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Management of Engineering and Technology, Portland International Center for

Date 5-9 Aug. 2007

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  • Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology

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  • [Copyright notice]

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  • Preface

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  • Dedication

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  • Board of Directors

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  • Executive Committee

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  • Program Committee

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  • Acknowledgments

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  • Student Paper Award Winner

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  • Table of contents

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  • Business-IT Alignment Strategies: A Conceptual Modeling

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (799 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Three commonly used business-IT alignment strategies are parallelism, profile-matching and leadership synergy. All these strategies provide alignment results for the moment but do not provide a sustainable framework over a period of time. As a result, business functions, especially IT function, once aligned with the core business, lose the alignment dynamics after a period of time. An alignment framework based on organization's maturity time-scale and capital allocation methodologies provides a premise on how business and IT can be aligned strategically over time. A transparent value system that allows business and IT assess the results of collaborative actions acts as a measuring scale of the effectiveness of that framework. The main theme of this paper is to propose a strategy framework that can be utilized by core business and IT function continually over the entire maturity life-cycle. View full abstract»

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  • How Firms Leave a Mark in the Industry?: A Business Transformation Perspective - Definitions, Concepts and Frameworks

    Page(s): 6 - 21
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8533 KB)  

    Summary form only given. Much of what is done by firms to achieve business transformation need not be rocket science. Ideas can be simple but their execution makes all the difference, be it the example of Wal Mart's cross-docking technique or Progressive Insurance's competitive price tracking. The authors have observed about 90 firms undertake some form of transformation. About 15 firms are studied and referred in the paper for their stated accomplishments in business transformation to find common patterns and trends. The rest 75 firms were studied by virtue of the entries for the Wharton Infosys Business Transformation Awards (WIBTA). The research team looked at data including competitor pitches, analyst reports, and boutique consulting organizations that focus in the area, client inputs, academic journals and trade press. The authors brought out an analysis of how various firms define business transformation, compared with available definitions within Infosys and presented the business transformation definition and its concepts. The authors further present a framework that highlights the process of transition of firms possessing a 'potential' to transform to being 'truly' transformational. The detailed step by step process underlying the framework is presented. A first cut draft was created and bounced off with a small team of senior practitioners within Infosys. Thus an eclectic approach comprising of 15 detailed case studies, delphi method using purposive and snowball sampling together with an questionnaire was adopted to present the definitions, concepts and underling frameworks of Business Transformation. View full abstract»

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  • The Study of Taxonomy and Evolutional Trends of Relevant Literatures on Patent Analysis

    Page(s): 22 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3477 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Analysis of patent data is important tool for industrial research. Patent analysis has been used in many research fields and applied for rich topics in technology management. This study was explored the classification and research development of patent analysis literatures for 24 years (1980-2003) and applied by evolutional perspectives, and bibliometrics techniques. The research scope is focused on business and management level. There were some significant literatures retrieved from online electronic database and a citation database was built by their references. After that, the study was analyzed by multivariate methods to classify research taxonomy and literatures relative positions. The study was expected to understanding of current situation of patent analysis research. Additionally, the main purposes of this study were to synthesize core knowledge and research trends in research fields, to point out the major contributors and influential journals, to understand their positions, and to explore evolution life cycle. The research results are classified into five research fields, namely the sources of technology knowledge, patent applications and patent value, patent research and technology position, the indicators of technological and innovative activities, and interdisciplinary applications. View full abstract»

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  • Technology Management Maturity of Enterprises: An Analysis Based on Four Industries in China

    Page(s): 31 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1383 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a research on technology management maturity of enterprises. The purpose is to develop an understanding of what technology management maturity is and to investigate the technology management maturity of enterprises in four industries in China. The investigation also has the practical purpose of supporting China's enterprises to develop their capabilities of technology management. Technology management maturity itself is measured along three dimensions. They are resource, organization, and quality. The different dimensions of maturity are measured respectively, and then the overall maturity is calculated, which should provide a good understanding of the technology management maturity. A questionnaire is developed based on this understanding of technology management maturity, and a survey on four industries in China has been conducted. The result of the survey shows that the highest technology management maturity is found in the aerospace industries, which on average scored highly on most dimensions. Other industries (petrochemical industry, manufacturing industry, and paging services industry) display some interesting differences in different domains. The differences are explained and suggestions for promoting technology management maturity are proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Practical Framework of Manufacturing Technology Management for Efficient Cooperation between Design and Manufacturing Sections

    Page(s): 38 - 44
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8692 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One of the most important issues in technology management at manufacturing companies is establishing practical methodologies for efficient integration of product design technologies for creating competitive functions and manufacturing technologies for producing high-quality, low-cost products with a short lead time. Many research studies concerning cooperation between product design and manufacturing technology sections have been reported, such as concurrent engineering and design for manufacturability. However, in these research studies, concrete management methods and practical frameworks from the viewpoint of manufacturing technology were not fully discussed. In this paper, a practical management framework of the manufacturing technology management required for promoting efficient cooperation between product design and manufacturing technology sections are discussed and proposed, with references to actual applications, as one of the methodologies of manufacturing technology management for strengthening the competitiveness of manufacturing industries. View full abstract»

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  • Intangible Assets and Cost of Capital: An Application for a Technology Utilizing Firm

    Page(s): 45 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1093 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Intangible assets, which are not physical in nature, play a very important role in today's firms. However, current financial statements provide very little information about these assets. Thus, managers are constrained to recognize and report them that lead to flawed information about a firm's cost of capital. This is the opportunity cost of an investment; that is the rate of return, which a company would otherwise be able to earn at the same risk level as the investment that has been selected. This paper examines the linkage between intangible assets and the cost of capital of a technology-utilizing firm. First, the basic concepts about intangible assets are presented. Then, the relationship between intangible assets and cost of capital are explained. Finally, an application in a technology-utilizing firm is carried out, the results are evaluated, and future recommendations are proposed. View full abstract»

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  • Innovation and Technological Convergence: An Assessment of Critical Resources of Telecommunications Service Providers Using Resource Based View and Dynamic Capabilities

    Page(s): 52 - 63
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2388 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many telecommunications service provider already dispose of the structure to provide convergent services, although they did not reach an increase on sales in accord with market, investors, and customer's expectations. Most of the incumbents is running their businesses based on a few "cash cow" services. The introduction of new telecommunications services seems not to follow the same rate of technological innovations in networks' platforms and end user's devices. This article has focused its analysis in the capabilities and competencies required in a fast change business and technological environment. An alternative strategic analysis was developed using Resource Based View - RBV, Dynamic Capabilities, and Complementary Assets to analyze the innovation strategy of telecommunications service providers - TSP in Brazil since deregulation and privatization in the 90s. New technological standards and customers needs require new organizational capabilities and competencies. Under the RBV and Dynamic Capabilities conceptual framework, we examined traditional TSP's business models and organizational boundaries against the new virtual telecommunications service providers - VSP (ex. Skype, MSM, Vanco). The article concludes with a brief discussion of what directions the TSP should take in terms of organization, outsourcing, integrative and collaborative strategies to carry out the benefits of technological advancements to the consumer market. View full abstract»

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  • A Corporation Niche Analysis of Strategic Alliance

    Page(s): 64 - 69
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1093 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There are many ways to study the formation and stability of strategic alliance. We study the strategic alliance formation and symbiosis relation among the corporations in the alliance by the niche theory, and we conclude that there is a symbiosis among the corporations in strategic alliance of the corporation ecosystem. If the corporations are in the same niche, we can reduce the direct competition by separating the corporation niche, make full use of all members' resources and integrate their competency to reach win-win for the strategic alliance. View full abstract»

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  • Effects of Technology Cycles on Strategic Alliances

    Page(s): 70 - 85
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3798 KB)  

    This study examines various issues related to the formation of strategic alliances by using the cyclical model of technological change constructed by Tushman & Anderson (1986). Technology cycles offer a useful evolutionary perspective on shaping technology trajectories. The evolution of technology is a result of technological, social and political factors. The four stages in the model include technological variation (stage I), era of ferment (stage II), technology selection (stage III), and technology retention (stage TV). Within each of the four stages, issues related to the formation of strategic alliances - motivations, governance modes, and the selection of partners - are explored. The association between the cyclical model of technological change and the formation of alliances is empirically tested in response to the statement that a missing link exists for empirically validating the model of technology cycles. Specific research questions include: How will the context of cyclical stages of technological change affect the formation of strategic alliances? In other words, will different types of resources and capabilities be most valuable at different stages of technological change? How well does Tushman and Anderson's theory of technology cycles explain technology's impact on the formation of strategic alliances? Data were 594 alliances in the semiconductor industry from the Securities Data Corporation. Findings showed that the model of technological change is a useful framework in studying strategic alliances. More specifically, at the technology variation stage, innovation-driven alliances are the most important motives. Firms lack of promising technologies tend to select firms with promising technologies. Firms with promising technologies tend to select firms with complementary capabilities. At the era of ferment, both innovation- and efficiency-driven alliances for old technologies are the most important motives. Dominant industry players in either th- - e semiconductor industry or other industries surprisingly are not the favorable alliance partners. At the stage of technology selection, manufacturing-type of alliances for new technologies are the most important motives. The more frequently adopted alliance modes are the ones with high control mechanisms and with equity involvement. Partners located either upstream or downstream the focal firm are the most favorable choices. At the technology retention stage, market-driven alliances are the most important motives. However, firms in different industries or established firms in targeted markets are not favorable alliance partners. This study contributes to the literature in two ways: First, it empirically tested the cyclical model of technological change by Tushman and Anderson (1986) and linked the effects of technology cycles with studies on strategic alliances. Second, it empirically validates the argument that certain types of resources are most advantageous under particular technological conditions at various stages of technology cycles. The model provides rich settings to study how firms cope with their technical environment. View full abstract»

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  • Enterprise Technology Management Maturity Model and Application

    Page(s): 86 - 90
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1657 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In retrospect the human history, the economic development is concerned with technology. Technology is the huge force that pushes forward the economic development. In the current knowledge-economic period, technology has become an important asset in an organization, especially in an enterprise. Consequently, technology management has emerged as an issue that managers have to deal with. Therefore, this paper aims to construct a technology management maturity model to evaluate the differences of enterprises' technology management practices. An enterprise will be taken as an example to illustrate the application of this model and discuss how to support the practices at each maturity level in a certain enterprise by using this model. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamics of Innovation Strategies in the Optical Memories Industry: An Analysis Based on Patent Indicators

    Page(s): 91 - 104
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6345 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Technological innovation is characterized by a searching activity of optimal alternatives which is fundamentally dominated by an intense activity addressed to identify and solve technical problems. As components recombination is a very efficient source of innovation that firms widely resort to, the capability to recombine pieces of knowledge available in the organization or transferable from the outside becomes an important lever in the technological innovation strategy of the firm. Here a conceptualization which considers technological innovation as an outcome of a change of either the technological components or a diverse combination of the components themselves is adopted. Data relative to granted patents were considered. The assumption is that every patent is the outcome of the combination of a number of technological components associated to the sub-classes of the classification standard adopted. These sub-classes can be indirectly utilized to observe the search and the dynamics of technological innovation strategies. The sample includes 438 patents granted between 1975 and 2004 to 15 leading firms in the optical memory devices industry. The Fleming familiarity and Herfindahl concentration indexes are calculated to analyse innovation strategies. View full abstract»

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  • Strategic Management in a Multi-Program Technology Program Involving Convergence and Divergence of Programs: Observations from NASA

    Page(s): 105 - 112
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3650 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper contributes a framework for dealing with complex, technical program transitions. This paper offers a framework of strategic management tools. Tools such as scenario planning, organizational roadmaps, objectives, and measures are integrated into a systematic planning process. Using the KSC response to the new NASA Vision for Space Exploration, this paper offers a framework of strategy tools that leads from initial analysis to the business plan. An engineering manager can use this paper to follow a simple set of steps and tools to help manage strategy for an organizational transformation. View full abstract»

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  • The Study on the Technology Finance Policy for Technology Development on the Value Chain Based Innovation System

    Page(s): 113 - 118
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2109 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The more information asymmetry is growing up, the more inefficiency of the financial allocation increases. This inefficiency becomes larger in the financial allocation of technology innovation because technology innovation has the characteristic of high risk and it makes the capital for technology riskier. The government intervention gets the justification in that it can correct this market failure and it enables the fast catching up, specially, in the developing country. The important point is that how the political intervention of government for the financial allocation is managed efficiently. Each country has used the various finance system to strengthen the national competitiveness and to promote the innovation activities. The government of Korea has supported the technology-based firm using the government policy funds. This study aims at the effect of several kinds of financing on the activities of technology-based firms and at the resolution for promoting the activities of these firms in technology financing policy. Further, econometric analysis based on the survey data in this paper will be able to help suggest to the role of the government system for financing of innovation firms. View full abstract»

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  • Implementing the Balanced Scorecard to Achieve Strategic Management Objectives: The Case of the Small Engineering Consultancy

    Page(s): 119 - 124
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2181 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The objective of this research is to explore the relationship between the balanced scorecard framework and revenue growth among technology-driven, consulting enterprises. Consulting engineers alone are an important part of the US economy, generating about $250 billion annually in GDP, nearly 1% of the total. Moreover, they represent about 17% of the total workforce. They fight for survival in a dynamic and turbulent environment where the critical strategic resource is an individual's ability to manage the convergence of rapidly evolving technologies. Operations are dominated by exceptions, rather than routine replications of standardized procedures. To study the application of the framework, a telephone survey of a random sample of enterprises ranked by the Zweig Letter Hot Firm List, emphasizing growth among US architecture, engineering, and environmental consulting firms, was conducted. The focus was on enterprises that changed classification, based on gross revenue between 2001 and 2004, from disadvantaged to small, and from small to medium. Statistical analyses highlight not only the advantages of pursuing a balanced approach to growth, but also the importance of client intimacy as a key to generating wealth in knowledge-driven, innovative societies. View full abstract»

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  • Analyzing eBay Platform Strategies: An Application of Meyer's Product Platform Strategy Model

    Page(s): 125 - 142
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4492 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nowadays, it is no longer possible to dominate large markets by developing one product at a time. Increasingly, high-technology companies are turning to platform-based product development in their quest to manage the complexity of offering greater product variety. Like the traditional automobile industry, where product platforms are used pervasively, companies that make nonphysical or intangible products, such as software and computer-based information services can also benefit from adopting an effective product platform strategy. eBay is such a company that uses its platform strategies to support its rapid growth and its wide-array of e-commerce based products: software and services to handle auction transactions, process payment transactions, and provide peer- to-peer communication for its user community over the Internet. This paper looks at eBay's three platform strategies: eBay platform, PayPal platform, and Skype platform; uses Marc Meyer's product platform strategy model to illustrate these platforms; discusses the implications of these strategies to eBay's overall success as an industry leader; and offers product platform management insights and recommendations for eBay's platform future. View full abstract»

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