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Power Symposium, 2006. NAPS 2006. 38th North American

Date 17-19 Sept. 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 95
  • [Front cover]

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): C1
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  • Introduction

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 1 - xxxiv
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  • Author index

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 673 - 678
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  • Preventive Maintenance Using Continuous-Time Semi-Markov Processes

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3 - 8
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3617 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A method is presented to determine the amount of preventive maintenance to be performed on equipment in order to maximize availability. The method uses a continuous-time semi-Markov process that assumes equipment can fail due to both deterioration and random occurrences. Preventive maintenance can be performed from working state to prevent deterioration failure. An example is used to demonstrate the method using MATLAB and Maple software. Additional flexibility in equipment modeling using semi-Markov processes is described. View full abstract»

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  • Quadratized Three-Phase Induction Motor Model for Steady-State and Dynamic Analysis

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 65 - 75
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (9217 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the implementation of a three- phase, phase-domain induction motor model for asymmetric load flow and quasi-steady state analysis. The mathematical model is based on the use of linear and quadratic equations, reducing therefore the system nonlinearity to at most second degree. The model optionally includes slip-dependent rotor parameters, allowing therefore a unified and accurate representation of every possible motor design (NEMA designs A, B, C and D). A parameter estimation methodology is also presented that allows the motor model identification using the slip-torque and slip- current motor characteristics. The estimation procedure and the model performance for both steady-state and dynamic analysis are demonstrated with some simple numerical examples. View full abstract»

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  • The Role of Private Sector Power Generation in Bangladesh

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 79 - 82
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1776 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The demand of electricity is increasing day by day. For economic emancipation and in order to meet the Millennium Development Goals, the electricity growth that is generating more electricity, building more transmission/ distribution capacity, bringing more area/ population under electricity coverage and ensuring more efficient management of these are the essential issues. According to the power sector growth in the country, the country needs new 400 MW power each year to meet the growing demands. Building of this particular infrastructure require large amount of capital and is encountering increasing difficulties to finance the required capacity either through the government budget or even by the international development agencies and financing organizations. But the government of Bangladesh is unable to provide the finance to set up new power plants according to the growing demand. That is why in 1996 the Government of Bangladesh (GOB) has decided to build power plants in private sectors and Independent Power Producers (IPPs) launched their business in Bangladesh. In this paper the brief history of the private sector power plants in Bangladesh, their problems and prospects are discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Transmission Management and Planning: The aftermath of Turkish Electricity Restructuring

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 83 - 87
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (635 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The key to enhancing electricity restructuring is to have an adequate competition in the generation sector of power industry. This concept requires a sufficient transmission capacity to support trading in electricity markets, while maintaining the system reliability. However, transmission expansion planning (TEP) for managing adequate transmission capacity is a major challenge which involves uncertainties and risks in restructured electricity environment. This study reviews TEP issues in a general perspective and addresses challenges in Turkey where the liberalization of the electric power industry is underway for establishing a competitive electricity market. A few strategies are proposed in this paper which are directed toward managing the risk in ensuring adequate transmission expansion in Turkey. View full abstract»

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  • Toward the Value-Based Generation Investments and Utilization: Stratum Electricity Market

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 89 - 98
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    In this paper we model and analyze the dependence of electricity market outcomes on the market structures and rules. Market attributes such as electricity prices and their volatility, profits and revenues by the market participants and system cost are assessed. Of particular concerns are the effects of market structures on the long-term generation investments needed to meet long-term uncertain demand. The paper builds upon an earlier introduction of electricity market modeling resulting from the dynamics of fundamental market drivers, such as demand, supply and market clearing processes. This approach is employed to model and simulate the outcomes in the short- term spot markets, and compare these with the potential outcomes in a newly proposed stratum electricity market (SEM) structure comprising both spot and long-term sub-markets. The performance of the newly proposed SEM is illustrated using Monte Carlo simulations on a simple power system in which the only uncertainties come from the load forecasts and fuel prices. View full abstract»

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  • Electricity Industry Restructuring in India

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 99 - 105
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1715 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The electricity industry in India is going through a major change with the Electricity Act-2003 coming into force on June 10, 2003. The Act is stated to be the "distilled wisdom" of a series of commissioned international and national consultancy studies and seminars and conferences held at the all-India level for three years. This paper is an attempt to study the changes going on in the Indian electricity market, its components, salient features, and the challenges that are poised for future development. A brief overview of some electricity markets in other countries is presented and some comparisons are made with the Indian electricity market. View full abstract»

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  • Value-based transmission expansion planning in deregulated market

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 107 - 114
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5462 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transmission expansion planning (TEP) has faced a significant change since the deregulation of power systems. It becomes even more complicated due to the conflicting objectives and uncertainties which have been exposed by the power industry restructuring. In this paper, a value-based transmission expansion planning algorithm is proposed. The algorithm makes use of the probability density functions (PDFs) of locational marginal prices (LMPs) to deal with the changes in power flow patterns due to the changes in offering prices set by generation companies. View full abstract»

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  • A Game-Theoretic Approach to Study Strategic Interaction Between Transmission and Generation Expansion Planning

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 115 - 120
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3044 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A game-theoretic approach to study the strategic interaction between transmission expansion planning (TEP) and generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity market is proposed. The proposed algorithm consists of three levels of optimization to determine a Nash equilibrium such that a dominant strategy can be found out in an expansion planning game. View full abstract»

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  • Interruptible Load and Demand Response: Worldwide Picture and the Situation in Sweden

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 121 - 127
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4364 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper reports on part of the work which have been carried out by a group of students in Electric Power Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden, within the scope of their course on power engineering design projects during the spring semester 2006. The project has focused on the investigation of the important roles of interruptible loads in deregulated electricity markets. This paper brings about a survey of the most up-to-date programs on interruptible load programs in various electricity markets in the world, with an emphasis on the situation in Sweden. The programs are generally grouped into two broad categories: "reliability-based" program which operates in response to system contingencies and "market-based" program which is triggered by wholesale market price of electricity. It is also seen that in some markets, interruptible loads are considered as an ancillary service. View full abstract»

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  • HVDC Transmission to Facilitate the Electric Energy Market in the US

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 129 - 133
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5817 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    US is the largest consumer and importer of energy. The average cents for coal, natural gas and petroleum for the power plants in the US are 136.1, 596.1 and 429.4 cents per MMBtu, respectively. Wyoming alone produced 35.6% of total coal in the US and it also has large and increasing natural gas reserves. Both the Western and the Eastern US states pay high prices for electric energy, compared to Wyoming. Rail road cost from Wyoming for coal transportation is twice its mine mouth cost. Between 1993 and 2004 electric energy production from natural gas increased from 13% to 18%, even though, natural gas is the most costly fossil fuel for the power plant. This was done as a quick response to the shortage and several blackouts in the Western and the Eastern US. Natural gas-fired power plants could be built in a shorter time frame, where as coal-fired power plants require a long lead time. Long term planning and realistic load forecasting could save huge amounts in fuel cost and add stability and reliability margins in the system. Wyoming is suitable for producing more electric energy from both wind and coal and its geographic location can utilize the opportunity to meet the demands in both the Western and the Eastern US. View full abstract»

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  • Short-Term Price Forecasting for Competitive Electricity Market

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 137 - 141
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2877 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Short-term price forecasting in competitive electricity markets is critical for consumers and producers in planning their operations and managing their price risk. This paper adopts artificial neural network (ANN) model based on similar days methodology in order to forecast weekly electricity prices in the PJM market. To demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model, extensive analysis is conducted using data from the PJM interconnection. The factors impacting the electricity price forecasting, including time factors, load factors, and historical price factors are discussed. Comparison of forecasting performance of the proposed ANN model with that of forecasts obtained from similar days approach is discussed. The forecasting error is the major concern for forecaster; a lower error indicates a better result. Accumulative error depends on forecasting period (hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, etc.). It will increase for a longer time forecasts. In this paper, the test results obtained by using the proposed ANN provide reliable forecast for weekly price forecasting as the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values obtained for the first and last week of February 2006 are 7.66 % and 8.88%, respectively. Similarly, MAPE for the second week of January 2006 is obtained as 12.92%. Forecast mean square error (FMSE) and MAPE results obtained through the simulation show that the proposed ANN model is capable of forecasting locational marginal price (LMP) in the PJM market efficiently. View full abstract»

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  • A Heuristic Approach for Predicting Fault Locations in Distribution Power Systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 9 - 13
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    The first step in restoring systems after a fault is detected, is determining the fault location. The large number of candidate locations for the fault makes this a complex process. Knowledge based methods have the capability to accomplish this quickly and reliably. In this paper, a heuristic approach has been used to predict potential fault locations. A software tool implements the heuristic rules and a genetic algorithm based search. The implementation and evaluation results of this tool have been presented. View full abstract»

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  • An Attempt to Forecast Price Spikes in Electric Power Markets

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 143 - 148
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3734 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Price forecasting has become one of the main focus of electric power market research efforts. Existing price forecasting methods have shown a good ability to forecast normal electricity prices. However, none of the research efforts have demonstrated to be effective in forecasting price spikes in electric power markets. This paper presents a methodology to forecast price and spikes using system identification approach and radial basis functions neural networks. The results obtained using PJM interconnection data with mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of less than 5% demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method. View full abstract»

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  • Impact of FACTS Devices on Transmission Pricing and Loop Flows

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 149 - 154
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3548 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transmission pricing has been an important issue after the power system restructuring and deregulation. Due to competition and to maximize the profit, generation companies (GENCOs) are looking for technical and economical solution to minimize the transmission cost for power delivery to customers. FACTS are one such device that provides a solution to a certain extent. There has been an increased use of the FACTS devices for this purpose as they are effective means of controlling the path of flow of power, thereby reducing problems such as loop flows. In this paper, a 9-bus power system is simulated in Matlab/Simulink to demonstrate the impact of the FACTS devices on the transmission pricing as well on the loop flows. Paper also presents a study done on the dynamic performance of FACTS devices. View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Model for Congestion Management Based on ORA-Based Decentralized Optimization

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 155 - 161
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3447 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper proposed a novel decentralized approach for congestion management via Optimal Resource Allocation (ORA) for the forward markets. The available capacities of possible congested transmission lines are considered as commonly shared resources for bilateral and multilateral transactions in the market. Each transaction maximizes its profit using limited capacity of transmission line capacity allocated by the ISO. Through the proposed decentralized optimization algorithms, the ISO searches the optimal allocation of the capacities of congested transmission lines to the individual transactions and finally the same market efficiency (social welfare) as centralized optimization is achieved. This decentralized approach is more suitable for power market environment since it does not require private and sensitive information submission from individual transactions and the resource allocation decision is always feasible during iterations. The mathematical model, calculation procedure and relevant proof are presented. The computer test results from the IEEE 30 bus system show clearly the effectiveness of the approach and its consistency with the centralized optimization. View full abstract»

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  • A Maximum Quantity Formulation of the Cournot Game for ISO/Pool Operation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 163 - 170
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    This paper studies the economic equilibrium power pool with aggregated demand, Cournot generators and an independent system operator with no secondary market for transmission capacity. The independent system operator manages congestion by attempting to deliver maximum quantity at least cost. The paper formulates a non-cooperative game between suppliers as a maximum total quantity problem subject to network flow constraints and supplier first order profit maximizing conditions. The paper shows that unconstrainted solutions to the proposed formulation are Nash equilibriums and supplier profits are mutually maximized. Numerical examples demonstrate a supplier selection policy that is based on their contributions to network flows. This policy will drive the network to the maximum quantity solution without further intervention. View full abstract»

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  • Oligopolistic Electricity Market Competition with Forward Expectations

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 171 - 177
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    This paper studies Generation Companies (GENCOs) production decisions in ologopolistic electricity market. The model presented is based upon static equilibrium model solved sequentially. The main idea is to imagine the firms to be in a discrete time situation. The effect of technical constraints, such as time on/off, ramp up/down, startup cost and shut down cost, are not included in the model. View full abstract»

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  • SOFC Emulation Using Computer Controlled DC Motor/Generator Set

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 179 - 185
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2331 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A dynamic and steady state model of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is presented. Simulation results are shown. A laboratory prototype of the fuel cell is built. Both the dynamic and steady state results of the experimental model are verified with those obtained from simulation and show a close agreement with it. The proposed experimental model was designed to be connected to the grid as well as to supply isolated loads. The proposed model uses a DC motor as the prime mover for a separately excited DC generator, which represents the fuel cell. The fuel cell current and voltage are measured using a National Instruments (NT) data acquisition card and the control signal is fed back to change the generator's field current. View full abstract»

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  • Hysterisis Modeling by Inspection

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 187 - 191
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    By looking at the hysteresis loop of a core, its nonlinear magnetizing branch can be modeled by visual inspection. Three constants on the hysteresis loop reveal enough information about the core loss and non-linear inductance that power measurements and data-pairs can be avoided. An experimental hysteresis loop is taken from a CT and its model put together by visual inspection. The visual method presented is simulated and verified against an experimental hysterisis loop using SimPowerSystems as the circuit simulator. View full abstract»

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  • Fourier-Series Models of DC-DC Converters

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 193 - 199
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (515 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The paper presents new models of DC-DC converters. The sub-circuit formed by the voltage source, switching transistor, and diode, is replaced by an independent square-pulse current source, while the rest of the circuit remains unchanged. Using Fourier series representation of current-pulse square wave, the current source is describe as a sum of sinusoidal currents, thus the system is considered linear. The system's state- space representations in the time domain and s-domain are derived. Comparison of the buck converter state-space representation of both models is performed. Numerical validation of the buck converter is presented. The Fourier series models developed in the paper offer the benefits of large-signal models and small-signal models combined, without sacrificing accuracy, and is well suited for transient analysis of power systems incorporating DC-DC converters. View full abstract»

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  • Diakoptics in Shipboard Power System Simulation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 201 - 210
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    A partitioning scheme for transient simulation of shipboard power systems (SPS) is presented. Using diakoptics, the piecewise transient solution to a ungrounded AC-radial (3phi) ring-bus system is found. Cable tie-lines (floating pi-segments) on the SPS ring are converted to hexagon equivalents by discretization and decoupled via source-transportation, diakoptics, and exploiting mutual-susceptance links. Transient simulation results from circuit simulation (as a whole) and via diakoptics (piecewise) are compared and discussed. View full abstract»

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  • Network Reduction and Time-Domain Simulation Approaches for Increased System Security

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 211 - 217
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3750 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent blackouts have shown that system swings have a critical effect on the operation of protective relays. The common method of investigating system swings and their effect on relays is to use a stability program and determine the effective impedance seen by the relay. Unfortunately, it is difficult to test a relay scheme with the resulting impedance trajectory. The inputs to relays are voltage and current waveforms, not voltage and current phasors or impedances. This paper describes a method for generating the voltage and current waveforms associated with system swings. A transients simulation program, ATP-EMTP, is used with support from a stability program, PSS/E, to produce a reduced system model for simulation of the voltage and current waveforms while retaining the machine dynamics of interest. The first part of the paper will describe the differences in the modeling assumptions of the two programs and how to translate the modeling assumptions of one program to those of the other. The second part presents an example of a four machine, two-area system, reduced to a two machine, two-area system. View full abstract»

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