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Systems, Applications and Technology Conference, 2006. LISAT 2006. IEEE Long Island

Date 5-5 May 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 28
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1
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  • [Cover]

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1
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  • [Commentary]

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1
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  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 4
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  • [Society related material]

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 7 - 23
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  • DESIGN OF AN ASYNCHRONOUS WAVELENGTH-TIME OPTICAL CDMA TESTBED

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (472 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we present the code and architecture designs for a scalable, reconfigurable, wavelength-time optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) testbed. Our approach is compatible with existing WDM optical networks and utilizes off-the-shelf components. The operation of 4 simultaneous users at OC-48 (~2.5 Gbit/s) per user with BER < 10-9 is reported. View full abstract»

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  • DUAL-USE OF MODULATION RECOGNITION TECHNIQUES FOR DIGITAL COMMUNICATION SIGNALS

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (159 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Automatic modulation recognition is not only an important military subject but also an emerging topic for next generation software-defined radios. This paper reviews the concept of blind modulation classification algorithms, discusses the similarity and diversity of various approaches, indicates difference for military and commercial applications, and analyzes the automatic modulation recognition methods based on software-defined radios. View full abstract»

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  • PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION OF A 3GPP COMPLIANT TURBO DECODER

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (205 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the results of implementation of the turbo encoding/decoding scheme as described in the Third Generation Digital Cellular Telephony Standards as specified in the 3GPP TS 25.212 v.360. The implementation goal was to implement an efficient software realization of a turbo decoder to decode a turbo encoded signal in presence of noise. Analysis of the performance of the turbo decoder in presence of AWGN (additive white Gaussian noise) based on various parameters such as number of quantization bits, number of iterations etc. is presented. View full abstract»

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  • EMC DESIGN FUNDAMENTALS

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (73 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Summary form only given. Virtually every electronic device or system designed today is required to comply with EMC standards. Proper EMC design, throughout the development cycle, is necessary to cost-effectively ensure that products operate reliably in their intended electromagnetic environment without being susceptible to electrical noise from other devices, or generate excessive noise that can interfere with other devices. Meeting this goal has become especially challenging in recent years, due to the ever-growing use of electronics, increasing clock frequencies and escalading wireless-bandwidth demands. Products that do not comply with the applicable EMC requirements, can be blocked from markets, and/or can create interoperability issues with consequences ranging from a minor annoyance to death. EMC standards have been established by several agencies including the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), the US Military, the European Union (EU) and the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA). Although numerous standards exist, they have a common fundamental theme; to establish a maximum limit on emissions and to establish a minimum level on susceptibility (immunity). To understand the impact of EMC on design, it is first necessary to understand the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic interference and electromagnetic compatibility. For an EMC problem to exist, three components are necessary: a source that generates the interference, a device that is susceptible to the interference, and a coupling path. The coupling path can be conducted (through power and/or signal lines) or radiated (magnetic, electric or plane wave). Fortunately several options exist for mitigating EMC issues. The effectiveness of the coupling path can be reduced (i.e. the isolation between the source and the susceptible device can be improved) through the use of increased separation, shielding, filtering, interconnection modifications, or a combination of these. Furthermore, the so- urce can be modified to reduce the interference generated. Many of the techniques used to reduce the interference generated by the source can also be used to improve the immunity of the potentially susceptible device. These techniques include the routing of signals closer to ground planes and the operating frequency selection. System partitioning is also critical. Fundamentally, devices that are inherently noisy (such as power converters) should be located as far as practical from devices that require a low noise floor (such as wide dynamic range analog/digital converters). In larger/more-complex systems, signal and power distribution become an important component of the EMC design. An often-overlooked area is EMC design process. To cost-effectively ensure that products operate reliably in their specified electromagnetic environment, proper EMC practice must be considered throughout the development and manufacturing cycles. Since EMC can potentially affect all aspects of a product design (mechanical, electrical and system) it is often necessary to develop and maintain an EMC control plan that details the technical and administrative processes necessary to flow down the EMC requirements to all applicable portions of the product. View full abstract»

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  • New Developments in Shielding Materials

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (297 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Advances in electronic equipment are occurring at a rapid pace. The wireless revolution, increasing power levels in computers and servers, higher frequency systems, decreasing size of cell phones, to name a few. To keep pace with the EMI shielding needs of these devices a wide range of new and improved products have been developed over the past few years and many more are on the drawing boards. Just about every class of shielding product has seen noteworthy changes. The uses, properties, and advantages of these new materials and advanced EMI shielding product designs was described, including: ldrhigh performance, dent resistant vent panels ldrhigh aspect ratio form in place (FiP) ldr ultra soft sculpted fabric over foam (FOF) ldr conductive foam (CF) ldr metal-mold in place (MIP) combination gaskets. View full abstract»

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  • CURVED SURFACE DIFFRACTION PHENOMENOLOGY, MODELING & CHARACTERIZATION

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Summary form only given. Curved surface diffraction is a phenomenon that is relevant in many areas of communications such as cellular telephony, Wi-Fi access, and ground and vehicle (e.g., aircraft and naval ships) EMI. We have been characterizing electronic warfare (EW) and information, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) platform electromagnetic environmental effects (E3) phenomenology. Some of the approaches to mitigate platform EMI include: (i) isolation to re-scatter surface or traveling waves, (ii) patch or conformal antenna replacement architectures for receiving antennas, (iii) adaptive arrays collocated with the receiving antenna, and (iv) selective placement of magnetic radar absorbing material (MagRAM) to attenuate surface (traveling), specular and diffraction induced scattering. We are performing modeling, simulation and validation experiments aimed at quantifying the effectiveness of selected MagRAM treatments to minimize the effect of electromagnetic interference. This effort is developing a robust materials database to optimize electromagnetic 'attenuation versus MagRAM material type, loading fraction, weight and thickness, and accurately measuring intrinsic properties and bulk specular, surface wave and edge diffraction. This approach is allowing us to quantitatively establish a validated database for future applications. In this regards, we have been measuring RF scattering from several curved surface mockups. To ensure we are measuring the energy diffracted from the curved surface, we have to ensure that the mockup is large enough so that the curved surface diffracted energy is large compared to the energy coming from other paths. To this end, we have designed and fabricated a "universal" curved surface test body. This test body can have its dimensions and degree of curvature parametrically altered and can accommodate various surface treatments for test characterization and comparison with modeling & simulation. Highlights of these efforts,- to quantitatively ascertain levels of isolation, which can be reasonably obtained by localized passive techniques, were discussed. View full abstract»

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  • ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPROACHES FOR INTRUSION DETECTION

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent research indicates a lot of attempts to create an intrusion detection system that is capable of learning and recognizing attacks it faces for the first time. Benchmark datasets were created by the MIT Lincoln Lab and by the International Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining group (KDD). A number of competitions were held and many systems developed as a result. The overall preference was given to expert systems that were based on decision making tree algorithms. This paper explores neural networks as means of intrusion detection. After multiple techniques and methodologies are investigated, we show that properly trained neural networks are capable of fast recognition and classification of different attacks at the level superior to previous approaches. View full abstract»

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  • NEW APPROACHES FOR FEATURE EXTRACTION IN HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGERY

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (531 KB)  

    In this paper we introduce a novel feature extraction method based on Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) for hyperspectral image processing. Given the large size of the hyperspectral imagery, feature extraction plays an important role in producing fast and accurate results. Traditional approaches such as Principal Component Analysis and Independent Component Analysis generate the features as a linear combination of the hyperspectral bands emphasizing on the decorrelation or independence of the features. Compared to this, NMF offers a decomposition solution that is less restrictive requiring only the positivity of the features and the associated linear transform. Such scenario has a natural meaning in hyperspectral imagery where each pixel observation is thought to be formed as a linear positive mixture of reflectance values of the materials in the scene (endmembers) covered by the pixel. With hyperspectral imagery spatial resolution ranging from millimeters to kilometers, it likely that the data observed are formed as a mixture. In this case, the linear transform used to generate the features would be associated to the endmembers and the resulting features would be associated to the abundance of each endmember in the pixels. We present our results on using NMF for feature extraction by performing experiments with hyperspectral digital imagery collection experiment (HYDICE) data as well as in-house imagery collected with a SOC 700 hyperspectral camera. The experiments suggest that NMF outperforms PCA in feature and endmember extraction. View full abstract»

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  • Time-Stamp-Counter Mechanism and Application on Sensor Networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 6
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (289 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the time-stamp-counter mechanism is applied to sensor networks. This mechanism improves the security, scalability, and flexibility of sensor network. It supports larger sensor networks. A designer can choose to trade off between many different kinds of resources. By applying this mechanism to SNEP as an example, it shows that our protocol can automatically synchronize counters, which makes the counter exchange protocol of SNEP an option not a must. Pair-wise counter is not a must. Instead, a dynamic counter allocation can be used, which reduces the number of counters. The mechanism also reduces the counter length. All of this resource reducing is important for resource limited networks, such as sensor networks and home networks. View full abstract»

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  • Proportional Time Sharing with Frame Size Adaptation for MB-OFDM based UWB WPANs

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (569 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a new method for estimating the instantaneous bit error rate (iBER) of the Multi Band OFDM UWB communications based on the distribution of received signal to noise ratio on each subcarrier. In order to maximize the link throughput, frame sizes of the link layer are dynamically and optimally tuned based on this iBER estimates. Next, we implement an opportunistic channel access scheme in the context of IEEE 802.15.3 WPAN superframe structure. In this method, individual links' time allocations are determined proportionally with respect to their link efficiencies. Simulation results show that the proposed link and access schemes based on iBER estimates enhance the total network throughput significantly. View full abstract»

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  • MODELNG THE AODV ROUTING PROTOCOL IN THE ω-CALCULUS

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (338 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Mobile ad hoc wireless networks (MANETs) are autonomous collections of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links. Formal verification of routing protocols for MANETs requires concise yet property-preserving modeling to correctly verify the model and at the same time also avoid running into the problem of state-space explosion. The characteristics of MANETs that pose challenge to the task of modeling are node mobility and broadcast. We have developed a new modeling formalism, called the ω-calculus, to naturally and succinctly model MANET protocols. This paper describes the modeling of AODV, a reactive routing protocol for MANETs, in the ω-calculus. We aim to subject the model to formal verification in order to prove properties of the AODV routing protocol. View full abstract»

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  • A Low Cost, Highly Reliable Virtual Network Storage System

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (221 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Virtual network based storage is considered a critical part of any virtual data center implementation. Virtual data centers combine virtual networks, virtual storage and virtual servers and applications into malleable, special purpose data center configurations. The high cost of virtual network storage has slowed the integration of such systems into small and midsized data center environments. Furthermore, virtual network storage systems require high reliability as they provide a critical, centralized resource that is depended upon by many of the data center servers. In this paper, an iSCSI virtual network storage system is prototyped in two implementations; one uses the no cost open source Fedora Linux implementation whereas a second implementation uses the Windows 2003 Server as the base operating system. Both systems are built on a redundant array of independent disks (RAID) system that provides high reliability in the case of disk failures. The implementations are performance tested using two industry standard benchmark tools, to determine their usefulness as low-cost, highly reliable components of a virtual data center. It is concluded that such systems do provide effective virtual storage solutions, and are particularly suitable for virtual data center implementations. View full abstract»

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  • Radar Measurements Utilizing FFT Spectrum Approach

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1
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    Radar pulse measurements are a critical part of radar, EW (Electronic Warfare) and ELINT systems. Radar pulse measurements have historically presented many challenges for the design engineer, production test manager and field technician. The transient nature of the radar pulse combined with modern pulse compression schemes often demand elaborate test setups. With the advent of faster technology the ability to use a FFT based measurement approach greatly simplifies these measurements. Today we will review the measurement challenges and the approached used by a FFT based tool. View full abstract»

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  • HIGH PERFORMANCE LOW PHASE NOISE PLL CLOCK SYNTHESIZER WITH LVDS OUTPUTS

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 94
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (557 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents the design and performance of a phase-locked-loop (PLL) clock synthesizer for low-jitter clock synthesizer applications. This product operates in the range of 100 MHz to 700 MHz with very low phase noise and low-voltage-differential-signal (LVDS) outputs. The design focuses on the minimization of the phase noise, or timing jitter, of the PLL. Reduction of phase noise is achieved with proper choice of PLL circuit architecture, optimization of PLL loop parameters, careful design of the voltage-controlled-oscillator (VCO), cognizant matching of the charge pump currents, and careful physical layout design throughout. This novel PLL design does not require external components for operation that are typically required for load capacitors of the crystal oscillator. Additionally, the high-frequency LVDS outputs are compliant with the TIA/EIA-644 specification (IEEE Std 1596.3-1996). Clock generation is obtained with the use of a fundamental crystal in the range of 5-27 MHz or an external applied clock operating in the same frequency range. Within the PLL architecture is an internal RC filter that helps to determine the dynamic performance of the loop. Power is applied to a single VDD supply pin with operation in the range 3V-5V and capable of functioning down to 2.7V. The LVDS outputs produce a 400mV signal swing on a 1.2V common mode level under 50Omega load. The output common-mode level is maintained internally with common-mode-feedback (CMFB). This PLL design utilizes a 0.5-mum N-well CMOS process technology. The active die area is 1.6 mm2. It has been fully characterized after fabrication and meets all electrical specifications. For normal operation with a 3.3V supply, only 60mW is dissipated. View full abstract»

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  • Low Noise Amplifier Design Using 0.35 μm SiGe BiCMOS Technology for WLAN/WiMax Applications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (396 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a design methodology of a low noise and low power fully-integrated LNA, targeted to all the three bands of IEEE 802.11a WLAN applications in the 5-6 GHz band and using 0.35 μm SiGc BiCMOS HBT technology. We emphasized in this paper the importance extraction of parasitic components through the use of electromagnetic simulations, which is usually ignored in the literature of similar works/research when reporting noise figure. Finally, we have obtained a SiGe HBT on-chip matched LNA, exhibiting NF of 2.75 dB, gain of ≫15 dB, input return loss of ≪ -15 dB, output return loss of ≪ -10 dB. The circuit consumes only 10.6 mVV under 3.3V supply voltage. The circuit die area is 595 x 925 μm2, including pads. View full abstract»

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  • Load Impedance Independent Ninety Degree Phase Shift Networks and Their Applications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 3
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (126 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Two-port ninety degree phase shift networks cause the magnitude of the output current to be directly proportional to the magnitude of the input voltage, and vice versa. This property is independent of the load impedance. Useful networks are described. Several applications of this principal are described including a temperature self-regulating soldering device, short circuit and overload protection and antenna array current distribution control. View full abstract»

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  • CONTROL OF ELECTROMECHANICAL COUPLING IN STACKED CRYSTAL FILTERS

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 7
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (259 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Stacked crystal filters (SCF) and coupled resonator filters (CRF) are electromechanical devices which make use of acoustic coupling between two transducing piezoelectric films to achieve the filter functionality. They rely on the principles of generating and transferring acoustic energy from one piezoelectric film to another at a particular range of frequencies where the structure is resonant. Simplistically, electrical energy is converted into mechanical by the input piezoelectric film, is transferred to the output piezoelectric film, which converts this mechanical energy back to electrical. More generally, all aspects of the electromechanical coupling in the device play important roles in determining filter center frequency, loss, and bandwidth characteristics. This paper presents methods to understand and improve electromechanical coupling by proper device impedance matching, device symmetries, and beneficial use of external components like inductors. View full abstract»

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  • HURRICANE SUPPRESSION BY SEA SURFACE COOLING

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 5
    Cited by:  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (181 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Hurricane intensification can be prevented by cooling critical areas of the sea surface. Deep cold water can be pumped up and distributed at the surface through long perforated fabric hoses. Water overlying the Gulf Coast continental shelf from Texas to the Florida Keys can be cooled by water pumped from 200-meter depth using electric power transmitted by sub-sea cables from the shore grid. Portions of the Gulf of Mexico's Loop Current and its warm-core eddies might be cooled by moored pumping stations powered by Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). View full abstract»

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  • Economic Analysis of Renewable Energy Systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - 2
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • How to Select a Consultant

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1
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    Freely Available from IEEE