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Cluster Computing and the Grid, 2007. CCGRID 2007. Seventh IEEE International Symposium on

Date 14-17 May 2007

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  • Seventh IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid - Cover

    Page(s): c1
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  • Seventh IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid - Title page

    Page(s): i - iii
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  • Seventh IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid - Copyright notice

    Page(s): iv
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  • Seventh IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid - Table of contents

    Page(s): v - xiii
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  • Message from the General Chairs

    Page(s): xiv
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  • Message from the Program Chairs

    Page(s): xvii
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  • Message from the Workshops Chairs

    Page(s): xix
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  • Organizers

    Page(s): xxi
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  • Program Committee

    Page(s): xxii
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  • list-reviewer

    Page(s): xxiv
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  • Toward an International "Computer Science Grid"

    Page(s): 3 - 12
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (543 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The computer science discipline, especially in large scale distributed systems like grids and P2P systems and in high performance computing areas, tends to address issues related to increasingly complex systems, gathering thousands to millions of non trivial components. Theoretical analysis, simulation and even emulation are reaching their limits. Like in other scientific disciplines such as physics, chemistry and life science, there is a need to develop, run and maintain generations of scientific instruments for the observation of complex distributed systems running at real scale and under reproducible experimental conditions. Grid'5000 and DAS3 are two large scale systems designed as scientific instruments for researchers in the domains of grid, P2P and networking. More than testbeds, Grid'5000 and DAS3 have been designed as "computer science grids", where researchers share experimental resources spanning over large geographical distances, are able to reserve resources, configure them, run their experiments, realize precise measurements and replay the same experiments with the same experimental conditions. Computer scientists use these two platforms to address issues in the different software layers between the hardware and the users: networking protocols, OS, middleware, parallel and distributed application runtimes, and applications. In this paper, we will present two computer science grids: Grid '5000 and DAS3. We will describe the motivations, design and current status of these two systems. We will also present some of their key results, not only in terms of scientific results in computer science, but also the impact of these two systems as research tools. The success of the Grid'5000 and DAS platforms is the basis of an international initiative, having the objective to deploy a European level "computer science grid". View full abstract»

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  • Redundancy Management for P2P Storage

    Page(s): 15 - 22
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    P2P storage systems must protect data against temporary unavailability and the effects of churn in order to become platforms for safe storage. This paper evaluates and compares redundancy techniques for P2P storage according to availability, accessibility, and maintainability using traces and theoretical results. View full abstract»

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  • Design and Implementation of a Middleware for Data Storage in Opportunistic Grids

    Page(s): 23 - 30
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    Shared machines in opportunistic grids typically have large quantities of unused disk space. These resources could be used to store application and checkpointing data when the machines are idle, allowing those machines to share not only computational cycles, but also disk space. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of OppStore, a middleware that provides reliable distributed data storage using the free disk space from shared grid machines. The system utilizes a two-level peer-to-peer organization to connect grid machines in a scalable and fault- tolerant way. Finally, we use the concept of virtual ids to deal with resource heterogeneity, enabling heterogeneity- aware load-balancing selection of storage sites. View full abstract»

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  • Cooperative Caching for Grid Based DataWarehouses

    Page(s): 31 - 38
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    In this paper we propose a grid-based OLAP application which distributes query computation across an enterprise grid. Our application follows a two-tiered process for answering queries based on sharing cached OLAP data between the users at the local grid site, and using grid scheduling approaches to execute the remaining parts of a query amongst a distributed set of OLAP servers. A new technique for extraction and aggregation of shared cached OLAP data is proposed, along with an efficient, aggregate-aware cache controller. An experimental evaluation of the proposed query processing and cooperative caching methods shows a significant reduction in query times compared to previously proposed methods. View full abstract»

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  • Active Data: Supporting the Grid Data Life Cycle

    Page(s): 39 - 48
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (237 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Scientific applications often involve computation intensive workflows and may generate large amount of derived data. In this paper we consider a life cycle, which starts when the data is first generated, and tracks its progress through replication, distribution, deletion and possible re-computation. We describe the design and implementation of an infrastructure, called active data, which combines existing grid middleware to support the scientific data lifecycle in a platform-neutral environment. View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Condor-based Services for Distributed Image Analysis

    Page(s): 49 - 56
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (468 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Interactive image processing is an important requirement in many industrial applications, such as the inspection of industrial parts within a manufacturing environment, or the processing of images from surveillance cameras. Being able to achieve this quickly and accurately is often essential for the success of such industrial applications. A service-based approach that autonomously launches Image Analysis Services (accessible through a Central Service Manager) onto spare network resources through a Condor system is presented. This allows high throughput analysis of these images in a dynamic resource pool. The Central Service Manager reacts to new tasks submitted to the Image Analysis Services and is able to add new service instances to manage these tasks dynamically. Each service instance here corresponds to a computational resource that is able to execute image processing algorithms. New service instances may be requested by the Central Service Manager from the Condor system, based on the number of tasks that need to be processed. This enables entire image repositories to be acted upon interactively and in parallel, as opposed to the analysis of single images individually. The approach is demonstrated through a campus-wide test bed utilising a Condor system with 90 machines. View full abstract»

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  • BBCLB: A Bulletin-Board based Cooperative Load Balance Strategy for Service Grid

    Page(s): 57 - 64
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1163 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Although many efforts have been put on the load balance in network and job scheduling systems, most of them, however, can not be applied in the service grid environment directly since they are often designed for a homogeneous system with limited scalability. It is still a challenge problem to balance the load among service grid nodes which are often highly dynamic, heterogeneous and linked by wide-area network. In this paper, we present a load balance strategy using several bulletin-boards as load intermediates among grid nodes. A modified thresholds based load transfer algorithm has been applied with a non-preemptive selection policy. Based on the strategy above, a load balance system is realized in CROWN, a service oriented grid middleware, and deployed in the CROWN testbed. The performance evaluations have shown that our strategy can effectively balance the load of service invocation, and improve the system throughput. View full abstract»

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  • CyberBridges A Model Collaboration Infrastructure for e-Science

    Page(s): 65 - 72
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (251 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The "CyberBridges" pilot project is an innovative model for creating a new generation of scientists and engineers who are capable of fully integrating cyberinfrastructure into the whole educational, professional, and creative process of their respective disciplines. CyberBridges augments graduate student education to include a foundation of understanding in advanced networking and grid infrastructure for high performance computing, and bridges the divide between the information technology community and diverse science and engineering disciplines. We demonstrate the effectiveness of CyberBridges by providing four case studies. Groundwork has begun to extend the outreach of CyberBridges for international research and education collaborations. View full abstract»

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  • Executing Large Parameter Sweep Applications on a Multi-VO Testbed

    Page(s): 73 - 82
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    Applications that span multiple virtual organizations (VOs) are of great interest to the eScience community. However, recent attempts to execute large-scale parameter sweep applications (PSAs) with the Nimrod/G tool have exposed problems in the areas of fault tolerance, data storage and trust management. In response, we have implemented a task-splitting approach, which breaks up large PSAs into a sequence of dependent subtasks, improving fault tolerance; provides a garbage collection technique, which deletes unnecessary data; and employs a trust delegation technique that facilitates flexible third party data transfers across different VOs. View full abstract»

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  • An On-line Algorithm for Fair-Share Node Allocations in a Cluster

    Page(s): 83 - 91
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (291 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Proportional (fair) share schedulers are designed to provide applications with predefined portions of system resources. Single node operating systems use context-switch (preemption) to dynamically allocate the CPU(s) to running processes. This paper presents an online algorithm for proportional share allocations of nodes in a cluster, in a fashion that resembles a single-node system. The algorithm relies on preemptive process migrations for dynamic allocations of nodes to users. The paper presents the algorithm and its performance on a MOSIX organizational Grid with 60 nodes. We show that proportional share allocations can be achieved in a relatively short time (minutes). View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic Scheduling with Process Migration

    Page(s): 92 - 99
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (267 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Process migration is essential for runtime load balancing. In Grid and shared networked environments, load imbalance is not only caused by the dynamic nature of underlying applications, but also by the fluctuation of resource availability. In a shared environment, tasks need to be rescheduled frequently to adapt the variation of resources availability. Unlike conventional task scheduling, dynamic rescheduling has to consider process migration costs in its formulation. In this study, we first model the migration cost and introduce an effective method to predict the cost. We then introduce a dynamic scheduling mechanism that considers migration cost as well as other conventional influential factors for performance optimization in a shared, heterogeneous environment. Finally we present experimental testing to verify the analytical results. Experimental results show that the proposed dynamic scheduling system is feasible and improves the system performance considerably. View full abstract»

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  • Optimizing jobs timeouts on clusters and production grids

    Page(s): 100 - 107
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (293 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a method to optimize the timeout value of computing jobs. It relies on a model of the job execution time that considers the job management system latency through a random variable. It also takes into account a proportion of outliers to model either reliable clusters or production grids characterized by faults causing jobs loss. Job management systems are first studied considering classical distributions. Different behaviors are exhibited, depending on the weight of the tail of the distribution and on the amount of outliers. Experimental results are then shown based on the latency distribution and outlier ratios measured on the EGEE grid infrastructure1. Those results show that using the optimal timeout value provided by our method reduces the impact of outliers and leads to a 1.36 speed-up even for reliable systems without outliers. View full abstract»

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  • A Hybrid Linear Programming and Evolutionary Algorithm based Approach for On-line Resource Matching in Grid Environments

    Page(s): 108 - 118
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (166 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We describe a hybrid linear programming (LP) and evolutionary algorithm (EA) based resource matcher suitable for heterogeneous grid environments. The hybrid matcher adopts the iterative approach of the EA methods to perform a goal oriented search over the solution space and, within each iteration, uses the LP method to solve a partial resource matching problem. By judiciously controlling the partial problem size and its complexity, the hybrid matcher balances the accuracy of the solution and the execution time. We describe a grid management architecture that incorporates the hybrid resource matcher. Performance results indicate that the execution time of the hybrid matcher, under a variety of conditions, is at least as good and often significantly better than the execution time of LP and EA based matchers. The hybrid matcher is found to scale well with the complexity of the problem and to maintain sensitivity to the response time constraints of on-line environments. View full abstract»

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  • A Semantic Framework for Integrated Asset Management in Smart Oilfields

    Page(s): 119 - 126
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (369 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Integrated asset management (IAM) is the vision of IT- enabled transformation of oilfield operations where information integration from a variety of tools for reservoir modeling, simulation, and performance prediction will lead to rapid decision making for continuous production optimization. This paper describes the design of a model-based IAM system for production forecasting. Domain knowledge is captured through a formal modeling language that forms the basis for an intuitive user interface to the system. An IAM metacatalog captures domain knowledge as well as metadata about computational resources and data sets in a single ontological framework, thereby providing a unified mechanism for application, data, and workflow integration . The framework is designed to be portable across oilfield assets, to allow different classes of end users to interact with the integrated system, and to accomodate new domain knowledge, software applications, data sets, and workflows for IAM. View full abstract»

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  • Ontology-based Semantic Integration Scheme for Medical Image Grid

    Page(s): 127 - 134
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (562 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ontology is becoming a key for grid platform to support the composition of heterogeneous resources by means of processing resource description and enactment. MedlmGrid (Medical Image Grid) aims to archive, access, and analyze medical data from distributed healthcare information systems to adapt to the development of healthcare information infrastructure. But the heterogeneities of those systems, especially the semantic gulfs, hamper their interoperations in grid environment. In this paper, we propose an OSIS (ontology-based semantic integration scheme) for MedlmGrid, which adopts a hybrid method to build MedlmGrid ontologies and unifies its information exchange model with HL7 (Health Level 7) v3 protocol. The MedlmGrid ontologies share the same vocabulary to simplify the knowledge discovery and semantic transformation within distributed environment. The rule-based ontology mapping components are also designed to support semantic operations of MedlmGrid. We test the performances of our scheme with simulation experiments to evaluate the feasibility of our approach. View full abstract»

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