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Intelligent Robots and Systems '96, IROS 96, Proceedings of the 1996 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on

8-8 Nov. 1996

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  • 1996 IEEE/RSJ International Conference On Intelligent Robots And Systems

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):0_3 - xxxv
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  • Virtual actuator control

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1219 - 1226 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (21)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB)

    Robots typically have an individual actuator at each joint which can result in a nonintuitive and difficult control problem. In this paper we present a control method in which the real joint actuators are used to mimic virtual actuators which can be more intuitive and hence make the control problem more straightforward. Our virtual actuator control method requires a solution to the force distribut... View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic modelling and mass matrix evaluation of the DELTA parallel robot for axes decoupling control

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1211 - 1218 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (25)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (628 KB)

    The recent development of the direct drive DELTA, a 3 to 4 degree-of-freedom parallel robot dedicated to pick and place operations, opened a number of new perspectives in the domain of fast and accurate handling of light objects. The elimination of reduction gearing in these designs although improving acceleration capabilities has the disadvantage of increasing mechanical couplings between robot a... View full abstract»

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  • Stability analysis of force reflecting telerobotic systems

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1374 - 1379 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (488 KB)

    In the paper we aim to enhance the understanding of the effects of system properties, most notably the role of slave damping, on the performance of force reflecting teleoperators. Building on work by Daniel and McAree we argue that if a slave manipulator is critically damped then system performance, as measured by the maximum achievable force reflection ratio, becomes independent of the mass and s... View full abstract»

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  • Hand action perception for robot programming

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1586 - 1593 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1004 KB)

    This paper presents a general and robust approach to hand action perception for automatic robot programming using depth image sequences. The human instructor must simply demonstrate an assembly task in front of a vision system in the human world; no dataglove or special markings are necessary. The recorded image sequences are used to recover a depth image sequence for model-based human hand and ob... View full abstract»

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  • Distance-invariant object recognition in natural scenes

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1433 - 1439 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB)

    An efficient approach to object recognition was developed. It eliminates by a model-based subsampling of images the differences of the sizes of object images that are caused by varying distances. The distance-invariant images both simplify and-due to their reduced number of pixels-help to accelerate object recognition. This model-based subsampling has been used for creating a database of distance-... View full abstract»

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  • A fleet of autonomous and cooperative mobile robots

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1112 - 1117 vol.3
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    We present and discuss a generic cooperative scheme for multirobot cooperation. It is based on an incremental and distributed plan-merging process. We discuss the properties of this cooperative scheme (coherence, detection of dead-lock situations) as well as the class of applications for which it is well suited. We also discuss how this paradigm “fills the gap” between centralized plan... View full abstract»

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  • Realtime reinforcement learning for a real robot in the real environment

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1321 - 1328 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (892 KB)

    For a real robot to acquire behaviors, it is important for it to learn in a real environment. Most reinforcement learning research has been made by simulation because real-environment learning requires large computation costs as well as a lot of time. Realizing reinforcement learning of a physical robot in a real environment requires both an adaptation for the diversity of possible situations and ... View full abstract»

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  • A human interface which enables natural view selection during tele-micro-surgery

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1203 - 1210 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1544 KB)

    In tele-micro-surgery, as in most tele-micro-handling systems, it is necessary to view the working space from various view angles and magnification ratios without disturbing the operation. This paper describes a human interface which enables selection of a natural view direction and magnification ratio through recognition of the posture change of the operator. The system observes the operator and ... View full abstract»

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  • Reinforcement learning of sensor-based reaching strategies for a two-link manipulator

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1345 - 1352 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB)

    This paper presents a neural controller that learns goal-oriented obstacle-avoiding reaction strategies for a multilink robot arm. It acquires these strategies through reinforcement learning from local sensory data. The robot arm has rings of range sensors placed along its links. The neural controller achieves a good performance quite rapidly and shows good generalization abilities in the face of ... View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and control of master-slave systems with time delay

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1366 - 1373 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (19)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (584 KB)

    Time delay usually makes master-slave systems unstable, even if the system is stable under no time delay. In this paper, we propose a control scheme for master-slave systems with time delay which maintains stability defined by scattering theory. We define four types of realization of the ideal response and describe control schemes which strictly realize the ideal response. Based on these schemes, ... View full abstract»

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  • An environment for compliant motion programming by human demonstration

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1579 - 1585 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (784 KB)

    An integrated system for programming by demonstration, visualizing, and executing compliant motion programs is described. A human operator utilises a joystick to guide a robot with a force sensor to do a task including continuous contact between manipulator and environment. The demonstration may be executed either on an actual robot, or in a graphically simulated environment. During the demonstrat... View full abstract»

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  • Neural network-based modeling of robot action effects in conceptual state space of real world

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1149 - 1156 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (656 KB)

    This paper gives the concept of an autonomous robotic agent that is capable of showing both machine learning and reactive behavior. The first methodology is used to collect information about the environment and to plan robot actions based on this information while the robot is performing tasks. Processing and storing information obtained during several task executions is called lifelong learning. ... View full abstract»

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  • General plane curve matching under affine transformations

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1425 - 1432 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (600 KB)

    It is common to use an affine transformation to approximate in dealing with the matching of plane curves under a projective transformation. The plane curve itself can be used as an identity to solve the parameters of an affine transformation. The objective of this paper is to obtain a closed form solution of the parameters using low order derivatives of the plane curve. A unique solution to the pa... View full abstract»

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  • Determination of contact forces in grasping

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1038 - 1044 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (444 KB)

    The determination of contact forces between a grasped object and fingers of a robot hand is treated in this research. In previous research on fingertip grasps, the underlying assumption is generally that the fingers can apply any required force. In cases of enveloping or power grasps, the latter assumption does not always hold because same components of the contact forces may not be controllable. ... View full abstract»

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  • The Rocky 7 Mars rover prototype

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1558 - 1564 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (42)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB)

    This paper provides a system overview of a new Mars rover prototype, Rocky 7. We describe all system aspects: mechanical and electrical design, computer and software infrastructure, algorithms for navigation and manipulation, science data acquisition, and outdoor rover testing. In each area, the improved or added functionality is explained in a context of its path to flight, and need within the co... View full abstract»

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  • Visual servoing based on the use of binocular visual space

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1104 - 1111 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (556 KB)

    We propose a simple visual servoing scheme based on the use of binocular visual space. When we use a hand-eye system which has a similar kinematic structure to a human being, we can approximate the transformation from a binocular visual space to a joint space of the manipulator as a linear time-invariant mapping. This relationship makes it possible to generate joint velocities from image observati... View full abstract»

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  • Optimal 3D viewing with adaptive stereo displays for advanced telemanipulation

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1007 - 1014 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (624 KB)

    A method of optimal 3D viewing based on adaptive displays of stereo images is presented for advanced telemanipulation. The method provides the viewer with the capability of accurately observing a virtual 3D object or local scene of his/her choice with minimum distortion. The viewer is allowed to define a virtual 3D object or local scene at a desired depth as a scaled version of a real 3D object or... View full abstract»

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  • Trajectory planning and feedforward control of a tethered robot system

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1530 - 1535 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (460 KB)

    The authors previously (1996) proposed a new type of space robot system, consisting of a spacecraft and a robot attached through a tether to it. This system is called a “tethered robot system.” In this paper, we clarify the characteristics of the tethered robot system, and especially focus on position control of the center of mass of the robot. Tether tension is used to control the pos... View full abstract»

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  • Guiding robot motion using zooming and focusing

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1076 - 1082 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1276 KB)

    This work explores hand-eye coordination of robots by using a camera with functions of zooming and focusing. Under the guidance of the camera, a robot hand can arrive at an object to manipulate it in the 3D space. The hand movement is decomposed into the move parallel to the image plane and the move in depth, which are controlled from image position and focus value of the hand. The focal value is ... View full abstract»

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  • On reinforcement learning for robots

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1319 - 1320 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (7)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB)

    In the paper the author considers: what reinforcement learning is; what makes reinforcement learning difficult; biasing reinforcement learning; and integrating reinforcement learning into agent architectures View full abstract»

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  • Teleoperation characteristics and human response factor in relation to a robotic welding system

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1195 - 1202 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB)

    A remote robotic welding system has been built consisting of a six degree-of-freedom master manipulator, a stereo monitoring system, a computer control system and a slave PUMA robot. The hand-eye coordination, the human hand respondent simulation test and the influence of master unbalanced torque on arc welding master-slave teleoperation characteristics are discussed. In this paper, the power spec... View full abstract»

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  • Vision-based visual/haptic registration for WYSIWYF display

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1386 - 1393 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1272 KB)

    We have been working on developing a visual/haptic interface for virtual environments. The authors have previously (1996) proposed a WYSIWYF (What You See Is What You Feel) concept which ensures a correct visual/haptic registration so that what the user can see via a visual interface is consistent with what he/she can feel through a haptic interface. The key components of the WYSIWYF display are (... View full abstract»

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  • A face robot able to recognize and produce facial expression

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1600 - 1607 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (776 KB)

    We are attempting to introduce a 3-dimensional realistic human-like animate face robot to interactive communication modality. The face robot can recognize human facial expressions as well as produce realistic facial expressions. For the face robot to communicate interactively, we propose a new concept of “Active Human Interface”; and we investigate the performance of real-time recognit... View full abstract»

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  • Motion planning on rough terrain for an articulated vehicle in presence of uncertainties

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):1126 - 1133 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (10)  |  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1176 KB)

    This paper addresses motion planning for a mobile robot moving on a rough terrain. Simeon and Dacre-Wright proposed (1993) a geometrical planner for a particular architecture of robot, based on a discrete search technique operating in the (x, y, θ) configuration space of the robot, and on the evaluation of elementary feasible paths between two configurations. The overall efficiency of the ap... View full abstract»

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