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Robot and Human Communication, 1996., 5th IEEE International Workshop on

Date 11-14 Nov. 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 97
  • Proceedings 5th IEEE International Workshop on Robot and Human Communication. RO-MAN'96 TSUKUBA

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • How to measure and to quantify usability attributes of man-machine interfaces

    Page(s): 262 - 267
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    Several views on man-machine interaction are possible to measure usability attributes: 1) the interaction-oriented view, 2) the user-oriented view, 3) the product-oriented view, and 4) the formal view. Two different possibilities of measurement within the product-oriented view are introduced in this paper. Different types of user interfaces can be described and differentiated by the concept of "interaction points". Regarding to the interactive semantic of "functional interaction points" (FIPs), four different types of FIPs must be discriminated: perceptible versus hidden, and dialog versus application oriented type. Based on the concept of FIPs, the dimensions "feedback" and "interactive directness" can be quantified. Both metrics are helpful to classify the most common user interfaces: command, menu, and direct manipulation. The classification can be validated with the outcomes of several empirical comparison studies. View full abstract»

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  • Author index

    Page(s): 551 - 553
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Failure recoverability by exploiting kinematic redundancy

    Page(s): 298 - 305
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    Various physical limitations which exist in the manipulator inverse kinematic system, for example joint travel and velocity limits, induce inevitable motion errors. This paper deals with the problem on how to reconstruct such an inverse kinematic solution using redundancy, in order not to entail any task motion error. By analyzing the error due to hardware limitations with respect to the kinematically decoupled coordinates, we show that the recoverability limitation reduces to the solvability of a reconstruction equation under the feasibility condition. Next it is shown that the reconstruction equation is solvable if the configuration is not a joint-limit singularity. The reconstruction method is proposed based on the geometrical analysis of the recoverability of hardware limitations. The method has the feature that no task motion error is induced by the hardware limitations while minimizing a possible null motion error, under the recoverability assumed View full abstract»

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  • A sensor-based obstacle avoidance for a redundant manipulator using a velocity potential function

    Page(s): 306 - 310
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    A new approach based on artificial potential function is proposed for the obstacle avoidance of redundant manipulators. Unlike the so-called “global” path planning method, which requires expensive computations for the path search before the manipulator starts to move, this new approach, called the “local” path planning, searches the path in real-time using the local distance information. Previous use of artificial potential functions has exhibited local minima in some complex environments. This paper proposes a potential function that has no local minima even for a cluttered environment. The proposed potential function has been implemented for the collision avoidance of a redundant robot in simulation. A simulation is demonstrated on an algorithm that prevents collisions with obstacles by calculating the repulsive potential exerted on links, based on the shortest distance to an object View full abstract»

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  • Stability of real time control of an autonomous mobile robot

    Page(s): 311 - 316
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    In this paper we deal with the stability analysis of the real time control of mobile robots. Of particular importance, the problem of induced random delays caused by the communication network is highlighted. Sufficient conditions are then derived to ensure the closed loop stability of the mobile robot control system View full abstract»

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  • Task planning based on human-robot interaction for autonomous mobile robots

    Page(s): 445 - 450
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    We propose a new method of task planning for autonomous mobile robots based on the properties of human-robot interaction. First, we present a planning method under restricted time for interaction and planning. We divide the planning process into two phases: phase 1 (during human interaction) and phase 2 (after human interaction). Second, we describe an algorithm to generate a plan that realizes simultaneous execution of multiple tasks. These tasks are constructed by a sequence of subtasks, and a new plan is generated by merging a task to the intermediate plan in the incremental planning process. Finally, we examine the effectiveness of this planning method through simulation View full abstract»

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  • Learning from human's strategies of motor control: a challenge for robotic systems design

    Page(s): 223 - 228
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    In areas such as tele-operation or assistance to humans with disabilities, it is of prime importance to design robots and machines which are consistent with human behavior. In this context, it is believed that the analysis of how humans perform trajectory formation, inverse kinematics and dynamics problems, in daily human motion, will be helpful in designing such complex systems. In this paper, we describe the different ways of solving ill-posed problems in motor control and concentrate on the feedforward aspects of motor control, the transfer of information from sensory to motor stages and the generation of motor command View full abstract»

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  • Human friendly teaching for industrial robots

    Page(s): 456 - 460
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    This paper considers a human friendly teaching method which can be used by every human being. The method represents robots' motion by a set of keywords which are frequently used in daily conversation. The sequence of keywords is interpreted as a sequence of robot command, and realized our intended motion. This paper also considers a method which translates human gesture to the keywords, because human gesture greatly assists to describe our intention as a set of keywords. To avoid mis-operation, we can also verify the consistency between the human gesture and typed keywords. Moreover, keyword description enables us to expand the interface to being more human friendly View full abstract»

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  • Real-time facial interaction between human and 3D face robot agent

    Page(s): 401 - 409
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    We attempt to introduce a 3D realistic human-like animate face robot to human-robot communication modality. The face robot can recognize human facial expressions as well as produce realistic facial expressions in real time. For the animate face robot to communicate interactively, we propose a new concept of “active human interface”, and we investigate the performance of real-time recognition of facial expressions by neutral network (NN) and the expression ability of facial messages on the face robot. We found that the NN recognition of facial expressions and face robots performance in generating facial expressions are of almost the same level as that in humans. We integrate these two component technologies for the face to produce facial expression in reaction to the recognition result of human facial expression in real time. This implies a high technological potential for the animate face robot to undertakes interactive communication with human when an artificial emotion being implemented View full abstract»

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  • Toward constructing a dialogue management model for Kyowa

    Page(s): 489 - 494
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    Utterances in a Japanese dialogue are usually overlapped by Aiduchi (back channel), making up for another's words, and so on. Such a dialogue is called Kyowa (collaborative dialogue) in Japanese. In Kyowa, two persons utterances constitute a single sentence. We have to construct a sentence in Kyowa collaboratively. We make our dialogue Kyowa for the purpose of enhancing a social human relation rather than insisting on our own opinion. Our aim is to construct a Kyowa-type dialogue management model and to implement it on a computer. We conducted an experiment in which the subjects' dialogue was expected to be of Kyowa-type, and we collected the dialogues. We used two experimental settings, “visual and audio” and “audio only”, and here we report features found when analyzing these dialogues View full abstract»

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  • Decentralized cooperation between multiple manipulators

    Page(s): 183 - 188
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    Mobile manipulation capabilities are key to many new applications of robotics in space, underwater, construction, and service environments. This article discusses the ongoing effort at Stanford University for the development of multiple mobile manipulation systems and presents the basic models and methodologies for their analysis and control. We present the extension of these methodologies to mobile manipulation systems and propose a new decentralized control structure for cooperative tasks. The article also discusses experimental results obtained with two holonomic mobile manipulation platforms we have designed and constructed at Stanford University View full abstract»

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  • One-dimensional stochastic models for spontaneous and burst blink

    Page(s): 229 - 231
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    The present study proposed one-dimensional stochastic diffusion models for spontaneous eyeblink and analyzed and discussed the blink burst during low vigilance. The models presumed the interblink interval distribution to be first-passage-time probability densities of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. To estimate the parameters, the behaviour of upper eyelids was optically measured when the vigilance of the subjects was high and low, and transformed into point series data. The observed data was in good agreement with the model output and the threshold of a virtual blink generator changed with vigilance. It became evident that the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck first-passage-time models are valid spontaneous blink models and that the burst patterns occur because of a shift of the threshold View full abstract»

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  • Design and experimental test of a new robot foot for a quadrupedal jointed-leg type walking robot

    Page(s): 317 - 322
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    This paper presents the development of a new foot for a quadrupedal jointed-leg type walking robot. The foot has two toes, each at the front and the rear side, for stable landing on uneven ground by point contacts. The toes can move up and down independently, guided by double-wishbone shaped parallel links which enable the lower leg to rotate with respect to a remote center on the ground surface. The motion of each toe is damped by a hydropneumatic shock absorber integrated in the foot in order to absorb the dynamic landing shock. Furthermore, the new foot can reduces the maximum hip joint torque by shortening the moment arm length between the hip joint and the acting point of the reaction force vector on the ground. Intensive experiments were carried out in this study by using a one-leg walking model to investigate the soft landing performance of the foot, which could hardly be achieved by conventional robot foot such as a flat plate with a gimbal type ankle joint. It was verified that the hip joint torque could greatly be reduced by using this new foot View full abstract»

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  • Human-robot-interface for intelligent service robot assistance

    Page(s): 177 - 182
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    Information exchange requirements between a human operator and a semi-autonomous service robot operating in a remote environment are discussed in this paper. The resulting human-robot-interface (MRI) allows specification of various types of robot commands by use of an advanced system for natural spoken user-independent speech understanding and flexible command generation. Visual screen-based monitoring and support of complex operations is achieved by means of an animated 3D environmental model augmented by the image of an onboard CCD camera. Typical features of the MRI are demonstrated through experiments performed with the service robot ROMAN View full abstract»

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  • Adaptive interaction in virtual worlds using evolutionary algorithms

    Page(s): 102 - 106
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    In virtual worlds, artificial agents interact with human controlled clones. Our previous studies on the InVitram simulation model, where behaviors were described by PROLOG-like rules show the difficulty it is to tune these local behaviors to produce a coherent response to human inputs. In this article, we present a model for the automatic generation of virtual entities dealing with local and global control systems View full abstract»

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  • Virtual reality and robotics in medicine

    Page(s): 16 - 25
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    Virtual reality and robotics are teaming to revolutionize the art of medicine, from student training, to diagnosis, anesthesia, surgery and rehabilitation. This paper surveys several key aspects of medical VR including organ modeling, tissue compliance and cutting, and the Teleos Toolkit. This is followed by a review of medical robotics from the kinematics and safety points of view, including special-purpose manipulators and force feedback masters. Finally, we present applications in the areas of tumor palpation, epidural anesthesia, laparoscopic surgery, as well as open and telesurgery View full abstract»

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  • On a decision making system with emotion

    Page(s): 461 - 465
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    This paper proposes a decision making system and its process of the evolution. By evolving, this system comes to decide its action as if it has an emotion. According to the URGE theory asserted by Masanao Toda (1993), emotion is the most optimized and fundamental decision making system. If it is possible to generate such a system artificially, it may be applied in various engineering fields. Conventional decision making systems never have such an emotional nature. Thus, we started the research of the decision making system with emotion, which may have many possibilities. As the first step, we are trying to make an emotional feature that is included in the decision making system of ovulating. This paper reports an example of an evolutional system that determines actions of virtual creatures in a virtual environment View full abstract»

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  • Construction of KANSEI model for the planning of bowing in violin playing

    Page(s): 422 - 427
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    This study aims to clarify the effect of KANSEI information on human motion through considering the planning of violin playing. To clarify the relationship between timbre which is considered as KANSEI information, playing parameters and the frequency spectrum of the sounds, sensuous tests by the SD method and frequency analysis by FFT were carried out. This paper describes the results of the sensuous tests and frequency analysis on violin sounds and the KANSEI model constructed from them View full abstract»

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  • New trends in legged robots teleoperation

    Page(s): 232 - 237
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    This paper considers legged robot teleoperation using advanced supervisory tools. It is nowadays recognized that designing completely autonomous robots to act in unstructured or not well known environments is a utopic goal. The human operator must be kept in the control loop (supervision) during the exploratory or manipulation procedure. We propose to use virtual reality (VR) technology to enhance human-legged robot control. However, contrary to other robot (arm, gripper) teleoperation, the sensory data feedback are an interpretation of robot sensors information and an adequate sensory substitution. Preliminary results on true robot teleoperation is presented, results are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Human shape recognition performance and pin-matrix density in a 3 dimensional tactile display

    Page(s): 513 - 518
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    The purpose of this paper is to provide the relationship between the pin-matrix density of a tactile display and the recognition performance of displayed 3-dimensional shapes. Three kinds of pin-matrix tactile displays, that generate 3D shapes, were used for the experiment. The pitch of pin was 5mm, 3mm, 2mm for each. As we assumed that surfaces, edges and vertices were the primitive information of the 3D shapes, tested shapes were classified into these three categories. The results obtained revealed that performance has different relationships to pin pitch with different shape primitives. The results of this study should be effective as fundamental knowledge to be used in developing tactile presentation devices, which have been receiving attention in recent years in the study of human interfaces, especially in the area of virtual reality technology View full abstract»

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  • Self-similarity coding of random texture with applications to design and detection of complicated patterns

    Page(s): 370 - 375
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    A dynamic scheme is presented for identifying generation processes of complicated patterns. Patterns with random textures are filtered to yield a discrete feature pattern. This feature pattern is successively expanded for estimating self-similar partition. A set of reduced affine mappings is specified through joint statistic-geometry analysis of the partition. The coding method is applied to design and detection of complicated patterns View full abstract»

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  • Design of interactive interfaces to detect conceptual difference

    Page(s): 525 - 530
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    Conceptual difference among different people is a serious problem on a group knowledge acquisition system and a creative thinking support system in which different people are concerned. In this paper, we study conceptual difference among different people and describe a method of detecting it in the case that different symbols are used in the same meaning and/or the same symbols are used in different meanings. Conceptual difference is defined and the outline of our system is described. The detecting algorithm is designed, and then a prototype system and its evaluation is introduced View full abstract»

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  • Recognition of facial expressions using HMM with continuous output probabilities

    Page(s): 323 - 328
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    Facial expression recognition is an important technology fundamental to realize intelligent image coding systems and advanced man-machine interfaces in visual communication systems. In the computer vision field, many techniques have been developed to recognize facial expressions. However, most of these techniques are based on static features extracted from one or two still images. Those techniques are not robust against noise and cannot recognize subtle changes in facial expressions. In this paper we use hidden Markov models (HMM) with continuous output probabilities to extract a temporal pattern of facial motion. In order to improve the recognition performance, we propose a new feature obtained from wavelet transform coefficients. For the evaluation, we use 180 image sequences taken from three male subjects. Using these image sequences, the recognition rate for user trained mode achieved 98% compared with 84% using our previous method. The recognition rate for user independent mode achieved 84% when the expressions were restricted to four expressions View full abstract»

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  • Pattern classification of time-series EEG signals using neural networks

    Page(s): 217 - 222
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    This paper proposes a pattern classification method of time-series EEG signals using neural networks. To achieve successful classification for non-stationary EEG signals, a new network structure that combines a probabilistic neural network and recurrent neural filters is used. This network is suitable for expressing statistical and time-varying characteristics of time-series EEG signals. In the experiments, two types of photic stimulation caused by eye opening/closing and by artificial light are used to measure the EEG data. It is shown that the proposed network can achieve high classification performance View full abstract»

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