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Proceedings Eighth IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence

16-19 Nov. 1996

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 86
  • Strategy of perception and temporal representation of beliefs

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):48 - 51
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (380 KB)

    An autonomous system uses sensors in order to update an uncertain representation of its environment, which must remain well-grounded with regards to the risks and the constraints of its mission. The choice of a framework for the representation of beliefs which is adapted to deal with both time and uncertainty is a crucial point. A perception strategy should be founded on an evaluation of the relev... View full abstract»

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  • Arc-consistency in dynamic CSPs is no more prohibitive

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):299 - 306
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (772 KB)

    Constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) are widely used in Artificial Intelligence. The problem of the existence of a solution in a CSP being NP-complete, filtering techniques and particularly arc-consistency are essential. They remove some local inconsistencies and so make the search easier. Since many problems in AI require a dynamic environment, the model was extended to dynamic CSPs (DCSPs) an... View full abstract»

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  • An empirical text categorizing computational model based on stylistic aspects

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):71 - 77
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (548 KB)

    The presented work is strongly motivated by the need for categorizing unrestricted text in terms of a functional style (FS) in order to attain a satisfying outcome in style processing. Towards this aim, a three level description of FS is given that comprises: (a) the basic categories of FS; (b) the main features that characterize each one of the above categories; and (c) the linguistic identifiers... View full abstract»

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  • Forward-tracking: a technique for searching beyond failure

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):324 - 331
    Cited by:  Patents (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (836 KB)

    In many applications, such as decision support, negotiation, planning, scheduling, etc., one needs to express requirements that can only be partially satisfied. In order to express such requirements, we propose a technique called forward-tracking. Intuitively, forward-tracking is a kind of dual of chronological back-tracking: if a program globally fails to find a solution, then a new execution is ... View full abstract»

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  • A local approach to reasoning with conditional knowledge bases

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):404 - 407
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (440 KB)

    The paper investigates a local approach for reasoning with conditional knowledge bases (with default rules of the form "generally, if α then β" and having possibly so,ne exceptions). The idea is that when a conflict appears (due to observing exceptional situations), one first localizes the sets of pieces of information which are responsible for conflicts. Next, using a specificity princ... View full abstract»

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  • Incremental Markov-model planning

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):41 - 47
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)

    This paper presents an approach to building plans using partially observable Markov decision processes. The approach begins with a base solution that assumes full observability. The partially observable solution is incrementally constructed by considering increasing amounts of information from observations. The base solution directs the expansion of the plan by providing an evaluation function for... View full abstract»

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  • Minimal forward checking with backmarking and conflict-directed backjumping

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):290 - 298
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (876 KB)

    Dent and Mercer (1996) have introduced an algorithm called minimal forward checking (MFC) which always performs no worse than forward checking (FC) in terms of number of compatibility checks and node expanded given the same variable and value orderings. In this paper we describe an algorithm which extends MFC with backmarking and conflict-directed backtracking. The new algorithm has a smaller spac... View full abstract»

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  • Named disjunctions and lazy evaluation for syntactic ambiguities

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):460 - 461
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (184 KB)

    Ambiguity is one of the main sources of complexity in natural language processing. We propose an original solution relying on the use of named disjunctions which are set of ordered formulae linked by a name. This representation is implemented within a constraint logic programming paradigm (allowing the use of underspecified structures) by means of lazy evaluation techniques. This approach avoids t... View full abstract»

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  • Meta Updater: an interactive tool for minimal view updates in knowledge bases

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):478 - 479
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB)

    Presents the design of an interactive tool for minimal updates of views in knowledge bases, while maintaining the consistency, expressed by a set of integrity constraints. Minimality is based on a partial order which captures the distance between the old state, before the update request, and the new state, in which the request is satisfied. On the user interface part, once the schema and the datab... View full abstract»

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  • Deduction over mixed-level logic representations for text passage retrieval

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):383 - 390
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (780 KB)

    A system is described that uses a mixed-level representation of (part of) the meaning of natural language documents (based on standard Horn clause logic) and a variable-depth search strategy that distinguishes between the different levels of abstraction in the knowledge representation to locate specific passages in the documents. Mixed-level representations as well as variable depth search strateg... View full abstract»

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  • A hypothetical reasoning based framework for NL processing

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):67 - 70
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (340 KB)

    We examine some natural language uses of a new type of logic grammars called Assumption Grammars, particularly suitable for hypothetical reasoning. They are based on intuitionistic and linear implications scoped over the current continuation, which allow us to follow given branches of the computation under hypotheses that disappear when and if backtracking takes place. We show how Assumption Gramm... View full abstract»

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  • Resolution strategies for focusing a reason maintenance system

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):316 - 323
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (692 KB)

    The ATMS, as defined by de Kleer and used in a problem solver loses its efficiency due to the exponential complexity of its algorithm. Improvement works are proposed: a) computing only labels of interesting data; b) computing only some environments characterized by a focus. We propose to control a problem solver coupling a deduction system and a reason maintenance system (RIMS) based on the resolu... View full abstract»

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  • Comparing arguments using preference orderings for argument-based reasoning

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):400 - 403
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (428 KB)

    Argument-based reasoning is a promising approach to handle inconsistent belief bases. The basic idea is to justify each plausible conclusion by acceptable arguments. The purpose of the paper is to enforce the concept of acceptability by the integration of preference orderings. Pursuing previous work on preference-based argumentation, the authors focus on the definition of preference relations for ... View full abstract»

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  • Intelligent text handling using default logic

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):34 - 40
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (568 KB)

    There is a need to develop more intelligent means for handling text in applications such as information retrieval, information filtering, and message classification. This raises the need for mechanisms for ascertaining what an item of text is about. Even though natural language processing offers the best results, it is not always viable. A less accurate, but more viable alternative, is to reason w... View full abstract»

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  • Order in space: a general formalism for spatial reasoning

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):183 - 191
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB)

    We propose a general approach for reasoning in space. The approach is composed of a set of two general constraints to govern the spatial relationships between objects in space, and two rules to propagate relationships between those objects. The approach is based on a uniform representation of the topology of the space as a connected set of components using a structure called adjacency matrix which... View full abstract»

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  • Two new constraint propagation algorithms requiring small space complexity

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):286 - 289
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (404 KB)

    Recently, efficient algorithms have been proposed to achieve arc- and path-consistency in constraint networks. The best path-consistency algorithm proposed is PE-{5|6} which is a natural generalization of AC-6 to path-consistency independently proposed by M. Singh (1995) for PC-5 and A. Chmeiss and P. Jegou (1995) for PC-6. Unfortunately, we have remarked that PC-{5|6}, though it is widely better ... View full abstract»

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  • COMPOzE-intention-based music composition through constraint programming

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):118 - 121
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)

    We goal of the work is to derive four-voice music pieces from given musical plans, which describe the harmonic flow and the intentions of a desired composition. We developed the experimentation platform COMPOzE for intention based composition. COMPOzE is based on constraint programming over finite domains of integers. We argue that constraint programming provides a suitable technology for this tas... View full abstract»

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  • A Boolean approach to construct neural networks for non-Boolean problems

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):458 - 459
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (196 KB)

    A neural network construction method for problems specified for data sets with input and/or output values in the continuous or discrete domain is described and evaluated. This approach is based on a Boolean approximation of the data set and is generic for various neural network architectures. The construction method takes advantage of a construction method for Boolean problems without increasing t... View full abstract»

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  • Natural language edit controls: constrained natural language devices in user interfaces

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):475 - 477
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (308 KB)

    The concept of "natural language edit controls" (NLECs) is introduced. NLECs are special-purpose devices within graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for inputting part of a user's query in natural language which, when combined with other GUI controls for inputting the remainder of the query, can be used to build the most effective interface for a particular application. NLECs require less grammatical ... View full abstract»

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  • Correction of dynamic knowledge

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):228 - 231
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)

    The work concerns a framework for the formal specification and verification of the dynamic knowledge of knowledge-based systems. At a conceptual level, a system is specified in terms of problems, problem-solving processes, knowledge. An important question is to determine if a process is applicable to solve a problem. In this paper we present how problems and problem-solving processes are specified... View full abstract»

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  • On managing nonmonotonic transitive relationships

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):374 - 382
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (892 KB)

    Efficient representation of knowledge, under a multiple inheritance scheme with exceptions, plays an important role in artificial intelligence. Fast verification of the existence of a transitive relationship in such a hierarchy is of great importance. This paper presents an efficient algorithm for computing transitive relationships with exceptions. It is based on a known transitive closure compres... View full abstract»

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  • GATE: an environment to support research and development in natural language engineering

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):58 - 66
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1204 KB)

    We describe a software environment to support research and development in natural language (NL) engineering. This environment-GATE (General Architecture for Text Engineering)-aims to advance research in the area of machine processing of natural languages by providing a software infrastructure on top of which heterogeneous NL component modules may be evaluated and refined individually or may be com... View full abstract»

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  • A comparative evaluation of a natural language exploration tool within a hypermedia environment

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):480 - 483
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (496 KB)

    Examines the pedagogical effectiveness of a natural language exploratory tool developed to supplement a hypermedia learning environment. The learning environment includes an authoring tool with which the relationships between entities can be easily expressed. These relationships are utilised directly by a natural language interface to engage the learner. By closely analysing the activities of lear... View full abstract»

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  • Nogood recording for valued constraint satisfaction problems

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):132 - 139
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (672 KB)

    In the frame of classical constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs), the backtrack tree search, combined with learning methods, presents a double advantage: for static solving, it improves the search speed by avoiding redundant explorations; for dynamic solving (after a slight change of the problem) it reuses the previous searches to build a new solution quickly. Backtrack reasoning concludes the re... View full abstract»

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  • A genetic algorithm for automatic generation of test logic for digital circuits

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):10 - 16
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (536 KB)

    Testing is a key issue in the design and production of digital circuits: the adoption of BIST (Built-in Self-Test) techniques is increasingly popular, but sometimes requires efficient algorithms for the automatic generation of the logic which generates the test vectors applied to the unit under test. This paper addresses the issue of identifying a cellular automaton able to generate input patterns... View full abstract»

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