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Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems, 2006. NEMS '06. 1st IEEE International Conference on

Date 18-21 Jan. 2006

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  • Index of authors

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  • Conference organizers

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  • Technical Program Committee

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  • Acknowledgement of Financial Sponsors

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  • Keynote and Special Invited Speeches

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    Provides an abstract for each of the keynote presentations and a brief professional biography of each presenter. The complete presentations were not made available for publication as part of the conference proceedings. View full abstract»

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  • Notes on Conference CD-ROM and Hardcopy Publications

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  • Notes on IEEE-NEMS Banquet Venue

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  • Technical Program Overview

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  • Table of contents

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  • [Front cover]

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  • Welcome message

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  • A CMOS Biochip for Electrical Detection of DNA with an Embedded Current Amplifier Circuit

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5156 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a CMOS biochip for DNA detection with an embedded current amplifier circuit by using self-assembly multilayer gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The biochip is fabricated by a TSMC 0.35 mum 2P4M standard CMOS process and post-CMOS micromachining processes. On each measuring spot, there is a pair of electrodes with a gap distance of 350 nm. Through a self-assembly process between suspended gold nanoparticles and the thiol-modified end of probe oligonucleotide strand, multilayer AuNPs on the nanogap surface can be established. An approximate 1000-fold increase in electric current between the nanogap of multilayer AuNPs over monolayer AuNPs is an indication of the presence of target oligonucleotide strand. After integrating the electrodes with an embedded current amplifier, the electric current of multilayer AuNPs can be amplified to the level of 1 mA and it is easily measured by a commercial Volt-ohm-Milliammeter without any expensive and complex instruments View full abstract»

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  • A Hybrid Nano-Imprinting Lithography Based on Infrared Pulsed Laser Heating

    Page(s): 6 - 10
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    In this paper we present a novel method of nano-imprinting which adopts important features of conventional nano-imprinting lithography (NIL) and the newly developed laser-assisted direct imprinting (LADI) method. It utilizes an Nd-YAG pulsed laser of wavelength 1064 nm which can easily penetrate and also heat up a silicon mold which is pressed against a resist layer deposited on a substrate. The fast rising temperature in the silicon mold can momentarily melt the resist layer so that the mold is imprinting into the resist layer. After the pattern is transformed, standard nano-imprinting lithography processes can be applied to the substrate for nano-fabrication. This new method has several advantages over existing nano-imprinting methods mostly due to the fast heating-up of silicon mold by high intensity IR laser pulse and therefore has no thermal drifting problem. Both the theoretical modeling and experimental results of this novel IR-laser assisted imprinting method will be presented View full abstract»

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  • A New Method to Prepare Ordered Silver Nanoparticle Arrays

    Page(s): 11 - 14
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4066 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Poly (styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS) triblock copolymer templates which present in-plane cylinder pattern have been prepared by solvent-induced order-disorder phase transition method. Then silver clusters have been deposited onto the SBS copolymer templates by low energy clusters beam deposition (LECBD) apparatus. The characterization of samples by AFM with tapping-mode has shown that silver nanoparticles form ordered linear arrays, the interparticle distance of the same linear array is comparable to the particle size. Optical absorption spectra reveal that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of silver nanoparticles linear arrays occurs at 500 nm. It is mainly due to electrodynamic interactions between silver nanoclusters. The surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) spectrum shows the electric field enhancement that occurs in the vicinity of interacting silver nanoparticles. Hence the assembly of metal-copolymer nanostructure provides a promising route to achieve well ordered nanostructures View full abstract»

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  • Nanojet formation by heating PbO coated Pb clusters

    Page(s): 15 - 17
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2857 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nanojet means that the liquid is forced to pass through the nozzle with the nanosize diameter, we report here that nanojet was formed for the first time in lab by heating the PbO coated Pb clusters. In this experiment, the coated clusters are heated to more than 200 C and it was found that the inner Pb core melted and ran out from the cracked outer shell with a 200-nm-long(as long) trail. The in situ TEM revealed that the process occurred very quickly, the temperature-variable Raman scattering was carried out to characterize the pressure change of the nano core/shell system, in which, the width of the peak corresponding to the Ag mode of PbO was found increasing slowly between 0degC and 160degC, then abruptly rising and continuing with an abrupt drop after 200degC. It demonstrated the pressure-driving nanojet mechanism. The size effect and the multiple jets were also investigated View full abstract»

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  • Self-testable Pressure Sensors Based on Phase Change

    Page(s): 18 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2927 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Novel self-testable pressure sensors based on phase change have been fabricated. The sensors were built in a glass-silicon-glass sandwich structure. Water acted as the phase change material (PCM) was injected into the cavity of the pressure sensor. Applying voltage to the heating resistor, the PCM boiled. The vapor produced by phase change can produce high enough self-testable output. Therefore, the method had been used for large-scale pressure sensors. The design and simulation of the new structure, the main fabrication process, and the experimental results on the self-testable function were presented. The self-testable output is up to 3.0% of the full-scale output View full abstract»

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  • The Impact of Flare, Polarized Light and Aberration on CD Uniformity of Butting Pattern and CD Control

    Page(s): 21 - 24
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    The variation of the image quality and critical dimension (CD) uniformity due to the flare, geometrical aberrations and polarized light is studied in order to understand the implication on CD errors control. Some of the surprising phenomena, which occurring at high numerical aperture (NA), are studied with 2-dimension (2D) mask by calculating the latent images of 65 nm butting pattern. When the flare is 5%, the variation of gap-width will reach 27%. The flare's impact on the gap-width is higher than that on the line-width. By introducing a fixed amount of aberration for each Zernike coefficient with all other aberrations being zero, the image quality and CD uniformity are calculated with different flare and polarized light when each Zernike coefficient is 0.02lambda. The 3rd order astigmatism (0.02lambda) causes the gap-width to reduce 27%, and the 3rd order spherical (0.02lambda) causes the gap-width to reduce 5%; the 3rd order coma (0.02lambda) has little effect on the gap-width. The horizontal linear polarized light and azimuthally polarized light can enhance the image contrast. The polarized light causes the line-widths to vary a little, while it causes the gap-widths to vary greatly. So adjusting polarization state to compensate the gap-width errors caused by the flare and geometrical aberrations is feasible. By making use of the characteristics of polarized light's imaging can lead to substantial gains in exposure latitude and CD uniformity. We illustrate the feasibility of adjusting polarization state to compensate the CD errors caused by the flare and geometrical aberrations View full abstract»

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  • The Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Monocrystal Carbon, Silicon and Germanium Thermal Conductivity

    Page(s): 25 - 29
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    In this paper the thermal conductivities of monocrystal carbon, silicon, and germanium nanometer thin film are simulated respectively using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) method and corresponding Tersoff potential energy function. The simulation results indicate that the thermal conductivities of those nanometer thin films are obviously lower than the corresponding thermal conductivities of their bulk crystals under the same temperature. The thermal conductivities increase with the increasing of thin film thickness, and the conductivities have an approximately linear relationship with thickness of the thin films. The curve slope of carbon thermal conductivity is larger than that of silicon and germanium. The calculation results of thermal conductivities demonstrate distinct size effect. In normal direction, the thin film thermal conductivities of carbon, silicon and germanium crystals decline with the increasing of temperature, and the declining degree steps down in the sequence of carbon, silicon and germanium View full abstract»

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  • Microactuator Based on EVOH-g-SO3H IPMC

    Page(s): 30 - 33
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4777 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new ionomer of sulfonated ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, EVOH-g-SO3H was synthesized and the ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) based on EVOH-g-SO3H polymer has been produced through electroless deposition of platinum on the bare polymer membranes. The actuation performance for IPMC actuator was tested in order to set up a relationship between the structure and the behavior. The morphology of deposited platinum on the surface of the bare polymer membranes was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The actuation testing showed the IPMC have an apparent actuation under the electric strength of 30-180V/mm and the influence of the polymer chemical construction, the ion-exchange capacity (IEC) and the average effective electrode thickness (AEET) on the actuation performance of IPMC actuator were discussed in detail. Results showed the starting response voltage and the displacement of IPMC actuator increases with IEC or AEET increasing at certain extent and the EVOH-g-SO3H based IPMC could be used as a candidate material for soft actuators, sensors and artificial muscles View full abstract»

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  • Improved Calibration Method for Lateral Force of the Cantilever Deflection Force Sensor in Atomic Force Microscope

    Page(s): 34 - 37
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4110 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Quantitative friction measurement of nano materials in atomic force microscope (AFM) requires accurate calibration method for the lateral force. An improved calibration method for the lateral force of the cantilever in AFM is presented. The calibration factor derived from the original method increased with the applied normal load, which indicates that separate calibration should be required for every given applied normal load to keep the accuracy of friction measurement. We analyze the reason for this phenomenon, and improve the original method by introducing the contact factor, which is derived from the contact stiffness between the tip and the sample, to the calculation of calibration factors. Our method makes the calculation of calibration factors under different applied normal loads be possible without repeating the calibration procedure. Comparative experiments on a silicon wafer have been done by both the two methods to validate our method View full abstract»

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  • A Micro Amperometric Immunosensor Based on Protein A/Gold nanoparticles/Self-assembled Monolayer-Modified Gold Electrode

    Page(s): 38 - 41
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    A novel amperometric immunosensor fabricated by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology with a novel modified procedure for immobilization of antibody on gold electrode has been developed. Based on MEMS technology, immunosensor with a three-microelectrode system integrated with two SU-8 micro pools was fabricated. Employing self-assembled monolayers technique, the working electrode was modified by 1,6-hexanedithiol to assemble gold nanoparticles layer, subsequently, a layer of protein A was immobilized on nanogold layer to further capture antibody. Compared with the amperometric immunosensors using traditionally metal rod/slice electrode or screen-printed electrode, it has attractive advantages, such as miniaturization, compatibility with CMOS techniques and easy to be designed into micro array. Moreover, the studied immunosensor showed high specificity, good reproducibility and broad linear range for the detection of human immunoglobulin (HIgG), which makes it potentially attractive for clinical immunoassays View full abstract»

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  • Nonafiber Membrane of EVOH-Based Ionomer by Electrospinning

    Page(s): 42 - 46
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    Electrospinning is a straightforward and effective technique to produce nanofiber nonwovens. In this paper, a comb ionomer of poly(ethylene covinyl alcohol) end-capped with sulfonic acid (EVOH-g-SO 3H) was synthesized by two-step synthesis process and electrospun into nonwoven membranes. The effect of processing parameters on the fibrous and beads morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The result indicated that the morphology of EVOH-g-SO3H membrane was heavily dependent on the electrospinning process as the electrospinning voltage (v), the concentration of polymer solution (c), the surface tension of polymer solution (sigma), the solution flow-rate (upsi), and the deposition distance between the syringe needle and the collecting drum (1). A 'beads-on-string' morphology could be seen from SEM image when the solution was electrospun in DMAc/water while decreasing the surface tension is a good way towards the formation of fibers without beads. When the solution concentration reaches 35wt%, a melded twist-ribbon structure could appear. There is an optimum range of solution concentration (5.0~20.0wt%) for a stable electrospinning and nonwoven formation. A higher applied voltage could result in a higher electric charge density on the surface of polymer solution jet during the electrospinning, they cause the higher splitting to the polymer jet and result in higher density and smaller diameter of round beads, as well as they also produce the thinner diameters fibers View full abstract»

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  • A New Packaging Method for Pressure Sensors by PDMS MEMS Technology

    Page(s): 47 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3985 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper proposes a novel wafer-level packaging (WLP) method at room temperature for piezoresistive pressure sensors. We use a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheet as a candidate for replacing a Pyrex glass wafer, to seal the backside V-grooved chambers of the pressure sensor chips. PDMS is a well-known material in MEMS technology recently. It is not only cheap but also has a merit of a simple process. We also fabricated piezoresistive pressure sensors, made by the same batch, with different packaging materials of Pyrex glass and PDMS sheet in the paper, respectively. The spin-coating approach is accessed to control the thickness of PDMS by applying the silicon and Teflon disks, as the supporting substrates during the formation of PDMS sheets. The sensors packaged by the PDMS room temperature bonding herein almost have the same performance as the ones packaged by the conventional anodic bonding through the real verification of pressure testing View full abstract»

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  • Bandwidth Improvement of Fast Steering Mirror by FEDA

    Page(s): 52 - 55
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2839 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The bandwidth of fast steering mirror (FSM) is about several tens of hertz which is related to Tylar frequency of atmospheric turbulence, and the bandwidth of deformable mirror ranges from several tens to hundreds hertz relates to Greenwood frequency of atmospheric turbulence. According to practical experience, the ratio of fast steering mirror and deformable mirror should be from one is to five to one is to ten when corrects static atmospheric turbulence, and should be one is to two even one is to one when corrects dynamic targets, such as plane and satellite. All these require improve fast steering mirror's bandwidth to several hundreds frequency. The reason why fast steering mirror's harmonic frequency lower is analyzed in the paper set out from the point of fast steering mirror's structural designation, and the way of improve its bandwidth by finite element dynamic analysis (FEDA) is discussed detailed View full abstract»

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  • Characterization of Mechanical Properties of PZT Thin Film by Nanoindentation

    Page(s): 56 - 60
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    The mechanical properties of sol-gel-deposited lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films have been studied using nanoindentation method. This permitted a determination that the sol-gel derived PZT (53/47) films display an elastic modulus, approximately 123 GPa, much higher than that of bulk PZT ~ 68 GPa. The thin films exhibit hardness between 7 and 8 GPa, slightly lower than that of bulk PZT ~ 9 GPa. The underlying substrate may influence the mechanical properties measurement with increasing indentation depth and the induced error due to substrate effect is analyzed. Moreover, the nanoindentation method can be used to investigate the effect of processing parameters such as annealing time on the mechanical properties of PZT thin film. This may provide the possibility to use them better in PZT based micro sensors and actuators View full abstract»

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