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Avionics, Fiber-Optics and Photonics Technology Conference, 2007 IEEE

Date 2-5 Oct. 2007

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  • Technical Program Committee and Meeting Chairs

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  • AVFOP 2004

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  • Table of contents

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  • RF Photonics Challenges on Aerospace Platforms

    Page(s): 1 - 2
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (171 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There are enormous benefits and serious challenges in the deployment of RF photonics on aerospace platforms. Single mode wave division multiplexing (WDM) is considered in this paper in meeting the need for a low loss, light weight, and high bandwidth RF signal distribution system. Other papers presented at the 2002 21st IEEE Digital Avionics Systems Conference [1] and the 2004 SAE World Aviation Conference [2] expand on this topic. View full abstract»

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  • Considerations for Application of RF-over-Fiber to Navy Systems

    Page(s): 3 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (137 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The superior distance-bandwidth product of optical fiber communications has led to the development of a wide array of active and passive optical/optoelectronic components for the digital data communication industry. The cable television (CATV) industry has been the primary driver for development of high performance analog fiber optic links. RF-over-fiber offers advantages for military RF signal distribution, primarily antenna remoting, as such there is significant interest in leveraging the commercial developments noted above for these military applications. Because the link distances for many of these military applications are often so short that the RF performance is poorer than a design using copper coax or waveguide, the adoption of RF-over-fiber in deployed systems has been limited. This has motivated continuing development of link components and designs to improve link performance. This paper will summarize system-level metrics relevant to Navy antenna remoting applications, discuss an example deployed system, and conclude with an update on recent improvements in analog link components/performance. View full abstract»

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  • Fiber-Optics for Future EW Platforms

    Page(s): 5 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (261 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An enabling technology for next-generation EW systems is an all fiber optic backplane. Fiber optic systems are rapidly evolving and this paper will review the application of fiber optics for aircraft and specifically EW applications. View full abstract»

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  • Analog Phase Modulation for Avionics Applications

    Page(s): 7 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (234 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Radio-frequency (RF) photonics and fiber optics play an important role in future airborne applications, leveraging advantages over traditional RF cabling such as decreased size and weight, increased flexibility, lower signal loss in fiber, larger bandwidth, and invulnerability to electromagnetic interference. In military electromagnetic warfare applications, RF links can be used route microwave signals throughout the airframe where analog-to-digital conversion is not practical or possible. Traditionally, intensity modulation with direct detection architectures have been proposed for such links, but here we suggest phase modulation with interferometric detection as an alternative. Phase modulation with interferometric detection (La Gasse and Thanivyavarn, 1997) offers numerous advantages over intensity modulation with direct detection. For example, a phase modulator requires no electronics as opposed to a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM), which requires a quadrature bias voltage. This is particularly advantageous in airborne applications where the modulator may be required in a harsh environment such as on the wingtip or in a sensor pod. In addition, the ruggedization of a phase modulator should be more practical than that for the multi-path MZM architecture, owing to a phase modulator's relative simplicity. The authors show that phase modulation with interferometric detection can outperform intensity modulation with direct detection in terms of all RF performance metrics. While not of immediate concern in avionic applications, where the transmission lengths do not exceed a few hundred meters, the constant-intensity phase modulation format is also less susceptible to fiber nonlinearities. The tradeoffs for the benefits afforded by phase modulation with interferometric detection are reduced bandwidth and increased complexity at the terminal end of the RF link. View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic Pulse Shaping and Applications

    Page(s): 9 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (202 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electromagnetic pulse shapers based on optical pulse processing techniques provide unparalleled waveform agility. By allowing user control of both the RF spectral amplitude and phase, we demonstrate these systems can compensate for electrical distortions experienced by broadband waveforms (here, from radiation from a broadband antenna). We believe these pulse shapers to be an enabling technology for airborne applications such as impulsive radio and radar. View full abstract»

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  • Multi-Octave Microwave Transmission Over Fiber with a Single Optical Phase Modulator

    Page(s): 11 - 12
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Optical phase modulators (PMs) present advantages over Mach-Zehnder intensity modulators (MZMs) for microwave signal relay applications, including lower optical loss and bias-free operation (Bucholtz et al., 2006). However, unlike quadrature-biased MZMs, PMs do not automatically suppress second-order harmonic and sum/difference frequencies, limiting their utility to suboctave signals. The authors describe recent experimental results that show suppression of second-order distortion using a single PM by adapting a previously reported technique by Haas and Murphy (2007). This development enables broadband operation of an optical PM link with a spur-free dynamic range (SFDR) as good as that of a traditional MZM-based link. View full abstract»

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  • Wideband Agile Receiver: An Integrated Photonic Electronic Digital Receiver for RF Sensing

    Page(s): 13 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (171 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Wideband Agile Receiver (WAR) merges advanced photonics and a high dynamic range digital receiver to create a novel hardware prototype for the sensing and communication systems that are the 'eyes and ears' of the war fighter. Unlike conventional receivers, WAR employs a photonics front end using an advanced electro-absorption modulator (EAM) developed at Lockheed Martin's Commercial Space Systems (CSS). A benefit of the photonics front end is the flexibility to decentralize radio frequency (RF) sensors on a mobile platform and to route the received signals via fiber optics to a central location for digital processing. In addition, WAR leverages an ultra-high frequency (UHF) sampling digital receiver developed under the DARPA Advanced Digital Receiver Technology program along with a new digital signal processing integrated circuits developed at Lockheed Martin's MS2. The integration of these enabling technologies opens the possibility for new RF receiver architectures that enhance the detection of RF signals of interest over a wider frequency spectrum crowded with strong RF energy or environmental interference. View full abstract»

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  • Towards RF Photonic Integrated Ciruits

    Page(s): 15 - 16
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (207 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper will examine the potential to integrate commercially sourced chip-level RF photonic components onto an optical substrate. In many photonic signal processing applications, increasing the number of components can lead to an increase in performance of the system, and therefore provide increased capability. View full abstract»

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  • Hybrid Analog-Digital Fiber Optic Network for Aircraft Communication and Control

    Page(s): 17 - 18
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Fiber optic networks are currently deployed throughout an aircraft to allow communication between the various systems on-board. Fibers offer the advantage of reduced weight, higher bandwidth and immunity to electromagnetic interference over traditional coaxial cabling. Typically, one network carries digital data from one on-board system to another, while another takes analog data for electronic warfare applications received from an external source and sends it to a central on-board system [1]. In order to reduce the complexity and maintenance of multiple fiber networks, it would be advantageous to use a single fiber network over which both types of signals could travel. Previous work has looked at combining both analog and digital signals over the same fiber [2, 3]. However these demonstrations required the analog signal to operate at a frequency beyond that of the digital data. In this paper we demonstrate a system to transmit both analog and digital signals within the same frequency bands over the same fiber network with minimal degradation of either signal due to interference from the other. View full abstract»

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  • A Suppressed Carrier Ring Laser Oscillator for Coherent Analog Optical Links

    Page(s): 19 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (181 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A suppressed carrier modulator was incorporated into a fiber ring oscillator as an intracavity suppressed carrier transmitter for coherent analog optical links. With a DCFR and an UNBF, a single mode ring laser operation was observed and a SFDR of 105 dB/Hz2/3 was demonstrated. Further improvement on SFDR is possible if higher optical power is applied to MZ as well as balanced photodetector and low loss side-band filter are used. This novel suppressed carrier transceiver could provide a significantly larger SFDR than is possible using direct detection or conventional coherent detection. Ultimately, this transceiver scheme may be developed into an ultra-compact total on-chip design for applications. View full abstract»

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  • Free Space Optical Communications (FSO)

    Page(s): 21
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (102 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Free space optical communications (FSO) is now common for point to point communications between fixed locations on land, and is also used for communication between moving platforms on land, on the surface of the sea, in air, and in space. Free space implies that it is not practical to use optical fiber to connect the points that need to communicate or exchange telemetry data. After the cold war in the new environment of GWOT, U.S. submarines are capable of accomplishing missions that would require them to be at periscope depth, communicating critical information at high data rate with the other moving platforms. Submarines' covert surveillance abilities are capable of attaining important tactical information, however, that information may be of greatest value when it is communicated in real time, at high fidelity, to other platforms that are participating in joint operations and to high level decision makers. Free space optical communications (FSO) can provide covert, difficult to jam or intercept, high speed, broadband connectivity for submarines with other platforms. In addition, there are test scenarios that include requirements for telemetry of large volumes of data. Free space optical communications (FSO) would provide the infrastructure to support those telemetry requirements. This paper will discuss the current implementations of free space optical communications (FSO) and telemetry, and will describe concepts for integrating this capability into the existing and future DoD and submarine applications. View full abstract»

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  • Weight and Size Reduction by Integrating Avionic Optical Components

    Page(s): 22 - 23
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (157 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent developments in the study of condensing several electro-optical properties such as single frequency light generation, modulation, light monitoring, multiplexing (Mux) and optical mode shaping into one monolithic, InP based photonic integrated circuit (PIC), together with advances in silicon planar light-guide circuits (PLC) allow the design of light-weight, compact, rugged, lower cost optical transmitters and receivers. Depending upon the avionics' transmission capacity application, one compact set of a coarse wave division multiplex (CWDM) transmitter and receiver, each with a single mode fiber (SMF) connection can provide full duplex transmission to 100 Gbps. These 2 components can replace 20 or more package bodies, 20 sets of lens, 20 submounts, 10 isolators, 20 fiber connections and 20 fibers with the corresponding reduction in weight and size. This paper summarizes the advantages of monolithic PIC and hybrid PLC optical components for transmission capacities up to 100 Gbps at individual wavelength channel speeds up to 10 Gbps using CWDM. View full abstract»

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  • Fiber Optic Considerations for Insertion into Legacy Avionics Platforms

    Page(s): 24 - 25
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (152 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Modern avionics have created requirements for the insertion of fiber-optic technologies. Applications, such as fly by light, net-centric warfare, high fidelity sensing and in-flight entertainment find utility in the increased bandwidth of fiber optic networks. In addition, in applications involving standoff jamming (SOJ) and radar sensing, there is a need for electromagnetic interference (EMI) immune systems. In still other systems, there is a drive to decreasing weight, where fiber optics can be a solution. When considering the replacement of electronics with fiber optics in legacy avionics systems, it is sometimes unclear whether fiber-optic technologies will lead to an overall benefit. At times, fiber optics are inserted without a rigorous analysis of the benefits. In this paper, we define some considerations for fiber optics insertion and derive a rubric to serve as a guideline for insertion. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Secure Platform for Avionic Applications Based on Optical CDMA

    Page(s): 26 - 27
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We designed, built, and demonstrated a novel optical CDMA-based platform running at OC-24 data rate, with three users and one eavesdropper. Error-free operation with BER better than 10-12 was achieved. Based on our simulations, the testbed can support ten simultaneous users with BER<10-9. Novel "dual-code" OCDMA transmitter and receiver were designed and demonstrated to deliver more secure data transmission approaching One-time Pad security by implementing optical layer XOR and having the capability to perform bit-to-bit code swapping. The testbed was developed under DARPA contract and delivered to Lockheed Martin for further performance evaluations in different avionic applications. View full abstract»

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  • Optics for Information Assurance on Platforms

    Page(s): 28 - 29
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We will outline and assess future optical LAN infrastructure approaches that can use optics to enable multi-independent level security (MILS) systems on mobile platforms with improved size, weight, and power (Swap) and a 1000-fold increased throughput over traditional system approaches. Although we will focus on the role of optics to support secure optical communications, this comprises only one of several "independent" conceptual layers of separation that includes applications, middleware, separation kernels, partitioning communication systems, network interfaces, memory, and peripheral hardware. We will contrast the degree of confidentiality supported by optics with traditional security schemes and show their impact on the MILS system architecture. View full abstract»

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  • OCDM-Based All Optical Multi-Level Security

    Page(s): 30 - 31
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (246 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Faced with the demand for high capacity communication in avionics there is growing interest to deploy fiber optic networks. With the introduction of optics in avionics, an optical physical layer that can support multilevel security (MLS) is needed. Using different fibers (space division multiplexing) is an obvious choice. In wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks, different security levels are carried through different optical windows. However, WDM enabled MLS is susceptible to eavesdropping through inter-window cross talk. Recently we introduced a new concept of OCDM methodology based on a passive spectral phase encoding (SPE) scheme that is compatible with WDM networks and offers photonic layer security (PLS). This compatibility is achieved through the ability to access and modify optical phase of tightly spaced phase locked laser lines with high resolution. The next level of MLS beyond WDM is offered by providing the proper recipient its unique OCDM code, without which inadvertent leakage of signal cannot be deciphered. A higher level of security that is robust to both exhaustive search and archival attacks can also be offered through phase scrambling of the inverse multiplexed tributaries of the high data rate aggregate signal. In this presentation we summarize our all optical passive OCDM methodology that has been studied for terrestrial WDM networks and underline its size, weight and power (SWaP) figures of merit for MLS in avionics. View full abstract»

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  • Progress Towards a Virtual Quadrant Receiver for 4-ary Pulse Position Modulation/Optical Code Division Multiple Access (4-ary PPM/O-CDMA) Networks

    Page(s): 32 - 33
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (589 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We described the concept, numerical simulation, and physical implementation of a virtual quadrant receiver for 4-ary PPM/O-CDMA. The simulations show the joint impact of MAI and OBI on the receiver output (constellation plot). The receiver operation was demonstrated with a physical implementation that can be ultimately integrated as a PLC-based device. View full abstract»

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  • Development of a Scalable WDM LAN for Avionics Networking

    Page(s): 34 - 35
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (69 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The SAE AS-5659 subcommittee has undertaken the ambitious goal of drafting a standard for Aerospace WDM LANs. The backbone networks that this standard defines will transform the communications infrastructure in future platforms, providing a level of flexibility and scalability that is unattainable in existing architectures. In doing so, the organization of the vehicle will evolve from separate subsystems, communicating over closed interconnects, to an integrated, reconfigurable, upgradeable platform, where the cable infrastructure is installed once, and persists for the duration of the life-cycle. View full abstract»

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