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Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, IEEE Transactions on

Issue 5 • Date May 2015

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Displaying Results 1 - 19 of 19
  • Table of contents

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): C1
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  • IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems society information

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): C2
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  • ePlace-MS: Electrostatics-Based Placement for Mixed-Size Circuits

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 685 - 698
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    We propose an electrostatics-based placement algorithm for large-scale mixed-size circuits (ePlace-MS). ePlace-MS is generalized, flat, analytic and nonlinear. The density modeling method eDensity is extended to handle the mixed-size placement. We conduct detailed analysis on the correctness of the gradient formulation and the numerical solution, as well as the rationale of dc removal and the advantages over prior density functions. Nesterov’s method is used as the nonlinear solver, which shows high yet stable performance over mixed-size circuits. The steplength is set as the inverse of Lipschitz constant of the gradient function, while we develop a backtracking method to prevent overestimation. An approximated nonlinear preconditioner is developed to minimize the topological and physical differences between large macros and standard cells. Besides, we devise a simulated annealer to legalize the layout of macros and use a second-phase global placement to reoptimize the standard cell layout. All the above innovations are integrated into our mixed-size placement prototype ePlace-MS, which outperforms all the related works in literature with better quality and efficiency. Compared to the leading-edge mixed-size placer NTUplace3, ePlace-MS produces up to 22.98% and on average 8.22% shorter wirelength over all the 16 modern mixed-size benchmark circuits with the same runtime. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Aligned Double Patterning Aware Pin Access and Standard Cell Layout Co-Optimization

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 699 - 712
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    Self-aligned double patterning (SADP) is being considered for use at the 10-nm technology node and below for routing layers with pitches down to boldsymbol {\sim }50 nm because it has better line edge roughness and overlay control compared to other multiple patterning candidates. To date, most of the SADP-related literature has focused on enabling SADP-legal routing in physical design tools while few attempts have been made to address the impact SADP routing has on local, standard cell (SC) I/O pin access. At the same time, via layers are used to connect the local SADP routing layers to the I/O pins on lower metal layers. Due to the high via density on the Via-1 layer, the litho-etch-litho-etch (LELE)-aware Via-1 design becomes a necessity to achieve legal pin access at the SC level. In this paper, we present the first study on SADP-aware pin access and layout optimization at the SC level. Accounting for SADP-specific and Via-1 design rules, we propose a coherent framework that uses depth first search, mixed integer linear programming, and backtracking method to enable LELE friendly Via-1 design and simultaneously optimize SADP-based local pin access and within-cell connections. Our experimental results show that, compared with the conventional approach, our framework effectively improves pin access of the SCs and maximizes the pin access flexibility for routing. View full abstract»

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  • Selective Body Biasing for Post-Silicon Tuning of Sub-Threshold Designs: An Adaptive Filtering Approach

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 713 - 725
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    A sub-threshold design could provide a compelling approach to power critical applications. An exponential relationship exists, however, between the delay and the threshold voltage, that makes this design-time timing closure extremely difficult, if not impossible, to achieve. Several previous studies were focused on the technique of body biasing during post-silicon tuning for delay compensation. But they were mostly for super-threshold designs where spatially correlated {L} _{math\bf {eff}} variation dominates. They cannot be applied directly to sub-threshold designs in which purely random threshold voltage variations dominate. These works also assumed multiple body biasing voltage domains and multiple body biasing voltage levels, which involve significant design overhead. The problem of selective body biasing for post-silicon tuning of sub-threshold designs is examined in this paper. The possibility of using only one body bias voltage domain with a single body bias voltage is explored. The problem was formulated first as a linearly constrained statistical optimization model. The adaptive filtering concept from the signal processing community was then adopted so that an efficient, yet novel, solution could be developed. Using several 65 nm industrial designs, experimental results suggest that, compared with a seemingly more intuitive approach, the proposed approach can improve the pass rate by 57% on average with similar standby power and the same number of body biasing gates. This approach can reduce the standby power, on average, by 84%, with a 20% pass rate loss, more than the approach to bias all the gates. View full abstract»

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  • Methodology for Standard Cell Compliance and Detailed Placement for Triple Patterning Lithography

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 726 - 739
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    As the feature size of semiconductor process further scales to sub-16 nm technology node, triple patterning lithography (TPL) has been regarded as one of the most promising lithography candidates along with extreme ultraviolet, electron beam lithography, and directly self-assembly. M1 and contact layers, which are usually deployed within standard cells, are the most critical and complex parts for modern digital designs. Traditional design flow that ignores TPL in early stages may limit the potential to resolve all the TPL conflicts. In this paper, we propose a coherent framework, including standard cell compliance and detailed placement, to enable TPL friendly design. Considering TPL constraints during early design stages, such as standard cell compliance, improves the layout decomposability. With the precoloring solutions of standard cells, we present a TPL aware detailed placement where the layout decomposition and placement can be resolved simultaneously. In addition, we propose a linear dynamic programming to solve TPL aware detailed placement with maximum displacement, which can achieve good trade-off in terms of runtime and performance. Experimental results show that our framework can achieve zero conflict, meanwhile can effectively optimize the stitch number and placement wire-length. View full abstract»

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  • Delay-Driven and Antenna-Aware Layer Assignment in Global Routing Under Multitier Interconnect Structure

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 740 - 752
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    A multilayer routing system usually adopts multiple interconnect configuration with different wire sizes and thicknesses. Since thicker layers of metal lead to fatter wires with smaller resistance, the layer assignment (LA) of nets has a large impact on the interconnect delay. However, such layer-dependent characteristics have been ignored by most of the state-of-the-art academic LA methods. These characteristics also weaken the previous wire length-based antenna avoidance method, because the net length itself cannot accurately capture the antenna area under the condition of various wire sizes. To remedy this deficiency, this paper proposes a more effective three-stage LA algorithm under multitier interconnect structure, and focuses on minimizing delays, via count, and antenna violations. It first minimizes the total delay and via count simultaneously by dynamic programming and negotiation technique, and then further minimizes the maximum delay carefully while almost unchanging the via count. After that, a check-and-repair method is adopted to further fix the antenna violations. The experimental results on the International Conference on Computer-Aided Design’09 benchmarks show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the total delay and maximum delay while still keeping roughly the same via count compared with the state-of-the-art via count minimization LA method negotiation-based via minimization algorithm. At the same time, the antenna violation repair method can dramatically reduce the antenna violated nets and sinks with little impact on the solution quality. View full abstract»

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  • Self-Aligned Double and Quadruple Patterning Aware Grid Routing Methods

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 753 - 765
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3512 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although self-aligned double and quadruple patterning (SADP, SAQP) have promising processes for sub-20 nm node advanced technologies and beyond, not all layouts are compatible with them. In advanced technologies, feasible wafer image should be generated effectively by utilizing SADP and SAQP where a wafer image is determined by a selected mandrel pattern. However, predicting a mandrel pattern is not easy since it is different from the wafer image (or target pattern). In this paper, we propose new routing methods for spacer-is-dielectric (SID)-type SADP, SID-type SAQP, and spacer-is-metal (SIM)-type SADP to generate a feasible layout satisfying the connection requirements. Routing algorithms comprising simple connecting and cutting rules are performed on a new grid structure where two (SID-type SADP) or three colors (SID-type SAQP and SIM-type SADP) are assigned alternately to grid-nodes. Then a mandrel pattern is selected without complex coloring or decomposition methods. Also, we try to reduce hotspots (potentially defective regions) by the proposed dummy pattern flipping for SID-type SADP. In experiments, feasible layouts meeting the connection requirements are generated and the effectiveness of the proposed framework is confirmed. View full abstract»

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  • Placement Density Aware Power Switch Planning Methodology for Power Gating Designs

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 766 - 777
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    As advances in manufacture technology, leakage current increases dramatically in modern ICs. By turning off supply voltage in a low-power domain with power switches, power gating becomes a useful technique in resolving this problem. Since number and locations of power switches have great impact on chip area and IR-drop, an efficient and effective approach to insert power switches is required for the power gating designs. Unlike previous works using the greedy algorithm to handle this problem, this paper uses a simplified model to approximate required equivalent resistance of power switches in a low-power domain, and then determines number and types of power switches based on the value. In order to reduce impact on preplaced standard cells, we also propose a mathematical approach to find locations with less placement density to place power switches. The proposed methodology was integrated into a real-design flow. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach can insert less number of power switches and still satisfy the IR-drop constraint than other approaches. View full abstract»

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  • On Refining Row-Based Detailed Placement for Triple Patterning Lithography

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 778 - 793
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3130 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we study row-based detailed placement refinement for triple patterning lithography (TPL), which asks to find a refined detailed placement solution as well as a valid TPL layout decomposition under the objective of minimizing the number of stitches and the half-perimeter wirelength. Our problem does not have precoloring solutions of cells as the input, and it allows using techniques, including white space insertion, cell flipping, adjacent-cell swapping, and vertical cell movement, to optimize the solution quality. We first present (resource-constrained) shortest-path-based algorithms for several TPL-aware single-row placement problems that allow or disallow perturbing a given cell ordering. Based on these algorithms, we then propose an approach to our TPL-aware detailed placement refinement problem, which first minimizes the number of stitches and then minimizes the wirelength. Finally, we report extensive experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling and Simulation of Low-Frequency Noise in Nano Devices: Stochastically Correct and Carefully Crafted Numerical Techniques

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 794 - 807
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    Defects or traps in semiconductors and nano devices that randomly capture and emit charge carriers result in low-frequency noise, such as burst and 1/f noise, which are important concerns in the design of both analog and digital circuits. The capture and emission rates of these traps are functions of the time-varying voltages across the device, resulting in nonstationary noise characteristics. Modeling of low-frequency, nonstationary noise in circuit simulators is a long-standing open problem. It has been realized that the low-frequency noise models in circuit simulators were the culprits that produced erroneous noise performance results for circuits under strongly time-varying bias conditions. In this paper, we present two fully nonstationary models for traps, a fine-grained Markov chain model and a coarse-grained Langevin model based on similar models for ion channels in neurons. The nonstationary trap models we present subsume and unify all of the work that has been done recently in the device modeling and circuit design literature on modeling nonstationary trap noise. We provide a detailed explication of these models with regard to their stochastic properties and develop carefully crafted circuit simulation techniques that are stochastically correct. We have implemented the proposed techniques in a MATLAB-based circuit simulator, by expanding the industry standard compact MOSFET model PSP to include a nonstationary description of oxide traps. We present results obtained by this extended model and the proposed simulation techniques for the low-frequency noise characterization of a common source amplifier and the phase jitter of a ring oscillator. View full abstract»

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  • Novel Test-Mode-Only Scan Attack and Countermeasure for Compression-Based Scan Architectures

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 808 - 821
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    Scan design is a de facto design-for-testability (DfT) technique that enhances access during manufacturing test process. However, it can also be used as a back door to leak secret information from a secure chip. In existing scan attacks, the secret key of a secure chip is retrieved by using both the functional mode and the test mode of the chip. These attacks can be thwarted by applying a reset operation when there is a switch of mode. However, the mode-reset countermeasure can be thwarted by using only the test mode of a secure chip. In this paper, we perform a detailed analysis on the test-mode-only scan attack. We propose attacks on an advanced encryption standard (AES) design with a basic scan architecture as well as on an AES design with an advanced DfT infrastructure that comprises decompressors and compactors. The attack results show that indeed the secure chips are vulnerable to test-mode-only attacks. The secret key can be recovered within 1 s even in the presence of decompressors and compactors. We then propose new countermeasures to thwart these attacks. The proposed countermeasures incur minimal cost while providing high success rate. View full abstract»

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  • Modeling, Detection, and Diagnosis of Faults in Multilevel Memristor Memories

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 822 - 834
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    Memristors are an attractive option for use in future memory architectures but are prone to high defect densities due to the nondeterministic nature of nanoscale fabrication. Several works discuss memristor fault models and testing. However, none of them considers the memristor as a multilevel cell (MLC). The ability of memristors to function as an MLC allows for extremely dense, low-power memories. Using a memristor as an MLC introduces fault mechanisms that cannot occur in typical two-level memory cells. In this paper, we develop fault models for memristor-based MLC crossbars. The typical approach to testing a memory subsystem entails testing one memory cell at a time. However, this testing strategy is time consuming and does not scale for dense, memristor memories. We propose an efficient testing technique that exploits sneak-paths inherent in crossbar memories to test several memory cells simultaneously. In this paper, we integrate solutions for detecting and locating faults in memristors. We develop a power aware built-in self-test solution to detect these faults. We also propose a hybrid diagnosis scheme that uses a combination of sneak-path and March testing to reduce diagnosis time. The proposed schemes enable and leverage sneak-paths during fault detection and diagnosis modes, while disabling sneak-paths during normal operation. The proposed hybrid scheme reduces fault detection and diagnosis time by 24.69% and 28%, respectively, compared to traditional March tests. View full abstract»

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  • An Expert CAD Flow for Incremental Functional Diagnosis of Complex Electronic Boards

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 835 - 848
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    Functional diagnosis for complex systems can be a very time-consuming and expensive task, trying to identify the source of an observed misbehavior. We propose an automatic incremental diagnostic methodology and CAD flow, based on data mining (DM). It is a model-based approach that incrementally determines the tests to be executed to isolate the faulty component, aiming at minimizing the total number of executed tests, without compromising 100% diagnostic accuracy. The DM engine allows for shorter test sequences with respect to other reasoning-based solutions (e.g., Bayesian belief networks), not requiring complex pre and post-conditions management. Experimental results on a large set of synthetic examples and on three industrial boards substantiate the quality of the proposed approach. View full abstract»

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  • Repairing a 3-D Die-Stack Using Available Programmable Logic

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 849 - 861
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    3-D die-stacks hold great promise for increasing system performance, but difficulties in testing dies and assembling a 3-D stack are leading to yield issues and slowing the large scale manufacturing of these devices. In many cases, a single defective die will kill the entire stack. To help mitigate this issue, we explore the possibility of repairing a stack that contains a defective die by utilizing an field programmable gate array (FPGA) that has already been included in the stack for other purposes, such as performance enhancement. Specifically, we propose bypassing the defective portion of a nonprogrammable die by replacing the defective functionality with functionality on the FPGA. In this paper, we discuss what additional logic must be added to an Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) die to allow such a bypass to occur. We then show through detailed simulation of a 2.5-D Xilinx FPGA how bypassing of logic can be achieved and throughput maintained even when the two different dies involved operate at different frequencies. Finally, we explore the performance of this technique in a superscalar, out-of-order processor, where different functional units are marked for replacement. Our simulation results show that not only can we salvage a device that would otherwise have to be discarded, but creating multiple copies of the defective partition in the FPGA can allow us to regain performance even when the latency of the units in the FPGA is longer than that of the original defective copy. View full abstract»

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  • SSD-Tailor: Automated Customization System for Solid-State Drives

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 862 - 866
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Enterprise servers require customized solid-state drives (SSDs) to satisfy their specialized I/O performance and reliability requirements. For effective use of SSDs for enterprise purposes, SSDs must be designed considering requirements such as those related to performance, lifetime, and cost constraints. However, SSDs have numerous hardware and software design options, such as flash memory types and block allocation methods, which have not been well analyzed yet, but on which the SSD performance depends. Furthermore, there is no methodology for determining the optimal design for a particular I/O workload. This paper proposes SSD-Tailor, a customization tool for SSDs. SSD-Tailor determines a near-optimal set of design options for a given workload. SSD designers can use SSD-Tailor to customize SSDs in the early design stage to meet the customer requirements. We evaluate SSD-Tailor with nine I/O workload traces collected from real-world enterprise servers. We observe that SSD-Tailor finds near-optimal SSD designs for these workloads by exploring only about 1% of the entire set of design candidates. We also show that the near-optimal designs increase the average I/O operations per second by up to 17% and decrease the average response time by up to 163% as compared to an SSD with a general design. View full abstract»

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  • Finite State Machines With Input Multiplexing: A Performance Study

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 867 - 871
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    Finite state machines with input multiplexing (FSMIMs) have been proposed in previous works as a technique for efficient mapping FSMs into ROM memory. In this paper, we propose a new architecture for implementing FSMIMs, called FSMIM with state-based input selection, whose goal is to achieve a further reduction in memory usage. This paper also describes in detail the algorithms for generating FSMIMs used by the tool FSMIM-Gen, which has been developed and made available on the Internet for free public use. A comparative study in terms of speed and area between FSMIM approaches and other field programmable gate array-based techniques is presented. The results show that the FSMIM approaches obtain huge reductions in the look-up table (LUT) usage by using a small number of embedded memory blocks. In addition, speed improvements over conventional LUT-based implementations have been obtained in many cases. View full abstract»

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  • IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems publication information

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): C3
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  • IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems information for authors

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): C4
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Aims & Scope

The purpose of this Transactions is to publish papers of interest to individuals in the areas of computer-aided design of integrated circuits and systems.

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Meet Our Editors

Editor-in-Chief

VIJAYKRISHNAN NARAYANAN
Pennsylvania State University
Dept. of Computer Science. and Engineering
354D IST Building
University Park, PA 16802, USA
vijay@cse.psu.edu