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ARFTG Conference Digest-Fall, 50th

Date Dec. 1997

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 26
  • Nonlinear Characterization by Harmonic Generation: An Alternative Technique for Measuring Intermodulation Distortions

    Page(s): 1 - 12
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    The same intrinsic nonlinear property that produces intermodulation distortion from two or more excitation tones, also produces harmonic generation from a single excitation tone. The measurement of one of these distortions, therefore, can be used to derive the results of the other. We have configured, tested and qualified an experimental setup to measure the nonlinear properties by harmonic generation using a broadband 50 ¿ transmission line as the test device. This setup has a 50 dB dynamic range enhancement over the intermodulation measurement setup. The harmonic generation technique was used to characterize a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coplanar transmission line. The input power at 1.5 GHz versus the output power for a 30 ¿m by 5mm TI2Ba2CaCu2O8 coplanar transmission line was measured at 50, 70,77 and 85 K. At 77 K, the 2nd order intercept (SOI) was +136 dBm, the 3rd order intercept (TOI) was +75 dBm. At the maximum input power that this HTS device can handle, +43 dBm, the 3rd harmonic was -65 dBc, just within the 75dB dynamic range for the two tone intermodulation measurement. The unexpected nonlinear performance of this HTS device would have been missed by an intermodulation measurement. View full abstract»

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  • The Measurement of Intermodulation Products on Passive Components and Transmissionlines

    Page(s): 13 - 22
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    Multiple frequency carrier systems require components and transmission cables and connectors with low passive intermodulation products between the frequency channels. With the implementation of cellular private radio networks, the market and the usage of components with extreme low passive intermodulation products characteristics has been a dramatical growth in volume and tightened specifications. The measurement of PIM and the verification of those measurements has created a major task for the manufactures of components, cables and connectors. This paper will give a momentary status report on the measurement activities in the industry and the work of the IEC 46 TC standardisation group. View full abstract»

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  • Power Amplifer Intermodulation Distortion Measurements

    Page(s): 23 - 26
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (698 KB)  

    Power amplifiers have been used in communications systems for many years. The recent surge in demand for cellular phones, pagers, WLAN¿S and other wireless communications devices has revived the interest in the design of these building blocks of the telecommunications industry. One of the important performance parameters for these power amplifiers is intermodulation distortion (IMD), which is a measure of the linearity of these modules. This linearity performance is critical where these power amplifiers are used in cellular base stations or wireless local loop transmitters since it relates to the density of the channel spacing, and therefore system capacity. A discussion of the IMD measurement techniques for power amplifiers and it¿s influence on the design methodologies is presented that starts with the basics of device characterization, optimized matching circuit synthesis and implementation for optimum IMD performance, parameter trade-offs and sensitivities, and multistage amplifier performance. A design example will then illustrate these concepts. View full abstract»

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  • A History of Microwave Wafer Probing

    Page(s): 27 - 34
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    A series of slides and pictures display the technological history of microwave wafer probing. View full abstract»

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  • History of Microwave Metrology at NIST

    Page(s): 35 - 39
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    A sage once said that ¿no subject can possibly be as interesting as its own history¿. He probably never had to sit through a lecture on the history of a branch of technology! In order to make the following review of microwave development at NIST more palatable, the author will inject occasional humor, and rather than simply enumerating facts and events, will seek to point out some of the driving forces which shaped the development of this technology at NIST and which are often beyond our control. The following viewgraphs, which are mostly self explanatory, cover the outIine of the material and will be supplemented by some photographs which would not show up well in this digest printing. View full abstract»

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  • A Brief Look Back at Microwave Generator Calibration

    Page(s): 40
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    Summary form only given, as follows. Since the initial use of noise figure as a measure of receiver noise about 50 years ago, one of the most compelling problems with the measurement has been the uncertainty in the calibration of the noise generator - the device which provides the two ¿known¿ levels of noise power required for the measurement. This presentation is a look at some of the past and present efforts of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) aimed at solving this problem. The first significant development, in terms of industry application, came about in the early sixties with the development of accurately characterized hot thermal standards and band specific front-end switched-load radiometers. Coupled with transfer and working standards utilizing argon gas discharge tubes as noise generators, such systems were the mainstay of noise calibrations into the eighties. Since then, broadband, highly stable total power radiometers and on-line cryogenic coaxial and waveguide standards have been developed with significant improvements in productivity and ease of use. The presentation will trace the evolution of this technology from early developments to modem systems. View full abstract»

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  • Vector Network Analysis and ARFTG: A Historical Perspective

    Page(s): 41
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    Summary form only given. In the early days of microwave development, the slotted line was the main measurement tool when reflection coefficient phase was needed. The slotted line allowed the magnitude and location of voltage ¿a and maxima to be found, so network parameters could be calculated. The process was indirect and time consuming. The Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) simplifies the network measurement process tremendously. It provides a direct reading of both magnitude and phase, and has become a very basic tool in almost any microwave laboratory. View full abstract»

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  • Characterization and Simulation of a 915MHz Wireless Receiver

    Page(s): 42 - 53
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    A versatile test bench and CAE environment are employed to characterize and simulate a 915MHz receiver subsystem. The subsystem, which down-converts to a 70MHz IF frequency, is constructed with coaxial components and characterized at several different levels. The 3GHz test bench used includes a vector network analyzer, a spectrum analyzer, and a synthesized signal source. Measurements are compared to system simulations enabled by HP EEsof's Series IV: Communications Design Suite¿ (CDS). Simulation accuracy is improved through the use of measured component level characterization data. This receiver case study provides powerful insight into the capabilities of modern measurement and simulation tools for assessment of system-level linear and non-linear performance. The revealing case study, developed for a new undergraduate course in Wireless Circuits and Systems, would be easily duplicated for in-house company training, short course seminars, as well as RF/microwave courses at other universities. View full abstract»

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  • Designing a C-Band Downconverter for High Testability

    Page(s): 54 - 63
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    This article describes the design of a C-band down-converter that incorporates hybrid probe points to provide a flexible, production-line test capability. These probe points, available commercially from Jmicro, allow repetitive, non-destructive testing during assembly as well as convenient trouble-shooting of post-production failures. As demonstrated within, the added functionality comes at little expense to the RF performance of the component. The article also describes techniques for accurate characterization of the measurement system and the down-converter itself. View full abstract»

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  • The Effects of Line Width and Slot Etching on Silicon-Based CPW at MM-Wave Frequencies

    Page(s): 64 - 72
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    An experimental study is in progress to investigate the performance of coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission lines which are printed on high-resistivity silicon. In one sample group a nominal characteristic impedance of 50 ¿ is maintained while the ground plane spacing and ground plane width are varied. In this group conventional CPW lines are included, as well as lines in which the slots have been etched to create a triangular-shaped recess between the center conductor and ground planes. The slot-etching technique is known to be an effective method to decrease attenuation, and is demonstrated here with measurements up to 67 GHz. In another group of samples identical lines with and without etching are characterized to determine the difference in attenuation and characteristic impedance. All lines used in this work are classified as finite ground CPW (FGC), as the ground plane width is comparable to the slot and center conductor dimensions. View full abstract»

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  • High Speed Power Measurements for Digital Wireless Applications

    Page(s): 73 - 83
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1046 KB)  

    RF power is a fundamental measurement representing energy transfer over a period of time. This paper discusses power sensor technology and measurement accuracy. Sensor Technology Commercial sensor element types include thermistors, thermocouples, thermopiles and diodes. Thermistors, thermocouples, and thermopiles sensors are based upon heat transfer principles. Diodes are not absorption devices. View full abstract»

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  • Vector Corrections for an Automated Power Sensor Calibration System

    Page(s): 84 - 90
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    In an ideal measurement system, all error sources have been identified and eliminated. The system described here was based in error analysis so that these sources would be minimized. The result is a highly accurate automated system to characterize thermistor, diode, and thermoelectric Type N coaxial RF/microwave power sensors. The system described operates fiom 50 MHz to 18 GHz. Methods to extend this to both higher and lower fiequencies and to other types of connectors will be discussed. Finally, a technique to verify system performance will be shown. View full abstract»

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  • ACPR, IM3 and their Correlation for a PCS CDMA Power Amplifier

    Page(s): 91 - 96
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    In this paper, the measured and simulated data of adjacent channel power ratio(ACPR) for a PCS CDMA power amplifier (PA) is presented. The measured data agrees well with the simulated results which were obtained by using ¿Circuit Envelope Simulator¿ in HP-EESOF¿s Microwave Design System (MDS). Additionally, third order intermodulation (IM3) performance for the PA was also measured and simulated. ACPR and IM3 show a good correlation in measurement and simulation. View full abstract»

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  • CDMA Load Pull Measurements with Harmonic Tuning and Harmonic Behavioral Modeling

    Page(s): 97 - 100
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    A load pull system that has CDMA stimulus and response capability is presented. This novel system performs harmonic tuning using a single, solid-state, impedance tuner without a multiplexer or harmonic loops. In addition, it has a characterization approach that can fit a behavioral model of a measured parameter as a function of the fundamental and harmonic termination. It model is a general equation of device performance as a function of termination, with predictive abilities. This approach can also be used in conjunction with the harmonic tuning to separate the effects of higher order harmonic terminations not controlled in hardware. This paper presents the measurement system, behavioral modeling, harmonic tuning, and the integration of the two capabilities. View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of Large Signal Device Input Impedance During Load Pull

    Page(s): 101 - 106
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (337 KB)  

    Knowledge of device input impedance as a function of power level and load matching is useful to fully understand non-linear device behavior, and is also needed to rigorously determine the delivered input power for any arbitrary source tuner setting. This paper describes a technique of measuring the input impedance directly during a load or source pull using a vector network analyzer. View full abstract»

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  • A Method for Comparing Vector Network Analyzers

    Page(s): 107 - 114
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (639 KB)  

    We present a method of comparing two distinct vector network analyzer systems by taking the differences in calibrated S-parameters over a set of test devices. The maximum magnitude of all S-parameter differences in the ensemble of data provides an estimate of the upper bound on the system differences for the set of test devices measured. If the maximum ensemble difference is greater than the repeatability limits, either the residual errors in the two systems are not negligible, or they do not agree. We demonstrate our method here by making comparisons between two commercial frequency-domain network analyzer (FDNA) systems and by comparing an experimental time-domain network analyzer (TDNA) to a commercial FDNA. View full abstract»

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  • Formulations of the Basic Vector Network Analyzer Error Model including Switch-Terms

    Page(s): 115 - 126
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    This paper explores details of the relationship between two expressions of the basic error model describing a two-port vector network analyzer (VNA). One of these formulations is the conventional twelve-term formulation; the other is in terms of error boxes. The paper focuses on the role of the switch terms. By fully detailing the relationship between the two formulations, the paper arrives at several significant new results, including an explicit constraint on the parameters of the twelve-term model. View full abstract»

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  • Characteristics and Accuracy of a Fully Corrected Four-port Vector Network Analyzer

    Page(s): 127 - 130
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    A new, fully corrected, four ports-parameter test system has been developed and evaluated. In this system, all sixteen s-parameters are accurately measured by a fully vector corrected system. The new test system is compared to conventional methods of measuring 4-port s-parameters, and measurement examples are shown. Accuracy of measurements with the new system is compared to measurements made conventionally. The importance of minimizing cross-talk between ports in the new test set is described, and the high level of performance achieved with the system is defined. View full abstract»

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  • Series-Resistor Calibration

    Page(s): 131 - 137
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    We develop a coplanar-waveguide probe-tip scattering parameter calibration based on a thru, a reflect, and an accurately modeled series resistor. Comparison to a multiline Thru-Reflect-Line calibration verifies the accuracy of the method. View full abstract»

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  • Data Assessment of The ARFTG Microwave Vector Network Analyzer Measurement Comparison Program

    Page(s): 138 - 164
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    The purpose of the Automatic Radio Frequency Techniques Group (ARFTG) Measurement Comparison Program (MCP) is to allow participating laboratories to compare their measurements on the ARFTG standards kits to measurements obtained from other laboratories. The MCP is designed to permit the intercomparison of a large number of automatic vector network analyzers (VNA) and of different connector types. The MCP should give the participants more confidence in their measurement capabiity and assist them in identifying measurement deficiencies. A vast set of data has been collected from the Measurement Comparison Program. This paper presents a brief description of measurement requirements and then an assessment of the interlaboratory measurement data of each kit. Conclusions will be presented regarding the repeatability and reproducibility of each kit. View full abstract»

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  • A High Throughput On-Wafer RFIC Tester

    Page(s): 165 - 171
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (599 KB)  

    Volume RFIC production requirements are driving industry to seek higher throughput lower cost on-wafer comprehensive dc and RF test capability than can be implemented using traditional ¿rack and stack¿ test systems. To meet RFIC volume test demands, an in-house on-wafer test system based upon HP¿s 84000 RFIC tester was designed and implemented. With the resulting system a 23X on-wafer test throughput improvement has been achieved over a prior test system implementation. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic RF Techniques Group Executive Committee Members - 1997

    Page(s): 185 - 187
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1 - vi
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Survey of the articles

    Page(s): 1 - 146
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

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    Freely Available from IEEE