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Nanobiotechnology, IET

Issue 2 • Date 4 2015

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Displaying Results 1 - 6 of 6
  • Biosynthesis and characterisation of silver nanoparticles using Sphingomonas paucimobilis sp. BDS1

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 53 - 57
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB)

    Sphingomonas is a novel and abundant microbial resource for biodegradation of aromatic compounds. It has great potential in environment protection and industrial production. The use of microorganisms for the synthesis of nanoparticles is in the limelight of modern nanotechnology, since it is cost effective, non-toxic and friendly to the ever-overwhelmed environment. In this paper, the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Sphingomonas paucimobilis sp. BDS1 under ambient conditions was investigated for the first time. Biosynthesised AgNPs were characterised with powder ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The overall results revealed that well-dispersed face centred cubic spherical AgNPs in the range of 50-80 nm were produced on the surface of Sphingomonas paucimobilis sp. BDS1, after challenging pure wet biomass with silver nitrate solution. This suggests that the capture of silver ions may be a complex process of physical and chemical adsorption and the proteins on the surface of the bacteria may play the role of reduction and stabilising agent with regard to the result of FTIR. View full abstract»

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  • Fabrication of long-acting drug release property of hierarchical porous bioglasses/polylactic acid fibre scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 58 - 65
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (662 KB)

    Hierarchical porous fibre scaffolds with mesoporous bioglasses (MBGs) and polylactic acid (PLA) were successfully fabricated by the electrospinning method. These compound scaffolds possess macropores with sizes of about 100 nm because of the solvent evaporation from the fibre and the mesoporous structure ( ~4.0 nm) originated from MBGs. The biomineralisation ability was investigated in simulated body fluid. The fibre structure is beneficial for inducing the growth of hydroxyapatite. In addition, compared with pure MBGs, the materials (MP-1 and MP-2) exhibit a long-acting drug release process up to 140 h and the drug release process corresponds with the Fickian diffusion mechanism. With the special fibre morphology and the hierarchical porous structure, the MBGs/PLA fibre scaffolds are expected to have potential application for bone tissue repair and regeneration. View full abstract»

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  • Gold nanoparticles: novel catalyst for the preparation of direct methanol fuel cell

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 66 - 70
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (314 KB)

    The authors report the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) using plant pathogenic Phoma glomerata (MTCC 2210). The synthesis of nanoparticles was characterised by visual observation followed UV-visible spectrophotometric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Later, direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) was constructed using two chambers (anodic chamber and cathodic chamber). These Au-NPs as catalysts have various advantages over the other catalysts that are used in the DMFC. Most importantly, it is cheaper as compared with other catalysts like platinum, and showed higher catalytic activity because of its effective surface structure. Being nano in size, it provides more surface area for the attachment of reactant molecules (methanol molecules). The DMFC catalysed by Au-NPs are found to be suitable to replace lithium ion battery technology in consumer electronics like cell phones, laptops and so on due to the fact that they can produce a high amount of energy in a small space. As long as fuel and air are supplied to the DMFC, it will continue to produce power, so it does not need to be recharged. The use of Au-NPs as catalyst in DMFC has not been reported in the past; it is reported here the first time. View full abstract»

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  • Electrospun scaffold containing TGF-β1 promotes human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation towards a nucleus pulposus-like phenotype under hypoxia

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 76 - 84
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (831 KB)

    The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of electrospun scaffold containing TGF-β1 on promoting human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiation towards a nucleus pulposus-like phenotype under hypoxia. Two kinds of nanofibrous scaffolds containing TGF-β1 were fabricated using uniaxial electrospinning (Group I) and coaxial electrospinning (Group II). Human MSCs were seeded on both kinds of scaffolds and cultured in a hypoxia chamber (2% O2), and then the scaffolds were characterised. Cell proliferation and differentiation were also evaluated after 3 weeks of cell culture. Results showed that both kinds of scaffolds shared similar diameter distributions and protein release. However, Group I scaffolds were more hydrophilic than that of Group II. Both kinds of scaffolds induced the MSCs to differentiate towards the nucleus pulposus-type phenotype in vitro. In addition, the expression of nucleus pulposus-associated genes (aggrecan, type II collagen, HIF-1α and Sox-9) in Group I increased more than that of Group II. These results indicate that electrospinning nanofibrous scaffolds containing TGF-β1 supports the differentiation of MSCs towards the pulposus-like phenotype in a hypoxia chamber, which would be a more appropriate choice for nucleus pulposus regeneration. View full abstract»

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  • Molecular dynamic simulation of Ca2+-ATPase interacting with lipid bilayer membrane

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 85 - 94
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (821 KB)

    In biomedical and drug delivery treatments, protein Ca2+-ATPase in the lipid bilayer (plasma) membrane plays a key role by reducing multidrug resistance of the cancerous cells. The lipid bilayer membrane and the protein Ca2+-ATPase were simulated by utilising the Gromacs software and by applying the all-atom/united atom and coarse-grained models. The initial structure of Ca2+-ATPase was derived from X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy patterns and was placed in a simulated bilayer membrane of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. The conformational changes were investigated by evaluating the root mean square deviation, root mean square fluctuation, order parameter, diffusion coefficients, partial density, thickness and area per lipid. View full abstract»

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  • DNA adduct identification using gold-aptamer nanoprobes

    Publication Year: 2015 , Page(s): 95 - 101
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (447 KB)

    The optical and physico-chemical properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have prompted new and improved approaches which have greatly evolved the fields of biosensing and molecular detection. In this study, the authors took advantage of AuNPs' ease of modification and functionalised it with selected DNA aptamers using a salt aging method to produce gold-aptamer nanoprobes. After characterisation, these nanoprobes were subsequently used for biomolecular detection of glycidamide (GA)-guanine (Gua) adducts generated in vitro. The results are based on differences in nanoprobe stabilisation against salt-induced aggregation, similar to the non-cross-linking method developed by Baptista for discrimination of specific sequences. Alkylated Guas were efficiently discriminated from deoxyguanosine and GA in solution. Despite this, a clear identification of DNA adducts derived from genomic DNA alkylation has proven to be a more challenging task. View full abstract»

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Aims & Scope

IET Nanobiotechnology covers all aspects of research and emerging technologies including fundamental theories and concepts applied to biomedical-related devices and methods at the micro- and nano-scale.

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