three dimensional positions on the wall within the workspace. A number of computer simulations are carried out to manifest the distinguished features of the proposed technique. View full abstract»

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  • Autonomous Stair Climbing with Reconfigurable Tracked Mobile Robot

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    Mobile robots have been developed for surveillance, reconnaissance and inspection as well as for operation in hazardous environments. Some are intended to explore not only natural terrains but also artificial environments, including stairs. This paper explores algorithms to autonomously climb stairs. The algorithms were derived and implemented for a specific mobile robot with the ability to traverse such obstacles by changing its tracks configuration. Furthermore, algorithms have been developed for conditions under which the mobile robot halts its motion during the climbing process when at risk of flipping over or falling down. The technical problems related to the implementation of some of these functions have been identified and analyzed, and their solutions validated and tested. The algorithms and solutions were validated experimentally, illustrating the effectiveness of autonomous climbing of stairs. View full abstract»

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  • Study on Image Definition Function Based on Power-spectra Analysis

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    The image that is in focus has the sharper edge. The edge information gotten by Fourier transform corresponds to the higher part in the frequency domain. So the value of the image power-spectra can be used to represent the image definition. This paper analyses the essential property of the image power-spectra. The study indicates that the curves of the image power-spectra are similar in spite of different image contents. The image definition function has been constructed based on the definition of the image power-spectra. And the simulation indicates that the image definition function is obvious, no-bias, single-peaked in variation, high in the ratio of signal to noise, little in the computation quantity, excellent in the focusing performance and can reflect off-focus characteristics. View full abstract»

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