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Computer-Human Interaction, 1996. Proceedings., Sixth Australian Conference on

Date 24-27 Nov. 1996

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  • Proceedings Sixth Australian Conference on Computer-Human Interaction

    Publication Year: 1996
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Experiences with Cocoa

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 3
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    Summary form only given, as follows. Cocoa is a programming environment that enables children to create their own simulations and games. They can then share their creations by adding them to web pages. Cocoa is distributed from a World Wide Web site, and that site serves as a community center for Cocoa users. Cocoa was designed over several years, involving users from the very start. The experience of designing an intevace that was powerful enough to enable users to create interesting programs, yet simple enough for children, has brought out some interesting examples of inteqace principles, as well as practical considerations that run counter to established principles. The intevace that resulted from this design process combines graphical rules with programming by demonstration. This system has led to notable classroom success in engaging children in the programming process, and in empowering them to create their own interactive worlds and simulations. It is considerably more challenging to motivate, encourage, and teach children who download the program from a web site. The Cocoa site offers a variety of methods for children to communicate with each other, and to learn how to use Cocoa. The author will discuss his experiences in designing Cocoa and supporting the distributed community of Cocoa users. View full abstract»

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  • W4: a World Wide Web browser with CSCW support

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 334 - 335
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    There has been much recent interest in using the World Wide Web to facilitate distributed cooperative work. Unfortunately, most existing Internet tools do not provide adequate cooperative work support to make this possible. This short paper describes how a simple Web browser was extended to support a range of CSCW facilities, including telepointers, group awareness widgets, text chats, collaborative notes, messages and URL annotations, and collaborative editors. View full abstract»

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  • GROUPCRC: exploring CSCW support for software engineering

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 62 - 68
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Software engineers invariably work in teams. However the nature of the available tools tends to isolate individuals so that they effectively work on their own. This is partly because of the complexity of the systems involved and the high degree of formality required in the products. Computer Supported Co-operative Work (CSCW) aims to support and enhance the ability of groups of people to accomplish shared goals. This paper is an exploration of the potential for exploiting CSCW ideas to provide better tools for software engineers. GROUPCRC, a CSCW implementation of the Class, Responsibility, Collaborator (CRC) card object-oriented analysis technique, is used as an example View full abstract»

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  • Low-level and high-level CSCW support in the Serendipity process modelling environment

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 69 - 76
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    In order to effectively collaborate using large cooperative work systems, both low-level and high-level CSCW facilities are required. Low-level mechanisms, including collaborative editing, messaging, annotations and communication, are needed. For large-scale cooperation, they should be augmented with higher-level process modelling, work coordination and work context awareness facilities. We describe the integration of both low-level and high-level support for cooperative work in the Serendipity process modelling environment, and discuss our experience of using these facilities View full abstract»

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  • Locales, social worlds and support for collaboration

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 332 - 333
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    Building collaborative systems based on an understanding of work is difficult. We outline work in progress towards the development of a locales framework which is aimed at bridging the gap between social studies of work and systems design. This framework is based on Strauss' notion of social worlds and the implications of individuals being involved in multiple social worlds simultaneously. The locales framework describes the essential characteristics of a collaborative environment interpreting the notion of space from an interaction rather than a simulation perspective View full abstract»

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  • Visual coherence and usability: a cohesion metric for assessing the quality of dialogue and screen designs

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 115 - 121
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Interface design metrics help developers evaluate user interface quality from designs and visual prototypes before implementing working prototypes or systems. Visual coherence, based on the established software engineering concept of cohesion, measures the fit between the layout of user interface features and their semantic content. Visually coherent interfaces group semantically more closely related features together, enhancing comprehension and ease of use. Preliminary research using a scenario-based technique with built in validity checks found professional developers preferred more visually coherent designs and rated them easier to use, even when these departed from familiar dialogue conventions. Implications for design and further research are discussed View full abstract»

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  • A goal-oriented approach for designing decision support displays in dynamic environments

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 78 - 85
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This paper reports on how the critical decision method, a cognitive task analysis technique, was employed to identify the goal states of tasks performed by dispatchers in a dynamic environment, the Sydney Ambulance Coordination Centre. The analysis identified five goal states: Notification; Situation awareness; Planning resource to task compatibility; Speedy response; Maintain history of developments. These goals were then used to guide the development of display concepts that support decision strategies invoked by dispatchers in this task environment View full abstract»

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  • Relating distortion to performance in distortion oriented displays

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 6 - 11
    Cited by:  Patents (25)
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    Distortion oriented displays (DOD) are an interface approach for supporting navigation through large visual datasets (maps) whilst avoiding loss of context. DOD present the user with a movable virtual magnifying glass within which a detailed view of the point of focus is presented. Surrounding this the rest of the map is presented in a visually compressed view to ensure context is retained. The large quantity of data, spatial expansiveness and range of data sizes found in demanding applications produce two major performance problems for DOD; dynamic response and high magnification requirements. Fast dynamic response is an important feature of DOD; the user should be able to move the point of focus around the screen and experience no discernible delay in the redisplay of the map. Therefore computational overhead is very important when considering the use of a DOD for visualisations of large datasets. Screen size restrictions and the expansive and physically diverse nature of the data mean high magnification is needed to view the required level of detail in the focal region. This can produce unacceptable distortions in the context region for some types of DOD. This paper considers how distortion can affect DOD performance and how understanding this can help produce DOD with higher useable magnification factors and better dynamic response View full abstract»

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  • TUNE: a tool for user interface evaluation

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 129 - 134
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    The paper describes and discusses a prototype tool (TUNE) for computer-supported evaluation of guideline and style guide compliance in user interfaces. The aim of the tool is to facilitate the use of human factors knowledge, in the form of guidelines and style guides, GLSG, when developing user interfaces. After discussing the increased interest in GLSG compliance and reasons for computer-support in this area, TUNE is presented, together with experiences from practical use. With these experiences as a basis the possible benefits in using the tool to evaluate GLSG compliance is discussed. The paper finally presents the future development of TUNE, for example implementing more GLSG View full abstract»

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  • Software internationalisation and localisation

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 348 - 349
    Cited by:  Patents (3)
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    Software internationalisation is a way in which software can be distributed to the rest of the world without any change to the software. Besides economic goals, other reasons motivate software internationalisation. A list of factors that need to be addressed in the internationalisation and localisation process is given. Even though more people have access to computers, little is still known about how different cultures interact with computers. An internationalised spreadsheet has been created and will be used to detect cultural differences in spreadsheet use View full abstract»

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  • Reuse in the eye of its beholder: cognitive factors in software reuse

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 228 - 235
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    We investigate the impact of human cognition on developers' ability to effectively reuse software artefacts. We look at the cognitive impediments to and furtherance of software reuse. We review the computing models of human knowledge and reasoning which may assist in the emulation of our abilities to reuse software. Finally we investigate the possibility of integrating human and machine capabilities to arrive at the efficient method of software reuse View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating the developer's interface to a kbs shell: some reflections

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 122 - 128
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    In this paper, the evaluation of the knowledge-based system shell, NEXPERT, is reported. It has been argued that AI tools of this kind have not had the success anticipated because of problems with the developer's interface. It would appear that software of this type does not help users develop a good conceptual model. An evaluation of NEXPERT has been conducted using various approaches. A group of students who had experience with the tool were asked to fill in the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI) 50 item questionnaire. The data was analysed and various aspects of usability measured: learnability, helpfulness, affect, control and efficiency. An expert user and a group of students were also interviewed to find out what they believed were the best and worst aspects of the software. The overall results are discussed and suggestions made for improving the interface of NEXPERT View full abstract»

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  • GIGA: a pen-based constraint drawing system

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 314 - 315
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Traditional sketching/drawing tools on computers lacked the freedom of real pens. They also ignore human perception. In order to avoid such limitation, we developed new techniques such as interactive beautification with extended pie-menu (PieSlider), sketch with perceptual recognition (PerSketch), the function of layout according to human perception (PerLayout), and new data structure for PerSketch. Prototype implementation on IBM pen PC and Xerox Liveboard has shown that the system is fast and easy to use View full abstract»

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  • Interactive visualisation tools for analysing NIR data

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 19 - 24
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    This paper describes a tool under development that allows users to visualise the spatial ripening characteristics of fruit. Sugar acid and moisture content can be measured using non-destructive Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) analysis techniques. The four dimensional nature of the NIR data introduces some interesting visualisation problems. The display device only provides two dimensions, making it necessary to design new methods for representing the data. We introduce the notion of spectrum and spatial tools and show how these may be combined to form a flexible visualisation environment for exploring NIR data View full abstract»

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  • Architecture model for a user interface software tool supporting application independence

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 205 - 212
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (888 KB)  

    User interface software tools are based on architecture models which usually fail to separate the application from the user interface as strictly as needed for application independence. The architecture model proposed in this paper tries to overcome this problem by providing a bidirectional mapping mechanism for interaction objects. Interactions as well as user interface data are mapped to textual messages which can be exchanged between the application and interaction objects on the one hand and between different interaction objects on the other hand. This solution facilitates independent development of application and user interface. In particular the application programmer no longer has to cope with detail of the user interface program code. To show the benefits of the proposed architecture a user interface tool Supporting graphical object editing is discussed View full abstract»

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  • Supporting emergent collaborative work through the use of personal technologies

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 342 - 343
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    Whilst there has been considerable progress in the development of the CSCW in business organisations, some of the notions arising from modern organisational thinking are not reflected by groupware developments. This thesis examines the notion of emerging collaboration through the overlapping personal interests and agendas of information-based workers. Building on notions of knowledge work, personal information management and informal communication a bottom-up approach to groupwork is explored. This is contrasted with other approaches which either (i) use an explicitly top-down approach, which imposes rigour and classification from upper- to lower-levels of the organisation, or (ii) have no explicit model of the organisation, but implicitly use the organisational model through the use of its technological and communicational infrastructure View full abstract»

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  • User interfaces for workflow systems: designing for end-user tailorability

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 302 - 303
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    Workflow technology has been referred to as a `technology for the nineties', and many commercial workflow systems are being released. Our research reviews workflow technology and its theoretical foundations, focusing on the barriers to workflow success, particularly the problems of workflow tailorability. The user interface requirements for workflow systems are examined using task-centred system design. A user interface for workflow specification, AWE, supports our investigations View full abstract»

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  • Subjecting CSCW to business: a model curriculum for CSCW validated against business needs

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 138 - 144
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    Business and computing journals indicate a resurgence of interest in the competitive advantages offered by groupware products. However, problems and limitations in the development and implementation of such products suggest a lack of understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). A pilot study was conducted to formulate the core content of a universal CSCW curriculum, a curriculum that includes topics from a range of disciplines. Topics were extracted from existing CSCW syllabi and supplemented with material found in research papers covering CSCW issues. The proposed curriculum was then validated against a small sample of Australian business managers and consultants. The findings highlight the interdisciplinary nature of CSCW systems development and implementation. Implications of findings for CSCW education of business graduates in information systems are discussed together with directions for further research View full abstract»

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  • Behaviour sharing in adaptable user interfaces

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 197 - 204
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    The practical contribution of this research is to remove the UI behavioural conflicts existing in a compound software environment. From the user point of view, editing text in a spreadsheet cell should not be any different from editing text in a text editor or any other integrated software package. However this is not always the case since different UI applications may inherit different UI techniques and behaviours. In this paper, an extended object-oriented model and Documentary Petri Net (DPN) are used to model an `adaptable user interface' system. In doing so, rule-bases can be added to the DPN model allowing automatic reasoning about the user interface behaviours. Furthermore, formal properties of UI behaviours such as `liveness' and `boundedness' can be analyzed by using algorithms based on the formal properties of Petri Nets View full abstract»

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  • Specifying direct manipulation within program editors

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 346 - 347
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    Language specific editors, since they are cognisant of the syntax and semantics of the programming language they manipulate, should provide a number of advantages for software developers. However they have not been widely accepted by software developers for serious software development. In other domains, such as drawing and VLSI design, direct manipulation editors (which are also cognisant of the entities they manipulate) have proven to be successful. Consequently, the incorporation of direct manipulation into program editors is worthy of investigation. Furthermore, the generation of editors from descriptions of the language to be handled and the editing mechanisms to be used has a number of advantages. Thus, this paper outlines a technique for specifying direct manipulation editing of programs which is amenable to the generation of language specific editors from a specification of the desired editing mechanisms View full abstract»

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  • Scribble: a diagram editor with a minimal interface

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 162 - 168
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Existing CASE tool diagram editors have large, complex, and sophisticated graphical user interfaces. Because of their size, these interfaces are difficult to learn and hard to use. A minimal interface for a diagram editor provides only the essential behaviour required by the user in the simplest possible manner. Minimal interfaces are smaller than traditional interfaces, and should be easier and quicker to use. To test the feasibility of a smaller and simpler interface, we designed a minimal interface for a CASE tool diagram editor, and implemented a small prototype tool using that interface View full abstract»

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  • Roamers, cruisers and warriors: requirements for personal technologies for workgroup support

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 50 - 51
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    Much of the emphasis in the development of systems to support workgroups has been on the requirements for collaborative work-whether that is in terms of support for focused collaborative tasks, support for group process or for communication. There is however a growing recognition that the `personal aspects' of collaborative work are important. This recognition is based on questions such as: hew do new forms of `personal technologies' fit into group working; how can technology provide the flexibility to support both collaborative and personal work; and how can requirements for personal support be reconciled with those for collaborative work? View full abstract»

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  • User interface evaluation: a comparison of 18 techniques when implementing the EU-Directive on Human-Computer Interaction

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 328 - 329
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    Several methodologies and criteria have been proposed for the evaluation of user interfaces. They stem from different disciplines and are based on different techniques for measurement. There exist only few structured reviews and catalogs for reviewing the different approaches. We report on a comparative study that has been performed in the course of putting the EC-Directive on Human-Computer Interaction to work View full abstract»

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  • A domain aware tool for guiding requirements capture and design

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 100 - 106
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    EquipCo is a multi-national electronics company. One of its tasks is to supply complex electronic systems that interact with customer supplied equipment. These systems are usually low-volume and high-cost, so the task of accurately capturing customer requirements is expensive but vital. This paper describes the CORECT tool, a computerised tool that aids this requirements capture process. The tool is notable in that it integrates many technologies and methods (graphics, Natural Language Generation, and Expert Systems, CSCW, ethnographic workplace studies, etc.) to provide different users with multiple perspectives onto the design artifact. A “permissive” user interface coupled with a monitoring expert system seems to be very useful in guiding users through the requirements capture process, allowing users enough freedom to express a design while ensuring they never get lost View full abstract»

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