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Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 1996, Record of Conference Papers. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Incorporated Industry Applications Society 43rd Annual

Date 23-25 Sept. 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 38
  • Industry Applications Society 43rd Annual Petroleum And Chemical Industry Conference

    Page(s): 0_2
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Proceedings of 1996 IAS Petroleum and Chemical Industry Technical Conference

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Solutions for MV motors and generators in hazardous locations

    Page(s): 61 - 73
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    Many motors and generators are operated in class I locations and must therefore be protected in an appropriate way to eliminate danger to personnel and property. This paper examines arcing and sparking due to stray currents in large motors and generators which may become ignition sources in hazardous locations. It describes theoretical and experimental work and summarizes solutions and the requirements of various National and International Standards View full abstract»

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  • IEEE recommended practice for the testing, design, installation, and maintenance of electrical resistance heat tracing for commercial applications

    Page(s): 43 - 48
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    Specific test requirements for qualifying electrical resistance heating cables for commercial service and a basis for electrical and thermal design are provided. Heater characteristics are addressed and installation and maintenance requirements are detailed. Recommendations and requirements for unclassified heating cable applications are provided View full abstract»

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  • An economical, high temperature, impedance heat exchanger

    Page(s): 247 - 253
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    This paper outlines the methods used to design an impedance-heated fluid heat exchanger. It provides suggestions for determining the method to transfer heat from pipe walls to fluid, to choose electrical pipe wall heating, and to select electrical controls. The paper also provides actual operating data and includes cost and operating advantages of this type of heat exchanger View full abstract»

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  • Advances in cable and conduit sealing for Class 1 hazardous locations

    Page(s): 107 - 113
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    Recent changes to the National Electrical Code (NEC) and to Underwriters Laboratories (UL) standards, coupled with technological changes, present new opportunities for ease of installation, labor saving and reliability of power cables and conduits. New techniques for factory sealing in Division 1 and 2 are explained, as are various methods to achieve 40% conduit fill for sealing fittings. New sealing methods for multiconductor cables in conduits are covered as well as new requirements for metal-clad cable seals for Division 1 View full abstract»

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  • Adjustable frequency drive system for North Sea gas pipeline

    Page(s): 255 - 263
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    The paper provides a brief history and overview of the 100 million cubic meters of gas per day Troll Project, the largest gas project in Europe with an expected lifetime of 50 years. A system description details the selection of five, 40 MW, 12 pulse variable speed drives for the onshore plant and their accompanying turbo rotor synchronous motors and 5 harmonic filters. We detail our lessons learned during selection of the drives, back to back testing, and compressor string testing on through startup of the unit trains View full abstract»

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  • New developments in noninvasive on-line motor diagnostics

    Page(s): 231 - 236
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    Loss of process, reduced productivity, equipment damage, safety issues and life extension have driven continuing research in the area of noninvasive online motor diagnostics to recognize incipient failures and avoid the catastrophic results. Breakthroughs have been made utilizing a variety of methods which can be applied on today's cost-effective microprocessor hardware platforms to accurately diagnose impending failures of motors. These include failure modes involving bearings, broken bar or shorted turns, and abnormal shaft torque conditions. This paper describes the research, methodology and application of this technology View full abstract»

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  • Progress in filled insulation materials to improve motor performance and reliability

    Page(s): 101 - 105
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    Motor insulation systems using filled materials to enhance their performance, reliability, and efficiency are reviewed. The authors describe how corona-resistant fillers can improve the performance of insulation systems that are applied to motors on variable speed drives. Some of the development work on these systems is also outlined View full abstract»

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  • Riding the reflected wave-IGBT drive technology demands new motor and cable considerations

    Page(s): 75 - 84
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    Drive manufacturer migration to insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) output devices demands a more careful selection of motors and load cables. IGBT drives have faster output voltage risetimes which have increased the dielectric voltage stress placed on the motor. Semiconductor risetime now has a greater influence on motor transient voltages, emphasizing the need to understand the reflected wave phenomenon and its system effects on both motors and cables. Issues and solutions relative to motor selection, cable selection, and installation are outlined and discussed. Potential problems and solutions not commonly known even among experienced drive users are presented View full abstract»

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  • High resistance grounding of low voltage systems: a standard for the petroleum and chemical industry

    Page(s): 19 - 26
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    A debate has existed in the petroleum and chemical industry for years concerning the grounding of LV (480-600 V) power systems. Since reliability and continuity of service are important in the petrochemical industry, some engineers in the past preferred using an ungrounded system. The practicality of such ungrounded systems becomes questionable as the size and extent of coverage increases. This paper begins with a brief history of low voltage grounding which includes ungrounded, solidly grounded and resistance grounded systems. As part this discussion, benefits and limitations of each system are covered. Reliability, continuity of service and personnel safety are important issues and are discussed. It is shown that the use of high resistance grounded LV power systems makes good sense in the petrochemical industry. Design, construction, operation and maintenance factors for high resistance grounded power systems are discussed and analyzed. The use of a high resistance grounded power system when three-phase, four-wire loads are present is discussed, Finally, operational problems and solutions are discussed where significant variable speed drive loads are utilized. The use of a high-resistance grounded power system provides so many benefits that it should become a standard of the industry, and the solidly grounded power system should be used only in applications where the high resistance grounded system becomes impractical View full abstract»

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  • A comparison between insulation systems available for PWM inverter fed motors

    Page(s): 49 - 60
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    This paper establishes the need for two levels of motor insulation systems depending upon the available voltage waveform. An analysis of the various winding stresses is presented. The different requirements for the two insulation systems is discussed (MG1-Parts 30 and 31 for General Purpose and Definite Purpose Inverter Fed Motors), and test results show the need for higher dielectric insulations when the voltage levels of Part 30 are exceeded. The differences between existing, rebuilt and new motors is also explored View full abstract»

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  • Real-time simulation and supervisory control; the next logical step after system monitoring

    Page(s): 265 - 268
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    Power monitoring systems, with all the benefits they provide, are partial solutions in the modernization of industrial power systems. Massive data is collected and logged for the system historian to trend and display on command. This paper presents, by use of on-line/off-line simulation of real-time data and by supervisory control, an approach that allows the monitored data to be used to assist operators in predicting system response and behavior for automating system control and providing operator training View full abstract»

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  • Correlation between electrical accident parameters and sustained injury

    Page(s): 299 - 305
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    While there has been a substantial reduction in major electrical injuries as a result of safe work practice guidelines and engineering advances, considerable improvement is still possible to reduce the incidence and severity of electrical trauma. Here the correlation of how an electrical accident occurs, the exposures at the accident scene and the possible injuries and outcomes provides information to support consideration of safe work practices View full abstract»

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  • Overcurrent protection device miscoordination issues that result in plant outages and costly down time

    Page(s): 183 - 189
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    This paper discusses the phase and ground overcurrent protection of chemical facility electrical supply systems with emphasis on situations that can result in unnecessary shutdown of services. Ground overcurrent relay coordination with downstream fusing, the coordination of successive levels of protection with instantaneous devices, coordination of low voltage secondary devices with primary devices through delta-wye connected transformers, and coordinating successive levels of low voltage devices are emphasized. Examples show situations where electrical faults can result in unintended shutdown of services, and include solutions applied to result in a more selective overcurrent protection system View full abstract»

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  • Elements of a power systems risk analysis and reliability study

    Page(s): 163 - 168
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    Risk analysis and reliability studies are essential tools for the design of continuous process plant power systems. This paper uses examples from a producer gas manufacturing plant and an aluminum smelter to show how reliability and rate of return analysis are used to evaluate various industrial power system reliability upgrade options View full abstract»

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  • Design, fabrication, and back-to-back test of 14200 HP, two-pole cylindrical-rotor synchronous motor for ASD application

    Page(s): 85 - 91
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    This paper describes the design aspects, fabrication, and testing of a 14200 HP, two-pole, cylindrical-rotor synchronous motor used with a load commutated inverter (LCI) adjustable speed drive (ASD) to drive a refrigeration compressor for a refinery alkylation plant. The motor design aspects include extensive finite-difference analysis of the rotor cage assembly and laboratory bench-testing of a wedge assembly to verify finite-difference analysis results prior to fabrication. Torsional and harmonic analysis results are also presented. Special considerations are discussed regarding rotor heating due to harmonic currents and mitigation methods for handling the harmonic currents and heating. Mechanical design aspects are presented of the rotor cage, including rotor slot design, wedge, and end ring assembly. Two motors and drives were built, for companion projects, allowing for verification of the rotor-cage assembly by a back-to-back test. Test preparation, setup, and results are presented including rotor temperature mapping, vibration data, and torsional results. Finally, test results are compared with calculated values View full abstract»

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  • Medium voltage motor harmonic heating, torques and voltage stress when applied on VFDs

    Page(s): 131 - 139
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    The increase in the application of medium voltage variable frequency drives to AC motors has raised concerns regarding the effects the drives have on the motors. Most of the published data available is for low voltage motors and drives, which are not necessarily accurate for the medium voltage applications. We address the harmonic heating, torques and voltage stress that are induced on the motors when they are applied on various types of drives. Results from both modelling and field measured data is used to provide general guidelines View full abstract»

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  • Retrofit of 22 pipeline pumping stations with 3000 HP motors and variable frequency drives

    Page(s): 141 - 151
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    Learning experiences encountered on one of the largest installations of variable frequency (AC adjustable speed) drives, at widely dispersed multiple locations, and generally on very weak power systems. This paper discusses several different and unusual interference and power quality issues encountered with different electrical utilities, and makes suggestions with respect to specifications, logistics, installation and field measurements for the benefit of future projects View full abstract»

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  • A new era in cable designs and materials to resolve environmental issues

    Page(s): 269 - 279
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    Environmental issues have had a profound influence on cable designs and materials used in cable construction. This paper addresses the issues concerned with the effects of cable on the environment, as well as the effects of environmental conditions on cable performance and reliability. Effects on the environment include release of toxic materials and contamination of ground water. Environmental effects on cable are related to the presence of moisture, chemicals, ions, oils or solvents. All such issues must be considered in the evolution of environmentally safe cables. This also extends to the manufacturing processes for producing cable insulation, jacketing, and sheathing materials as well as the cable manufacturing process itself. New cable designs and materials have been developed to mitigate many of the more serious environmental issues now associated with cable applications. Such designs and associated materials are reviewed in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the safeguards protecting the environment and on extending cable life and performance. These safeguards include technological advances in insulation, shielding, jacketing, and sheathing materials as well as new cable designs that cable specifiers should take into consideration in properly selecting and applying cable for petroleum and chemical plant installations. Other user concerns that include cable diameter, short circuit withstand, mechanical performance, installation, splices, and terminations are briefly reviewed as they relate to current cable technology View full abstract»

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  • Paradigm shifts and impact on industry and technology [R&D management]

    Page(s): 27 - 35
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    The first part of this paper focuses on the history of economic technology. The background necessarily looks at the life cycle of technology and extending the life cycle of a business as technology changes. Next comes the theory of technology growth and its impact on the theory of economics. Costs place limits on technology and constrain its growth. However, the shift in costs from technology efficiency opens new options. People placement becomes one of the more emotional consequences of changes and development. The shifts are seen in the future of technology and technologists education and organizations. This addresses the world we necessarily work in, not the world as we would like it to be. To survive, it is critical that technologists understand that the technical aspects represent only a portion of time and effort. Skill with people is ever more important View full abstract»

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  • Justifying the use of high efficiency transformers

    Page(s): 191 - 199
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    Given today's competitive business climate and energy conscious environment, one potentially rewarding opportunity for energy conservation involves the use of high efficiency transformers for industrial power system applications. Design techniques utilized by manufacturers to improve the efficiencies of various types of transformer are summarized. Transformer investment guidelines are provided to allow a straightforward determination of the cost/benefit of applying high-efficiency transformers based on an internal rate of return (IRR). Overall recommendations for applying high efficiency transformers are also presented View full abstract»

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  • Protective clothing guidelines for electric arc exposure

    Page(s): 281 - 298
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    Since 1982 when Ralph Lee wrote about “The Electrical Hazard: Electric Arc Blast Burns”, industrial and utility engineers have been attempting to better quantify the degree of risk to personnel associated with electric arc exposure and the appropriate protective clothing to wear to mitigate serious injury. Activity, by OSHA, NFPA 70E and ASTM F-18 has further emphasized the need to prefect workers from arc flash burn injuries. This paper discusses the results of multiphase arc testing which has enhanced knowledge about: (1) potential arc energy as a function of prospective fault current, and (2) arc protective clothing designs that are suitable for different levels of incident arc energy. Incident energy levels are correlated with second degree burn criteria for unprotected human skin. Protective clothing systems consisting of flame resistant outer layers in single layer and multiple-layer construction, as well as combination systems of flame resistant outer layers with natural and man-made fiber inner layers are discussed. Protection recommendations for the face, head, hands and feet are also included View full abstract»

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  • Installation and operational considerations of arc resistant switchgear

    Page(s): 307 - 313
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    The application of indoor arc resistant metal clad switchgear for the purposes of personnel safety must consider more than the switchgear design and construction. The effect of the pressure and heat of the arc products (fire, gas, vapor, and molten material) on the cable, bus duct, and substation building must be considered. This paper discusses the design, installation and operation of one manufacturer's arc resistant metal clad medium voltage switchgear in a large petrochemical facility View full abstract»

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  • How products will be adapted to the dual hazardous area classification system

    Page(s): 11 - 18
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    Article 505 of the 1996 National Electrical Code contains provisions for a hazardous area classification system commonly known as the Zone 0 concept. This change in the NEC will allow two separate and independent approaches for using electrical equipment in classified areas. Manufacturers will develop new and modify existing products to meet the standards for both systems. Users must decide if the benefits outweigh the costs of changing not only to the new products but also to new wiring methods View full abstract»

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