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Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 1996., 15th AIAA/IEEE

Date 27-31 Oct 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 72
  • Reconfiguration in an integrated avionics design

    Page(s): 471 - 478
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (660 KB)  

    This report covers the subject of F-22 avionics core processing fault tolerance and reconfiguration. Fault tolerance is defined as a survivable attribute of a system that allows it to deliver its expected service after faults have manifested themselves within the system. The report addresses all dimensions of the integrated avionics processing fault tolerance/reconfiguration implementation. This includes the preparation for failures, detection of failures, determination and implementation of a recovery scheme, and return to operations View full abstract»

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  • HISARTM COTS-based synthetic aperture radar

    Page(s): 319 - 325
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    Commercial products and practices offer the potential of reduced costs, lower risk and faster technology insertion opportunities. However, in the domain of high performance aircraft avionics, the potential for change is likely to be limited without an in-depth comprehension of the military environment, its specifications/requirements, and the capability of commercial products to satisfy them. Hughes developed a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) using commercial components and practices based on designs initially made for the military market but this radar was not targeted for use in the U.S. Military. The first sale of this radar however, was made to the U.S. Military and they have now embraced it for their use. This paper describes how traditional military requirements were satisfied with extensive use of commercial technologies and practices View full abstract»

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  • The coming avionics utility

    Page(s): 293 - 299
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    This paper describes the author's personal view of the near term future of avionics technology. It forecasts an ultimate consolidation of today's systems into a super-system matched to the natural requirements of future pilots View full abstract»

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  • Design of a power-optimized micro miniature advanced instrument controller for sensor craft applications

    Page(s): 145 - 150
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    A highly-functional self-contained sensor data acquisition and processing system is under development for a probe designed to penetrate the surface of Mars. The processing system, based on an 8051 controller, is about the size of a postage stamp, weighs three grams, and consumes 50 mW in nominal operation. It is designed to operate in space under 15,000 G impacts and down to -120°C temperatures. Though small, its 32 analog inputs, six serial ports, 32 digital interface lines, eight analog outputs, and in-situ reprogrammability make this device attractive for direct application in many aerospace systems View full abstract»

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  • 15th DASC. AIAA/IEEE Digital Avionics Systems Conference

    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (320 KB)  

    The following topics are dealt with: systems engineering processes; software engineering; free flight technology; aeronautical data link communication; spacecraft avionics; fly by light; open systems architecture; new millennium program; avionic displays; sensors and signal processing; integrated avionics; commercial avionics; military avionics; GNSS systems; modular avionics; RFI; and fault tolerance View full abstract»

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  • Using information management to integrate smart vehicle subsystems

    Page(s): 301 - 305
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    There are many subsystems on-board the modern military aircraft to provide enhanced capability and to enable the pilot to better perform his mission. Unfortunately, most of these subsystems each require some management by the pilot in the form of monitoring gauges, displays or indicators. As a result, pilot workload often increases since the pilot must monitor the health of his vehicle in addition to performing his mission. But the pilot should be focused on his mission, not on the aircraft itself. There are simply too many potential distractions from vehicle status indicators and gauges. Vehicle management systems need to be developed to provide more autonomy in the management of aircraft subsystems. Furthermore, when a subsystem does fail, it is left to the pilot to determine both how the failure will affect other subsystems and more importantly, how the failure will affect his ability to carry out his mission. This paper addresses the issue of how to reduce the pilot's management of aircraft subsystems by developing an integrated vehicle manager that relies on various smart subsystems technologies View full abstract»

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  • A sensor fusion architecture for the CP-140 marine surveillance aircraft

    Page(s): 307 - 312
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    This paper describes a sensor fusion architecture which fuses the sensors of the CP-140 aircraft. Emphasis is placed on open ocean and littoral surface surveillance (drug interdiction, illegal fishing enforcement, search and rescue, smuggling interdiction, and ASuW operations). Sensors which provide the surface surveillance data are the APS-116 radar, IFF, ESM, Link 11, FLIR, and navigation sensors. Generic capabilities of the individual sensors are discussed and a functional fusion architecture is presented. The functional architecture consists of preprocessing and tracking algorithms which generate a single fused track on all targets detected by the CP-140 sensor suite. Operational benefits of sensor fusion to the aircraft crew are discussed. The work described in this paper was done under contract to the Canadian Defense Forces View full abstract»

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  • Cavity to cavity coupling measurements in commercial aircraft and the implications for on-board operation of personal electronic devices

    Page(s): 333 - 338
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    Characterization of the cavity electromagnetic environment and various coupling mechanisms to aircraft systems have been performed for internal emitters. One potential coupling mechanism is radiative coupling to wire bundles which then penetrate an electronic system enclosure as well as direct aperture coupling to the enclosure. This paper addresses the issue of cavity-to-cavity coupling or the electromagnetic environment in one cavity due to an emitter in another cavity. Cavity-to-cavity coupling needs to be considered since commercial aircraft design does not specifically provide for significant cavity isolation. The paper presents cavity-to cavity coupling data for two narrow body aircraft. The experimental approach and the resulting data are applicable to frequency regions where the cavities are multi-moded. Coupling data are provided from the passenger cabin to cockpit and avionics bay. An application of this information is to quantify the potential for electromagnetic interference from portable electronic devices which may be operated in the passenger cabin. Based on the measured cavity electromagnetic environment data, the paper provides a preliminary estimate of the relationships between the number and power output of portable electronic devices in the passenger cabin and the radiative environment levels expected in the cockpit or avionics bay View full abstract»

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  • A methodology for cost-effective software fault tolerance for mission-critical systems

    Page(s): 19 - 24
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    As computing capabilities continue to advance, there will be a concurrent rise in the number of both hardware and software faults. These will be caused by the greater volume of more complex software, by the increased number of untested software states, and by more incidents of hardware/software interaction faults as a result of increased hardware speed and density. The traditional software implemented fault tolerance approaches have been successfully utilized in life-critical systems, such as digital flight controls, where their additional costs can be easily justified. Examples include N-Version Programming and Recovery Block approaches. However, there is still a need for dependable computing for mission-critical applications as well. Often, these traditional techniques are avoided for mission-critical systems due to the difficulty in justifying their extra upfront development cost. We provide an alternative for the high “sunk cost” of traditional software fault tolerance techniques. The methodology, called Data Fusion Integrity Processes (DFIPs), is a simple, yet effective technique for mission critical systems. In addition, the approach establishes a framework from which other costlier, more extensive traditional techniques can be added. We present details of the DFIP methodology and a DFIP framework for Ada programs. We also briefly discuss development of a DFIP code generation system which exploits Java that will enable users to quickly build a DFIP framework in Ada, and select reusable DFIP component methods View full abstract»

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  • Modular, reusable flight software for production strike aircraft

    Page(s): 401 - 406
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    In 1995, an initiative was launched at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace to assess the potential for reuse of flight software across multiple fighter aircraft platforms, and to define and demonstrate a supporting system architecture based upon open commercial hardware, software, standards and practices. The project has, thus far, yielded a preliminary common software architecture for mission processing, and successful demonstration flights of a reusable navigation module on three MDA aircraft (AV-8B, F-15 and F/A-18). The key products and findings, to date, of this ongoing activity are summarized View full abstract»

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  • Legacy software reengineering technology

    Page(s): 25 - 30
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    The United States Air Force's Wright Laboratory and TASC are continuing to develop an environment for reengineering software from one language to another. Our approach engineers a program in the new language by reusing portions of the original implementation and design. This article summarizes our reengineering process model, describes the existing FORTRAN-to-Ada reengineering technology that we developed, and highlights JOVIAL-to-Ada extensions that we plan for our new multiple language reengineering environment View full abstract»

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  • Portable electronic devices: which direction?

    Page(s): 339 - 343
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    This paper examines the background and development of the portable electronic device (PED) problem. Although these devices were not perceived as a problem in the past, the proliferation of computer-based electronic devices, small radio receivers, transceivers, telephones, and video cameras has created a new class of problems for both modern and older civil transport aircraft. The proliferation of the PED has, in essence, changed the operational environment of today's aircraft. A portion of the paper is an examination of the results of a search of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database for suspected cases of electromagnetic interference. A number of reports have been entered into the database that indicate potential problems caused by PEDs. The difficulties in addressing the PED problem are discussed. This discussion involves regulations, guidelines, and airline policy relevant to the PED problem View full abstract»

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  • Affordable reliable packaging technologies for avionics systems of the coming era

    Page(s): 423 - 431
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    Lower cost, reliable military avionics systems can be realized by leveraging key enabling packaging technologies from the commercial electronics industry. This includes the technologies and corresponding infrastructures which are arising in response to the Consumer Portable Electronics COTS market. This paper argues that innovative use of emerging commercial packaging technologies will be required for military avionics OEMs to survive and compete; especially as we move towards the year 2000 in an environment where the rules and rites of classical military procurement are fading. Three emerging packaging technology areas have been identified as being key enablers for realizing low cost reliable avionics systems. The technology areas are: area array interconnects; advanced PWB technologies; composite materials for heatsinks. The movement towards area array interconnection is the impetus behind development of the mentioned enabling technologies. These technologies will be useful to Avionics OEMs whether for new designs or for the repackaging of commercial architectures for insertion into tactical environments View full abstract»

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  • FIRM-a database management system for real-time avionics

    Page(s): 313 - 318
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    The Functionally Integrated Resource Manager (FIRM) is an object-oriented database management system (DBMS) for use in avionics applications. It is also suitable for other real-time embedded applications from submarines to space stations. This paper examines the need for FIRM, and the unique requirements for avionics DBMSs not met by ordinary DBMSs. It then describes the unique features and construction of FIRM which allow it to meet those requirements View full abstract»

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  • Fault/failure analysis of the Tandem NonStop-UX operating system

    Page(s): 491 - 497
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    This paper presents the results of an analyse's of failures in several releases of Tandem's NonStop-UX operating system. NonStop-UX is based on UNIX System V. The analysis covers software failures from the field and failures reported by Tandem's test center. Faults are classified based on the status of the reported failures, the locations of the code that detected the problems, the panic messages generated by the systems, the faulty source modules, and the types of developer's mistakes. We present distributions of the failure and repair times for unique and duplicate failures. We also discuss how the analysis results can be used for assessing the dependability of the operating system and guiding improvement efforts View full abstract»

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  • Fly-by-light flight control system development for transport aircraft

    Page(s): 153 - 158
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    The Fly-By-Light Advanced System Hardware (FLASH) program is developing and demonstrating dual use fly-by-light (FBL) hardware for flight control systems On military and commercial aircraft. Under the transport aircraft portion of this program, we and our industry team-mates are demonstrating two representative fly-by-light systems. These fly-by-light demonstrations include a ground demonstration of a partial primary flight control system and a flight demonstration of-an aileron trim control system. This paper describes these and discusses the dual use fly-by-light hardware developed for transport aircraft as well as the associated FLASH program demonstrations View full abstract»

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  • Display driver interconnect technology for military and avionic AMLCD

    Page(s): 251 - 256
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    The two most important display driver interconnect technology candidates for military and avionic AMLCD are tape automated bonding (TAB), and flip chip on glass (FCOG). These two technologies will be reviewed and compared in detail. The topics presented include: maturity of the respective technologies; infrastructure differences; known good die issues; FCOG layout issues; processing and run rate issues; reliability considerations; and FCOG rework issues View full abstract»

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  • Susceptibility of GNSS sensors to RFI

    Page(s): 273 - 278
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    A derivation from basic principles is presented of GLONASS receiver in-band susceptibility levels suitable for Category I approach use. The derived limits are -113.5 dBm for interference bandwidths less than 500 kHz and -110.5 dBm/MHz for greater than 500 kHz. The limits are more stringent at the wide and narrow bandwidth extremes than the existing ARINC standard. Also derived are wide and narrow bandwidth GPS limits which are consistent with RTCA/DO-229 except for a 2 dB lower CW level View full abstract»

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  • Survey and taxonomy of three-dimensional packaging approaches

    Page(s): 139 - 144
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    This paper presents a survey of the field of 3-D packaging and suggests a taxonomy based on observations of an active research field and direct experience in the development of dimensionally-constrained electronics system packaging concepts. Of chief interest is the (1) identification of the attributes of 3-D approaches and quantitative performance metrics; (2) packaging medium and facilitation (e.g. thermal, mechanical, and electrical access) requirements; and the manifestation of certain regimes in 3-D packaging (e.g., “few-layers” vs. “many-layers”). The development of the taxonomy is further motivated by the discussion of 3-D heterogeneous packaging approaches as an ideal framework for packaging and interconnecting complex mixtures of analog, digital, sensor, microwave, and power management functional elements View full abstract»

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  • Telemaintenance applications for the WearableTMPC

    Page(s): 407 - 413
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    This paper explores the concept of providing military maintenance personnel with a wearable personal computer and interactive electronic technical manual (IETM) support as maintenance tasks are performed at equipment sites. Wearable PCs, when combined with PCMCIA card technologies, are an evolutionary hardware concept worn on the technician's body, enabling personnel to obtain information such as specific maintenance procedures, drawings and digital photographs of the equipment and sub-assemblies. All maintenance information is provided where and when it is needed, virtually eliminating the need for any paper-based technical documentation. It is hypothesized that wearable technology will increase maintenance productivity, minimize errors, and reduce training requirements. Wearable PCs incorporate voice recognition and helmet mounted display technology allowing maintenance personnel hands and eyes free as they perform maintenance tasks. Wearable PCs also utilize Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, high-speed fax modems, and wireless LAN technology for connectivity to to servers and the Internet system. The WEARABLETM PC makes the concept of “telemaintenance” a reality View full abstract»

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  • A low-cost comprehensive process for assessing electromagnetic environment (EME) effects on flight-critical control computers

    Page(s): 443 - 449
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    A process is presented for assessing the effects of electromagnetic environments on flight-critical aircraft control computers. The assessment process is a combination of analysis, simulation, and tests and is currently under development for demonstration at the NASA Langley Research Center in the High Intensity Radiated Fields (HIRF) Laboratory and Closed-Loop Test (CLT) Laboratory. The assessment process is comprehensive in that it addresses (i) closed-loop operation of the controller under test, (ii) real-time dynamic detection of controller malfunctions that occur due to the effects of electromagnetic disturbances caused by lightning, HIRF, and electromagnetic interference and incompatibilities, and (iii) the resulting effects on the aircraft relative to the stage of flight, flight conditions, and required operational performance. In addition, this method uses electromagnetic field modeling codes to determine internal electromagnetic environments to which onboard electronic equipment will be subjected. Lower cost demonstrations of certification compliance should be realizable using this method due to the reduction or elimination of costly full-aircraft tests View full abstract»

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  • AMLCD modeling and display performance at Image Quest Technologies

    Page(s): 239 - 243
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    Avionic cockpit display applications require AMLCD's having extended and specific viewing angle characteristics. A typical cone is +/-60 degrees horizontal, and 0 to +30 degrees vertical. We used a Berreman 4×4 matrix based model to identify the necessary birefringent film values to optimize the display. The key parameter in the model was maximizing the region where the contrast ratio is greater than 50:1, without distorting the color gamut. We will show how well our current production units match our modeling results View full abstract»

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  • Structural coverage analysis method

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    This paper describes a method to obtain structural coverage using a combination of structural coverage attained through Requirement-Based Testing (RBT) and Analysis. This method sets a specific coverage level that must be obtained through RBT alone for each element. The remaining code, not structurally covered, is then analyzed using a number of criteria. This combination of testing and analysis provides the structural coverage, which is part of the requirement-based formal verification test results View full abstract»

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  • Developing a design complexity measure

    Page(s): 31 - 36
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    The cost to develop and maintain software is increasing at a rapid rate. The majority of the total cost to develop software is spent in the post-deployment-maintenance phase of the software life-cycle. In order to reduce life-cycle costs, more effort needs to be spent in earlier phases of the software life-cycle. One characteristic that merits investigation is the complexity of a software design. Project performance metrics (i.e. effort, schedule, defect density, etc.) are driven by software complexity, and affect project costs. The Software Design Complexity Measure examines an organization's historical project performance metrics along with the complexity of a project's software design to estimate future project performance metrics. These estimates indicate costs that the evaluated software design will incur in the future. Equipped with future cost estimates, a project manager will be able to make more informed decisions concerning the future of the project View full abstract»

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  • Open systems architecture and commercial off the shelf technology applied to retrofit military display subsystems

    Page(s): 211 - 216
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    This paper presents considerations and tradeoffs in using an Open Systems Architecture (OSA) and Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) technology to meet the needs of retrofit military avionics display systems applications. The issues that systems designers must consider when applying OSA/COTS to retrofit aircraft applications are listed and discussed. The role of OSA and COTS in modular avionics systems is also discussed. Choices available for OSA/COTS are reviewed for their impact on system performance and cost. The F-16 Advanced Display Processor (ADP) and Display Unit (DU) system are reviewed as an example of a modular open system COTS based aircraft display sub-system View full abstract»

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