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Systems, Applications and Technology Conference, 2007. LISAT 2007. IEEE Long Island

Date 4-4 May 2007

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Title page]

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Commentary]

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 3 - 5
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Society related material]

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 7 - 27
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • The Advanced Hawkeye as a System of Systems?

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 12
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3578 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    There are differences between a traditional system of components, which requires its parts to be fully defined and unalterable throughout its lifecycle, and a system of systems (SoS), which typically displays emergent characteristics over time and has the potential to evolve over its lifetime. This paper will focus on identifying the differences, in both structure and behavior, between a system of components and a SoS. This will be demonstrated by relating the Advanced Hawkeye, which is currently being developed by Northrop Grumman, to the five differentiating characteristics of autonomy, belonging, connectivity, diversity and emergence, as defined by Boardman and Sauser in their paper entitled, "system of systems - the meaning of of." This paper will not classify the Advanced Hawkeye as being a system or a SoS, but will instead use these five characteristics to identify the advanced Hawkeye as existing someplace between the two extremes, as a complex system. The Advanced Hawkeye has been designed based on the E-2C Hawkeye 2000 configuration, and features upgrades to radar, communications, navigation and other aircraft systems, which will improve its supportability and readiness. The Advanced Hawkeye is a complex system, with multiple capabilities, making it a prime example to use for this project. Due to its complexity, and the classified nature of the aircraft, this paper will focus on a broad overview of the aircraft and its relationship to the five aforementioned differentiating characteristics. In addition, insight into the management issues that systems engineers face when dealing with a complex system, rather than a traditional system of components, will be addressed. View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent Transportation Systems Provide Operational Benefits for New York Metropolitan Area Roadways: A Systems Engineering Approach

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1635 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The New York metropolitan area experiences considerable traffic congestion. However, within the New York metropolitan area right of way is limited and building additional roadways to alleviate congestion is no longer an option. Therefore, to alleviate congestion the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) has sought out congestion management strategies that do not require the construction of new roadway. A major thrust of this strategy is the deployment of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). To facilitate this endeavor Dunn Engineering Associates has developed the Evaluation Model for Freeway ITS Scoping (EMFITS). EMFITS was developed as part of the NYSDOT Intelligent Transportation Systems Scoping Guidance Project Development Manual. This model captures the essence of ITS strategies at the scoping stage of the design process and provides a key guide to the most beneficial ITS strategy to be implemented. EMFITS was used to calculate the quantitative benefits from ITS alternatives to be deployed along approximately 31 miles of interconnecting parkways and expressways in the Eastern Queens roadway network. The specific roadways include: Long Island, Clearview and Nassau Expressways; Grand Central, Cross Island and Belt Parkways. Typical transportation planning processes often do not easily accommodate transportation system improvements that have a systems-operation focus such as ITS. However, state and local agencies still need to answer the basic questions of costs and benefits before any ITS project will be implemented. EMFITS deployment and performance evaluation methodologies can assist ITS managers in determining the most cost effective systems. EMFITS can guide the growth of ITS in a more organized manner by providing transportation decision makers with quantitative measures of effectiveness such as reduction in vehicle-hours per year, gallons of fuel per year, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, accident, agency operating cost,- and ton-hours (freight measure of delay) that can be used to determine the financial benefits of different levels of ITS deployment. Determining financial benefits is critical for any successful state or local ITS program. This paper presents a variety of tools, techniques, and guidelines to develop reasonably comparable answers to these questions applied to the deployment of ITS along the Eastern Queens roadway corridors. View full abstract»

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  • Subject: Taking Software Requirements from Hearsay to Analysis

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 4
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Carrier Frequency Offset Mitigation in a Proposed MIMO OFDM System

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (618 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Carrier frequency offset (CFO) effects on the packet error rate performance of a proposed IEEE 802.11 n WLAN standard are investigated. With the maximum CFO (40 ppm) requirement specified by the standard, simulation results show that performance degradation is limited to within 1.5 dB for various TGn channels, modulation and coding schemes, transmit antenna excitation schemes and OFDM MIMO transceiver configurations. Comparisons between IEEE 802.11 a/g and a proposed IEEE 802.11 n WLAN standard on the coarse and fine CFO estimation errors are shown. The residual CFO effects on channel estimation error and packet error rate are also made. View full abstract»

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  • Direct Location Estimation using Indoor Wireless Communication Systems

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (446 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to estimate the location of an indoor mobile station (MS), estimated time of arrival (TOA) can be obtained at each of several access points, or base stations (BS). These TOA estimates can then be used to solve for the location of the MS. In this paper, we present an alternative direct location estimator which incorporates the received signals at all base stations to estimate the location of the MS directly. The performance of the direct location estimator and prior TOA-based location estimators are compared. View full abstract»

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  • Evolution of GSM into the Next Generation Wireless World

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1759 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    GSM is the most widely deployed 2nd generation digital cellular standard, with over 2 billion subscribers in some 213 countries and adding about 1000 new users per minute! Originally developed in the 1980s, and first deployed in 1991, GSM is a TDMA+FDMA system, providing wide area voice communications using 200 KHz carriers. Subsequently, GSM evolved into a 2.5G standard with the introduction of packet data transmission technology (GPRS) and higher data rates via higher order modulation schemes (EDGE). More recently, GERAN standards organization has been evolving further to coexist with and provide comparable services to 3G technologies. In this paper, we first provide an overview of the traditional 2G and 2.5G GSM, and then discuss the so-called "GERAN Evolution" into the 3G world. We conclude by detailing a few selected aspects of the GERAN Evolution. Overall, we aspire to demonstrate that GERAN is a vibrant, living and growing technology that exploits the latest advances in communications and signal processing. View full abstract»

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  • Demonstration of a Self-Powered Boiler Concept Based on Emitter-less Thermophotovoltaic Power Generation

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1134 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this study the technical feasibility of implementing thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power generation through the use of GaSb photocells within the chamber of a residential, oil-fired boiler was evaluated. The objective of this work is a self-powered hydronic heating system for which an estimated 200 watts of power is needed. An approach was developed in which direct radiation from the combustion chamber is incident on TPV cells which are protected only by a quartz plate. This work differs from that of previous TPV research in that no stand-alone thermal emitter is used. It was demonstrated experimentally that a power densities greater than 2 watts/cm2 could be achieved with this "emitter-less" approach. The results of this work also demonstrate that the power density is strongly affected by the burner excess air level. View full abstract»

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  • The Use of Behavioral Diagrams in SysML

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (64 KB)  

    The definition of behavior in systems modeling language (SysML) presents special challenges to systems engineers, as overlapping functionality exists among SysML behavioral diagrams. Through discussion and examples, this paper imparts an understanding of SysML behavioral diagrams that will assist systems engineers in defining the behavior of various systems. The paper discusses the following goals of behavior definition: defining activity flow, tracking system state, defining system control, defining interactions, and allocating responsibility. View full abstract»

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  • Reliability Modeling and Analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (94 KB)  

    Summary form only given. We consider the problem of reliability modeling and analysis of hierarchical clustered wireless sensor networks (WSN) in this paper. We propose reliability measures that integrate the conventional connectivity-based network reliability with the sensing coverage measure indicating the quality of service (QoS) of the WSN. And we propose a progressive approach for evaluating such coverage-oriented QoS reliability. Our approach is unique in that we analyze a more practical and generic hierarchical clustered WSN. The novelty of our approach also includes the consideration of dynamic dependencies, such as the standby spare behavior, by proposing a modular scheme. View full abstract»

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  • User Authentication via Behavior Based Passwords

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1138 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Computer security to a degree depends on trustworthy user authentication; unfortunately currently used passwords are not completely secure or user friendly. One of the main problems with passwords is that good passwords are hard to remember and the ones which are easy to remember are too short to be secure. We have designed a graphical authentication schema with a password, which is easy to remember and can be relatively quickly provided to the system, while at the same time remaining impossible to break with brute force alone. We have also proposed a way to measure password length and compared password space sizes of many popular authentication schemas against the one proposed in this paper. View full abstract»

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  • Sequential and Parallel Feature Extraction in Hyperspectral Data Using Nonnegative Matrix Factorization

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1130 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Feature extraction refers to the groups of techniques that, when applied to large dimensional and redundant data result in significant dimensionality reduction while preserving or even enhancing the information content. Among various techniques investigated for feature extraction, of new interest is nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). In NMF, it is assumed that the data is formed as a linear nonnegative combination of positive sources and the NMF solution recovers the original sources and the mixing matrix. In this paper, we first look at ways NMF can be applied for feature extraction in hyperspectral imagery a data known for large sizes and redundancy. While some of the associations are natural to linear mixing model (LMM - that assumes that hyperspectral images are formed as a linear mixture of endmember information), we also show NMF to be a slow method. To counter this, we investigate alternative solutions such as projected NMF approaches and provide an insight to how parallel implementations would contribute to speedup. Experimental results on various data show projected NMF outperforming regular NMF with parallel implementations providing a promising speedup advantage. View full abstract»

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  • Ocean-Powered Pump for Global Cooling and Increased Food Production

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (799 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Cold water pumped up from the deep ocean and spread out on the surface may be a way to cool the Earth's surface while providing macro- and micro-nutrients needed by phytoplankton in the surface layer. The resulting increased photosynthesis converts the carbon dioxide (CO2) dissolved in the water into increased phytoplankton mass, which feeds zooplankton and other members of the marine food chain. Uneaten organic matter sinks to the bottom, sequestering the CO2 that is absorbed from the atmosphere. This photosynthetic process (the biological pump) avoids an inorganic process in which excess CO2 reduces the alkalinity of the ocean and interferes with the formation of shells and skeletons of marine life forms. The pumps are powered by an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) process that has been in development for more than 100 years without achieving large-scale commercial success. This paper describes an OTEC design modification that increases the heat engine efficiency and can lead to large-scale deployment of OTEC-powered pumps. View full abstract»

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  • Structural Barrier Electromagnetic Effects Modeling and Simulation

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (894 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The phenomenological study of magnetic, electric and electromagnetic field interactions with barrier structures and materials is important to understand from the standpoint of designing for the effects of stray magnetic and electric fields on sensitive electronic equipment for evolving aircraft applications to advanced sensors and systems for urban warfare. Northrop Grumman integrated systems eastern region (ISER) has developed a world-class, robust and validated electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) modeling and simulation (M&S) capability and has performed preliminary M&S of various barrier structures to gain an initial understanding of the phenomenology which must be used as a systems design tool, to design realistic and meaningful test/validation experiments, as well as to validate experimental results for a range of parametric barrier structural enclosures and architectures. ISER is using fundamental, first principal electromagnetic modeling tools, as well as unique hybrids of these phenomenological descriptions, to accurately describe E, H, and RF propagation through complex media/barrier structures. These M&S tools, coupled with laboratory validation measurements, are being used to establish key metrics and performance parameters of individual as well as networked configurations. This presentation will review very basic to more complicated electromagnetic wave/barrier interactions. View full abstract»

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  • CdZnTe room-temperature semiconductor gamma-ray detector for national-security applications

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1878 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    One important mission of the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration is to develop reliable gamma-ray detectors to meet the widespread needs of users for effective techniques to detect and identify special nuclear- and radioactive-materials. Accordingly, the Nonproliferation and National Security Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory was tasked to evaluate existing technology and to develop improved room-temperature detectors based on semiconductors, such as CdZnTe (CZT). Our research covers two important areas: Improving the quality of CZT material, and exploring new CZT-based gamma-ray detectors. In this paper, we report on our recent findings from the material characterization and tests of actual CZT devices fabricated in our laboratory and from materials/detectors supplied by different commercial vendors. In particular, we emphasize the critical role of secondary phases in the current CZT material and issues in fabricating the CZT detectors, both of which affect their performance. View full abstract»

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  • A micro power sigma-delta A/D converter in 0.35-μM CMOS for low frequency applications

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1024 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A very low-power single loop second order 12-bit sigma- delta (SigmaDelta) A/D converter in 0.35-mum triple metal, double poly CMOS technology has been designed for low frequency applications. The A/D converter includes a second-order SigmaDelta modulator together with a DSP circuit comprising of a cascade of CIC and FIR digital filters. The design was focused on the minimization of power dissipation of the modulator that operates from a single 2-4 V power supply. A reduction of the power dissipation is obtained through the optimization of modulator coefficients, switched-capacitor (SC) integrators, particularly the optimal design of two-stage fully differential Class AB operational transconductance (OTA) amplifiers, which employ circuits for higher noise rejection and control of common mode levels. Local bootstrapping circuits are used for switches in order to facilitate the appropriate signal switching in low-voltage region of operation. Unit capacitors are created using poly-poly structure available in 0.35-mum CMOS technology and employed in SC circuits. The design was simulated in all process corners for active and passive devices considering a -40degC to +120degC temperature range and plusmn10% supply voltage variation. The modulator achieves a dynamic range of 77 dB at a Nyquist conversion rate of 2.5 kHz with an oversampling ratio of 128. The modulator occupies an active area of 0.9 mm dissipating only 120 muW from 2-V supply. The entire A/D converter occupies a die are of 2.4 2 mm2. View full abstract»

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  • Digital Phosphor Technology Boosts RF Signal Discovery and Analysis

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (97 KB)  

    Digital phosphor technology, traditionally used in advanced oscilloscopes, has been applied to the RF domain and can now be found in preeminent real-time spectrum analyzers (RTSAs). In enabling users to view "live RF" signals for the first time, digital phosphor technology provides unmatched insight into RF signal behavior. In fact, full-motion digital phosphor displays show signals and details that are completely missed by conventional spectrum analyzers and vector signal analyzers (VSAs), greatly accelerating the discovery and diagnosis of problems relating to time-variant RF signals. The name "digital phosphor" derives from the phosphor coating on the inside of cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used as displays in televisions, computer monitors and older test equipment. When an electron beam excites the phosphor, it fluoresces, lighting up the path drawn by the stream of electrons. Although raster-scan technologies, such as liquid crystal displays (LCDs), eventually replaced CRTs in many applications due depth and power advantages, the combination of phosphor coatings and vector drawing in CRTs provided several benefits that are useful for modern test and measurement applications. View full abstract»

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  • Harold A. Wheeler's Antenna Design Legacy

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (793 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Harold A. Wheeler had a distinguished career in the field of radio-electronics. He had a unique talent for reducing complex scientific principles to simple forms that were universally helpful to theoreticians and practitioners. Of his many contributions, those related to antenna design are the subject of this paper. The three principal antenna topics in Dr. Wheeler's experience were impedance matching to a transmission line, electrically small antennas, and planar arrays. This paper concentrates on the first two topics and presents two examples of how he developed simple forms that were very helpful and useful to the antenna community. His solutions, although simple in form, were in exact agreement with those based on more rigorous theory. View full abstract»

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  • Directional detection of fission-spectrum neutrons

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1648 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Conventional neutron detectors consisting of 3 He tubes surrounded by a plastic moderator can be quite efficient in detecting fission spectrum neutrons, but do not indicate the direction of the incident radiation. We have developed a new directional detector based on double proton recoil in two separated planes of plastic scintillators. This method allows the spectrum of the neutrons to be measured by a combination of peak amplitude in the first plane and time of flight to the second plane. It also allows the determination of the angle of scattering in the first plane. If the planes are position-sensitive detectors, then the direction of the scattered neutron is known, and the direction of the incident neutron can be determined to lie on a cone of a fixed angle. The superposition of many such cones generates an image that indicates the presence of a localized source. Typical background neutron fluences from the interaction of cosmic rays with the atmosphere are low and fairly uniformly distributed in angle. Directional detection helps to locate a manmade source in the presence of natural background. Monte Carlo simulations are compared with experimental results. View full abstract»

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  • Safe Computing in the Age of Ubiquitous Connectivity

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (707 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The emergence of ubiquitous broadband connectivity has transformed the computing landscape. Telecommuting is no longer limited to those whose work can be done from a fixed home office. Telecommuting has embraced the hundreds of thousands of workers whose day is spent in the field visiting clients and customers. The worker's umbilical to the office is a mobile device with a secure connection provisioned using a fluid, ad-hoc combination of customer accommodations, public Wi-Fi hot-spots, and cellular modems. Ubiquitous high-speed networking brings a new dimension to security and privacy for both parties. There is a need to provide privacy for the telecommuter, wherever they are, and a need for the host to accommodate communications. At the same time, the host must maintain the integrity of their internal network or systems. The well-known Internet standards provide a foundation and a springboard for properly providing robust security in this fluid environment. View full abstract»

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  • Review of Location Management in Cellular Networks

    Publication Year: 2007 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (794 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Location management is a paramount issue in wireless mobile station communication systems to enable the terminals to continuously receive services when moving from one location to another. In this paper, we study the trends in the latest cellular wireless systems to page terminals, update location area and make handover decisions for a mobile station. Topics covered include static and dynamic location management, dynamic location areas and techniques, future location management developments, location tracking evolution and location management in 3G. It will be shown that location-area based location management methods designed around a profile or history-based direction information offer the best performance, in terms of location management cost, compared to all other alternative approaches while distance based schemes are to be the most efficient ones. View full abstract»

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