By Topic

Electronics & the Environment, Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Symposium on

Date 7-10 May 2007

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 55
  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): i
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (461 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • [Breaker page]

    Page(s): ii
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (518 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Scope and Format

    Page(s): iii
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (796 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Contributor listings

    Page(s): iv
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (354 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): v - ix
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (276 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Eco-Efficiency for Information and Communications Technology (ICT): The State of Knowledge in Japan

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3660 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent years, a growing number of companies have been using eco-efficiency as an indicator of environmental performance in Japan. In 2006, Japan environmental efficiency forum developed the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) eco-efficiency evaluation guidelines, which activated implementation of eco-efficiency evaluations for ICT by Japanese industries. This presentation will focus on the state of knowledge of evaluation of environmental impact of ICT as well as the development of eco-efficiency guidelines for ICT in Japan. In addition, a comparative eco-efficiency case study for a videoconference and face-to-face meeting are presented. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Environmental Impact Assessment Logic for ICT systems named SI-LCA and its Case Example

    Page(s): 6 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3345 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    have studied about assessment for ICT environmental impact and finally developed an assessment logic named SI-LCA1 (system integration LCA) that quantitatively evaluates whole life cycle environmental impact with CO2 emission for ICT solutions. SI-LCA is not only compliant with "guideline for information and communication technology (ICT) Eco-Efficiency Evaluation" instituted by The Japan Forum on eco-efficiency in 2006 but also one of the most important basic logics for the guideline. In this paper, we show a case example of SI-LCA assessment and then show evaluation of ICT eco-efficiency and factor. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Material Flow Analysis of ICT Business

    Page(s): 12 - 15
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (968 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We determined the material flow of a Japanese telephone corporation. We used a modified input-output table intended for LCA and found that the calculated annual input flow in weight was 93% compared with the annual output flow. This result indicates the change in total assets. We suggest that we could use this method for calculating the macro material flow. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • New Index for Social Impact Assessment of ICT Services

    Page(s): 16 - 18
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2485 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new index is developed for evaluating the contribution of ICT services to the realization of a sustainability society. This new index, named the gross social feel-good (GSF) index", allows us to evaluate both the positive and negative effects of ICT services in terms of their environmental, social and economic influences. In addition, the GSF index includes a happiness index that indicates people's feelings with ICT services. We proposed a method for evaluating the happiness index that is based on the results of questionnaires about the necessity, usability and impression of ICT services. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Environmental burden assessment method for ICT solutions

    Page(s): 19 - 24
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4028 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We have developed a method for evaluating the possibility of reducing environmental burden through the introduction of ICT solutions, based on ICT's environmental efficiency evaluation guideline. The method used calculates the environmental burden (CO2 emissions) before and after the introduction of our ICT solution with respect to seven environmental factors, including resource consumption and human transportation. What is prominent in our system particularly is that the increase and decrease of office spaces as a result of introducing ICT required for work (working efficiency), documents, equipment, etc., is included as a subject for evaluation as office spaces. In addition to evaluation of the environmental burden, eco-efficiency and the factor were considered through the case study. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • The Role of Brand Information in State Financing Systems in the United States

    Page(s): 25 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8740 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper explores the use of brand markings as the basis for assigning manufacturer responsibility in electronics recycling systems in the United States. The research reviews branding history and practices in the electronics industry and recommends actions to record brands more accurately in the future. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Costa Rica advances towards a sustainable management of e-waste

    Page(s): 31 - 33
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (981 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Costa Rica is presently working to establish a sustainable e-waste management system, which becomes a pioneering effort coming from a developing country. After a diagnostic study, a strategy for e-waste management has been proposed by a National Technical Committee conformed by the major stakeholders. The results on the implementation will be presented. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Methodological Study and Application on Technology Policies of PCs Recycling in China

    Page(s): 34 - 39
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4523 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    China faces great challenge on e-waste problems. Lacking of controllable collection system and compatible management measures, advanced recycling technologies and effective technology policies has resulted in out-of-order flow of e-waste and serious environmental pollution during disassembly and recycling. How to constitute scientifically decision-making technical policies of e-waste treatment and disposal becomes a significant topic in terms of constructing a resource saving and environmentally sound society in China. In this paper, waste PCs were selected as the tracer and possible collection routes and recycling methods of waste PCs were designed. A new method of material flow analysis in combination with economic stream analysis of PCs was created and a Monte-Carlo mathematical model of cost minimization in the constraints of environmental sound handling of waste PCs was established. By following the streams of different treatment processes consisting of various technologies from collection, transport, treatment, recycling and disposal of waste PCs, the economic distribution in terms of possibility functions was identified. Every technical step was evaluated economically. The optimal treatment/ disposal technology proposed was the ones with high possibilities in the model calibration results. Results showed that operation life span plays the key role. The model supports the process of maintenance for the short lasting PCs. For the long lasting PCs, following recycling and disposal technologies combinations are recommended: mechanical recycling for waste plastics, electronic wire heater method to separate panel glass and cone glass, panel glass recycling as panel glass raw material, cone glass recycling as cone glass raw material". Results also showed that for waste printed circuit boards, content of noble metals is the key factor for selection of mechanical treatment technology. When Au content is below 1 g/t, "wet shredding + water table separation " is an opti- mal flowsheet; when Au content is above 1 g/t, "dry shedding +electrostatic separation +centrifugal separation " is the best choice. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • WEEE recycling in China. Present situation and main obstacles for improvement

    Page(s): 40 - 45
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1734 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Presently the waste processing and recycling of electronics in China is managed mostly by informal recycling businesses. This sector runs a considerable risk of causing environmental and occupational hazard. It also loses valuable materials by applying inappropriate recycling techniques. Formal recycling industries have to compete with informal businesses, whilst still complying with environmental and occupational regulations. Several obstacles prevent formal recycling businesses from becoming competitive, such as the fact that the formal sector finds it difficult to collect sufficient waste volumes due to international bans on waste imports, and high costs for collecting domestic obsolete equipment. In this paper, the costs of collection and transport for five products were analyzed within both formal and informal recycling industries. The payment to owners at the point of collection is the biggest financial burden recyclers have to carry. Formal businesses have no other choice but to buy obsolete equipment from households or industries. Within the national pilot project, which investigates the strategies to establish an e-waste management system in China, authorities should consider providing financial support for e-waste collection. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Material flow of used PCs in Japan

    Page(s): 46 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3112 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We estimated the material flow of used PCs in Japan, both before and after the enforcement of a household PC recycling system, by minimizing the errors in material flow data. The number of PCs reused in the country and the number exported as secondhand were also estimated. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Sustainable Engineering Education: Translating Myth to Mechanism

    Page(s): 52 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (590 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The path towards sustainable engineering education is evident, but not trivial. It requires that engineering professors recognize and be able to communicate the mythic nature of the sustainability discourse, and from there create mechanisms that can be understood by their students that translate the precatory language of sustainability into useful input. Continued expansion of industrial ecology methods to include cultural and social considerations, and practice in reducing complex states to quantitative inputs into engineering methodologies, offers one such route. But the engineering education community will also need to revisit its current structure with a view towards principled reform. In particular, the slow progress towards recognition of the masters as the professional level degree should be accelerated by those interested in being able to teach sustainable engineering, and courses which emphasize the quadruple bottom line context within which much modern engineering must be done will need to be developed. Beyond that, especially given the rapid rates of change of technology systems, and the social, economic and environmental systems coupled to them, explicit lifetime learning structures for engineers, and for engineering professors, need to be developed and institutionalized. Taken as a whole, this suggests that expectations of quick fixes through incremental improvements are too optimistic, and that achieving an educational structure that produces professionals skilled in sustainable engineering will require decades of hard work and continued intellectual exploration. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Positive Trends and Opportunities for Sustainable Design in Operations Management Textbooks With Examples from the Electronics Industry

    Page(s): 57 - 60
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (424 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In recent editions of operations management textbooks, sections have been added on topics related to sustainable design. Many of the textbook discussions illustrate design for environment, remanufacturing, and recycling with examples from the electronics industry. Building on this positive trend, this paper points out how educators can further enhance student learning by expanding existing exercises and discussions with additional resources. The paper concludes with a call to integrate sustainable design concepts into operations management and other non-environmental engineering fields that impact product design. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Embedded Simulation Models in Educational Games on Environmental Issues for Engineering Students

    Page(s): 61 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5214 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A Monte Carlo simulation model was developed to provide tradeoff information about environmental issues and production costs after students play an educational game managing a simplified automobile supply chain. Two performance measures are tracked in the model, total production cost and an environmental green score. Results help students understand the effects of different management approaches to environmentally conscious manufacturing decisions. The simulation was run for a range of management philosophies and results analyzed for potential value to improve learning experiences. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Journey from Environmental Compliance to Stewardship

    Page(s): 67 - 72
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1478 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The European Union RoHS and WEEE directives have sensitized the electronics industry on the challenges of compliance along with an increasing awareness on the effects of the electronic products on the environment. Similar upcoming regulations from US, China, Japan, Korea and other jurisdictions have highlighted the importance of a focused and dedicated effort and appropriate resources aimed at complying with environmental regulations in a timely manner, thereby minimizing disruptions of the normal course of business. In anticipation of and preparing for future environmental regulations, along with a heightened sensitivity toward the environmental challenges facing the planet, a program was launched at Palm to provide a structured approach for compliance - with efforts going above and beyond compliance - which eventually would lead to environmental stewardship. This paper will present the Palm approach and philosophy behind this effort, lessons learned, and a look at the company's future direction in the journey from environmental compliance to stewardship. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Electrical & Electronic Equipment: Flame Retardant Regulatory Issues

    Page(s): 73 - 78
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1809 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Plastics are used in numerous electrical and electronic products that help make our lives easier and more productive. Many of these products that we use on a daily basis contain flame retardants as a passive means of fire protection to help safeguard society. In the end-use application, flame retardants delay the spread of fires or delay the time of flashover in order to enable people more time to escape the effects of the fires. The ultimate purpose of their use is to save lives, reduce injury, reduce destruction of property, and reduce local pollutants that result from fires. Research confirms that since the use of flame retardants in TV applications began, a substantial reduction in fire deaths has been achieved. The primary flame retardant resins used in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) housings include HIPS, ABS, PC/ABS blends, and PPO/HIPS blends. Brominated flame retardants are utilized in EEE applications containing HIPS and ABS resins, while phosphorus flame retardants are normally utilized in PC/ABS blends and PPO/HIPS blends. The printed wiring boards in EEE applications contain a polymeric coating that typically has a flame retardant reacted into the polymer backbone. There are other flame retardant plastics contained in EEE, such as connectors and wire & cable coatings that contain a variety of flame retardants, depending on the particular resin used. Flame retardants have received a considerable amount of negative publicity due to perceived environmental and toxicological issues. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Checking the Accuracy of Environmental Data for Compliance with Environmental Rules

    Page(s): 79 - 84
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3593 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The worldwide spread of environmental rules concerning electrical and electronic equipment has increased the need for improved efficiency of Design for Environment (DfE). At present, assembly manufacturers request parts suppliers to submit parts data to confirm compliance with environmental rules. Assembly manufacturers are especially interested in the chemical content of parts. When confirming the accuracy of the data, an analytical instrument is often utilized by both assembly manufacturers and parts suppliers. However, it takes a huge number of man-hours. To solve this problem, we have proposed methodology to check the accuracy of environmental data, especially the chemical content of parts, without using an analytical instrument. Here we have developed logic to extract benchmark data and the trend of substance use from the existing parts database by applying statistical processes. "Benchmark data" are used for comparison to confirm environmental data for parts. We also developed a tool that produces a benchmark map, which is a matrix of benchmark data. As a result we found that each material or parts classification has different benchmark data and its trend. By our proposed method, we conclude that the use of benchmark data will reduce the risk of nonconformity or the number of man-hours needed for parts selection and parts qualification. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Modeling Production Costs for SWNT Manufacturing Given Uncertain Health and Safety Standards

    Page(s): 85 - 90
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4979 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A Monte Carlo cost model was developed to assess production costs of alternate manufacturing processes (HiPco, arc ablation, chemical vapor deposition) for single wall carbon nanotubes, given considerable uncertainty about occupational risk and future potential environmental health and safety (EHS) standards. Various assumptions regarding levels and implementation rates of EHA requirements were modeled as stochastic events and examined for their impact on the production cost expected values, variances, and probability distributions. Preliminary results suggest that in some cases voluntarily adopting higher standards than initially required can lead to lowest expected cost with the least uncertainty. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design for Environment in New Semiconductor Manufacturing Technologies

    Page(s): 91 - 96
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5224 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we provide data on the environmental performance improvements achieved during the conversion from manufacturing semiconductors on 200 mm silicon wafer to manufacturing on 300 mm. Conclusions identify approaches to continue the environmental improvements in future manufacturing generations. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Operational Energy Analysis of Plasmonic Imaging Lithography

    Page(s): 97 - 101
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1616 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Plasmonic imaging lithography (PIL) is a new direct-write lithograghy process based on disk drive technology. Using the benchmark of similarly scaled masked and maskless lithography processes, this paper evaluates the operational energy use of PIL, as a component of manufacturing and environmental impact analysis. This study serves two purposes: to inform the sustainable development of this emerging technology, and to identify PIL as most appropriate for prototyping or highly agile manufacturing of 11 or fewer wafers per design change. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Environmental Challenges for 45-nm and 32-nm node CMOS Logic

    Page(s): 102 - 105
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1401 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The objective of this work is to understand the materials and energy requirements, and emissions associated with new semiconductor manufacturing technology nodes. Current and near-future CMOS technologies (for the 45-nm and 32-nm nodes) are investigated using an inventory based on bottom-up process data. The process flow of the CMOS chip is modeled by updating an existing inventory analysis (for 130 nm node devices) to include strained Si channels, metal gates, 10 layers of interconnect and high-k gate dielectrics used in 45-nm and 32-nm CMOS nodes. Conclusions are made concerning emissions of new materials and trends in life cycle energy consumption of logic devices. View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.