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Industry Applications Conference, 2007. 42nd IAS Annual Meeting. Conference Record of the 2007 IEEE

Date 23-27 Sept. 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 366
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): i
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  • [Copyright notice]

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): ii
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  • Organization Diagram

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): iii
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  • 2007 INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS SOCIETY COUNCIL

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): iv - ix
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  • 2007 IAS Executive Board

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): xi - xvii
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  • 2007 IAS Conference Session Chairs and Organizers

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): xviii - xxii
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): xxiii - xlvi
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  • Author Index

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 2439 - 2444
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  • Power Quality Investigation of Back-to-Back Harmonic Filters for a High-Voltage Anode Foil Manufacturing Facility

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The problem, as described by this high-voltage anode foil manufacturing facility, has included loss of the harmonic filter banks during utility power disturbances. During such disturbances, one or more formation machine(s) trip and rectifier(s) fault, both of which are critical to the continuous operation of the process. One recent disturbance resulted in significant failure of components in both filter banks. A power quality investigation commenced to determine the cause of the filter bank failure. This paper describes the results of the analytical methods employed. Field harmonic measurements determined the presence of voltage and current distortion and established an appropriate model for harmonic analysis of various likely system conditions. Harmonic analysis explained the tuning of the existing filter banks and changes to tuning that occurred since installation several years ago, as well as determined the harmonic loading on each stage of the filters. Transient simulations identified existing problems and areas of concern, especially in regard to transient overvoltages that resulted when switching either of the filter banks. Recommendations included alternatives to avoid possible failures in the future, most significantly, the re-design of one the harmonic filters and the application of surge protection. View full abstract»

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  • Power Quality Assessment of a Hot Strip Mill with Cycloconverter Drive Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 9 - 16
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    This paper presents the power quality assessment of a hot strip mill with cycloconverters for an integrated steel- making facility. Due to the stochastic operation characteristics of cycloconverters, the electric power consumed by the hot strip mill fluctuates dramatically with the harmonic currents of different integer orders and non-integer orders. Both of the harmonic distortion and voltage flicker problems have been introduced to deteriorate the power quality of the industrial customer. To mitigate the harmonic pollution and provide proper reactive power compensation at the same time, two single-tuned and three high-pass passive filters have been therefore applied according to the harmonic load flow analysis. After removing the resistor due to flash over damage, the 6.8th order high-pass filter has been converted to be a single-tuned filter. The impact of harmonic distortion on the existing filters and other equipments is investigated in this paper to ensure the harmonic distortion of the hot strip mill to be within the tolerance limit with the new configuration. To represent the harmonic current injection more accurately for the harmonic load flow analysis, the harmonic currents generated by cycloconverters are determined by field measurement. It is found that the total voltage harmonic distortion THDv solved by computer simulation is very close to the actual harmonic distortion. According to the harmonic load flow analysis, the serious harmonic pollution problem introduced by the cycloconverter drive system can be mitigated effectively by the implementation of proposed harmonic filter banks. Besides, the voltage flicker problem due to dramatic variation of large reactive power consumption of the hot strip mill can be solved by proper control of cycloconverters. View full abstract»

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  • Advanced Cutting Experiences for a Nuclear Power Plant Application

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 17 - 21
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    The maintenance and repair services in nuclear power plants are characterized by a critical operating environment. In this paper, the technical requirements and quality guarantee applicable to a cutting equipment designed for a special nuclear power plant application are defined. The real practical case operation is to cut fuel alignment pins. Three techniques are evaluated to perform the underwater operation: traditional machining by means of an abrasive cutting wheel, metal disintegration machining (MDM) and electrical discharge machining (EDM). The qualification procedure of the alignment pin removal tools and the resulting cuts are reported. View full abstract»

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  • Three-Dimensional Design and Performance Assessments of a Linear Induction-Type Electromagnetic Stirrer

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 22 - 27
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1417 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As the electromagnetic stirrers are commonly implemented in the continuous casting process of a steel mill, for enhancing the on-site controllability and productivity, it is convincible that detailed assessments about the three-dimensional characteristics of such equipments at different physical environments and material properties must be performed in the design stage. Since the stirrer system is mainly constructed based on the principles of linear induction machines, variations of the generated electromagnetic forces and magnetic fields will be highly affected by the system structures and input driving sources. Based on thorough three-dimensional steady-state and dynamic analyzing results, this paper will provide the summarized guidance for operations and designs of the in-mold electromagnetic stirrer for metal industry applications. View full abstract»

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  • Electrohydrodynamic Dispersion of Dry Fine Powders

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 28 - 31
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (231 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Dispersion of fine dry powders in the size range 1.0 to 10.0 mum in aerodynamic diameters requires a high energy dispersive force since the powders in this size range are very cohesive and their dispersion by vibrational, centrifugal or by aerodynamic force (using air currents) is inefficient in most cases. The adhesive force, that includes van der Waals, electrostatic, and liquid bridge forces, is, in general, proportional to the diameter d of the particles, whereas, the vibrational and centrifugal detachment forces are proportional to d3, and the aerodynamic shear force for detachment is proportional to d2. Thus smaller the diameter d the higher is the dispersion force needed for efficient dispersion for forming aerosol from a sample of powder that will contain the primary particles present in the powder. We report here dispersion of fine powders deposited on a dielectric substrate by applying a traveling electric field using embedded electrodes. The dispersed particles are aerosolized by passing a gentle air current over the substrate. The dispersion of the powder forming an aerosol particle is achieved here by both electrodynamic force and air current. A brief discussion of van der Waals, electrostatic, and capillary forces between individual particles within a bulk powder and the dispersive forces applied by a using a low frequency three-phase electric field are reported. The electrostatic force of dispersion is proportional to qE, where q is proportional to d2 and E is the applied electric field. The charged particle cloud produced by the combination of electrohydrodynamic and aerodynamic shear forces were characterized with respect their size and electrostatic charge distributions by using an ESPART analyzer. The dispersive properties of the electrodynamic forces are analyzed for powders of different size distributions and conductivities. The traveling wave is produced by placing a series of electrodes, embedded, just beneath - - the surface of the substrate. The required power consumption needed for dispersion is less than 5 mW and requires only a few seconds for dispersion. The possible applications of breath actuated air flow in conjunction with electro-hydrodynamic dispersion for respiratory drug delivery are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Electrohydrodynamic Flow in Optoelectrostatic Micropump: Experiment Versus Numerical Simulation

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 32 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (370 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper deals with optoelectrostatic pumping of conductive liquids in microchannels. In this technique the fluid is heated by the laser irradiation and exposed to an external AC electric field. If the fluid permittivity and conductivity vary with temperature the electric volume force is generated and pumping effect can be achieved. A numerical model of this phenomenon is presented and it is based on the finite element analysis of the electric, thermal and flow fields. The numerical predictions are compared with the experimental data with a reasonable qualitative agreement. View full abstract»

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  • Development of an Electrohydrodynamic Micropump

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 38 - 44
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (329 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An ion-drag pump consisting of microscale electrodes was built. The electrodes were fabricated as a series of planar comb fingers. The electrodes were paired as an emitter and a collector with a 10 mum width and 20 mum gap between them. The number of electrode pairs was 60 and the gap between the electrode pairs was 200 mum. The electrodes were fabricated on a glass plate by the deposition of Cr/Au (500 A/3000 A). The fluid used was HFE-7100 (3M), and all the experiments were conducted inside a class 1000 clean room with controlled moisture content (19.0%) and temperature (295.55 plusmn 0.5 K). The pump generated a maximum pressure of 250 Pa at an applied voltage of 700 V (at an electric field of 35 V/mum). The behavior of the static pressure and the corresponding current during transient state was also observed. The static pressure and the current showed a sharp peak at a high voltage. View full abstract»

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  • Fluid Circulation within a Spherical Reservoir with EHD Conduction Pumping

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 45 - 50
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (406 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) conduction phenomenon involves the interaction of electric fields and flow fields in a dielectric fluid medium via the process of dissociation and recombination of free charges. This paper numerically studies the effect of electrically driven fluid flow, based on conduction phenomenon to generate fluid circulations in a spherical reservoir in the absence of gravity. The electrodes are embedded on the reservoir surface such that the resultant electric body force causes the fluid in the upper hemisphere moves to the lower side and vice versa. The electric field and electric body force distributions and the resultant velocity field in different planes are presented. View full abstract»

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  • Carbon Nanotubes Grown by RF Heating and their Morphological and Structural Properties

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 51 - 54
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    Multiwall and singlewall carbon nanotubes were synthesized on Fe-Co/CaCO3 and a Fe-Co/MgO catalyst systems, respectively, by using two different catalytic chemical vapor deposition methods, external furnace (EF) heating and radio frequency (RF) excitation. The carbon nanotubes synthesized with radio frequency excitation have a smaller outer diameter, fewer layers (smaller outer/inner diameter ratio), and better crystalline properties, compared to the nanotubes grown with external furnace heating. The radio frequency process was found to be responsible for a faster growth rate of the carbon nanotubes over longer periods of time due to a higher localized heating. These findings can be explained by the skin currents induced in the metallic catalytic clusters, which keep the catalysts active for longer periods of time and diminishes the amount of non-crystalline carbon formed in the synthesis process. A direct correlation between the frequency of the electromagnetic field and the morphology of the nanotubes was also found. View full abstract»

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  • Bone Tissue: A Relationship Between Micro and Nano Structural Composition and its Corresponding Electrostatic Properties with Applications in Tissue Engineering

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 55 - 59
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (238 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Bone is a calcified tissue, which shows a complex structure both at the micro and nano levels, including cells, collagen fibers, and an extra cellular calcified matrix. Bone has remarkable mechanical properties that allow it to support the entire body, showing rigidity with very high tensile and compressive strength but at the same time, increased flexibility. Bone is one of the most dynamic tissues in the body, responding to injuries with very fast healing. The collagen fiber matrix comprises about 25-30 % of bone tissue mass and has an important role in not allowing the bone to break or snap. The mineralized component (about 65 % of the bone mass) is mainly formed of calcium phosphate, called hydroxyapatite, and gives bone its toughness and rigidity. Electrostatic measurements involving bone tissues of various compositions showed a high response to friction charging against different materials. The charge to mass ratios for bone particles with diameters ranging from 200 nm to 2 mum were found to be highly dependent upon the charging material. We also determined a direct correlation between the electrostatic behavior of the bone particles and their substructure, which was then analyzed by electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and other analytical methods. The results indicated the possibility of using electrostatic processes to generate scaffolds that can be used in bone tissue engineering. View full abstract»

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  • On the Physical Basis of Power Losses in Laminated Steel and Minimum-Effort Modeling in an Industrial Design Environment

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 60 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (284 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A procedure is described for identifying a general mathematical model of core losses in ferromagnetic steel based on a minimal amount of experimental data. This model has a hysteresis loss multiplicative coefficient variable with frequency and induction and a combined coefficient for eddy-current and excess losses that is also variable with frequency and induction. A physical interpretation and a test procedure for the identification of the core loss coefficients are proposed. Validation was successfully performed on a number of different samples of non-grain oriented fully and semi-processed steel alloys. View full abstract»

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  • Comparative Study of High-Speed PM Motors with Laminated Steel and Soft Magnetic Composite Cores

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 67 - 72
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (240 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Soft magnetic composite (SMC) material is formed by surface-insulated iron powder particles, and has very low eddy current. To explore the application of SMC materials, two types of high-speed (20 krpm) permanent magnet (PM) motor have been designed and constructed. One employs radial flux type with laminated steel core, and the other employs transverse flux type with SMC core. Considering the importance of core loss in high speed motors, laminated steel and SMC material are tested by 2-D magnetic tester, and rotational core loss model is employed in the core loss calculation. Details of machine geometry and design procedure are described and some features of the machines are compared. View full abstract»

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  • Determination of Critical Parameters in Electrical Machine Thermal Models

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 73 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (226 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper the authors discuss the problem concerning the determination of some thermal parameters which are very complex to compute. These parameters play an important role in thermal networks usually adopted for electrical machine thermal analysis. While the information given in the paper are mainly related to induction motors, they are also of general use for the designers of other types of machine. The reported results have been validated using induction motors with power ranges from few kW up to 250 kW. View full abstract»

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  • Iron Loss Prediction with PWM Supply: An Overview of Proposed Methods from an Engineering Application Point of View

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 81 - 88
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (164 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The present work compares three different methodologies reported in the literature for the iron loss prediction in magnetic lamination supplied with PWM waveform. The target is the comparison of these methods from an engineering point of view. In particular, the authors analyze the practical use of the methods, such as the measurement and/or calculation procedure difficulties inherent each methods. The theoretical approach and the use of these methods have been reported in detail and suitable tests have been performed for a correct comparison of the obtained results. The comparison has shown that the methods are similar from the result point of view. As a consequence, from an engineering approach, the three methods can be considered equivalent and the choice of the method to be used can be based only on the technology available in the test laboratory. View full abstract»

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  • Aluminium Multi-Wire for High-Frequency Electric Machines

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 89 - 93
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (251 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to limit losses in high-frequency transformers and inductor windings, special and expensive solutions such as Litz Wire are often adopted. The high cost of these wires is due to the complex process needed for realizing a thin insulating coating for each of the several single copper wires that form the strand. In this paper, an aluminium multi-wire is proposed as a low cost alternative to Litz Wire. Insulation between conductors is achieved by anodization, which is a commonly used process in the aluminium industry. Hence, the proposed solution can potentially drop the cost in electrical machines and in many other applications operating at high-frequency. View full abstract»

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  • Incorporating Lamination Processing and Component Manufacturing in Electrical Machine Design Tools

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 94 - 102
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (310 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Measures to improve the modeling of steel-sheet laminations in electrical machine design tools are studied. Only the magnetic properties, namely, the permeability (BH curves) and the iron losses are addressed. The sensitivity of these properties upon dimensional, directional (anisotropy) and excitation variations, as well as upon the electrical machines manufacturing steps is evaluated. The studied electrical machines manufacturing step are: guillotine, laser-cutting, welding, pressing and punching. The properties of the delivered lamination coils and the various associated loss figures are also statistically benchmarked. The focus is on finding guidelines for incorporation of these sensitivities in design tools when needed. For this purpose, 5 Hz to 10 kHz tests are conducted on Epstein strips, on L-shaped segments and on standard stator laminations. Two different steel grades are studied. It is shown that the lateral dimension, anisotropy and welding influences are much more pronounced then those for punching, pressing and laser cutting and hence, need to be addressed in design tools. It is found that the commonly used Epstein test results of the coils are slightly inferior to the mean loss value of the online-testing (losses that are measured at every 1 m of the entire coil length). It is also noted that, the delivered laminations are almost always better than those ordered and the losses for each individual lamination coil are nearly constant. View full abstract»

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  • An Analytical Design Approach for Reducing Stator Iron Losses in Interior PM Synchronous Machines During Flux-Weakening Operation

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 103 - 110
    Cited by:  Papers (13)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (548 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous machines are vulnerable to generating unacceptably large stator iron losses during flux-weakening operation at elevated speeds. The purpose of this paper is to present a new analytical design approach to reduce the stator iron losses in IPM machines with multiple flux barriers during flux-weakening operation. The proposed technique achieves this objective by: (1) designing the rotor to minimize the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the spatial distribution of the rotor scalar magnetic potential (mmf); and (2) coupling the rotor with an appropriate stator configuration to suppress undesirable higher-order harmonics in the stator as much as possible. An analytical design method is presented to synthesize the "minimum-THD" rotor with multiple flux barriers. Finite element analysis is used to demonstrate that the application of this design technique can lead to a substantial reduction of the stator iron losses during flux-weakening operation. View full abstract»

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