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ARFTG Conference Digest-Spring, 45th

Date 19-19 May 1995

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 27
  • Test Strategy for RF & Microwave Semiconductor Devices for Wireless Communications Market

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (327 KB)  

    Today¿s RF and microwave semiconductor devices are being designed and manufactured in a new environment shaped in large measure by economic pressures. Prices are determined by the market and competition is intense. To be successful companies must minimize the amount of time needed to define, design, and document new products, the time needed to set up manufacturing lines, ramp-up production and introduce new products to the market. The emphasis is on manufacturing cost and product quality. Performance has to be just right, that is good enough for the intended application, as opposed to setting new records. To be successful one must put in place the right combination of manufacturing cost and capacity. Strategies employed here include designs resulting in the smallest possible die size, the utilization of plastic packages and process automation. View full abstract»

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  • Load Pull Templates: A Method For Benchmarking Nonlinear Device Models With Load Pull Measurements

    Page(s): 8 - 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (220 KB)  

    A Texas Instruments nonlinear GaAs FET Modified Materka model was developed in HP-EESof Series IV v5.0 using Libra Senior. A ¿Load pull Template¿ was developed in the current HP-EESof software Libra IV v5.0 which utilizes the nonlinear model to simulate power out and power-added effiency load pull contours. Commercially available software was then used to compare modeled versus measured load pull contours and to verifY the accuracy of the nonlinear model. View full abstract»

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  • A New Measurement Method for Determination of Transistor Parameters

    Page(s): 12 - 18
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (282 KB)  

    A new measurement method for determination of transistor parameters on millimeter waves is proposed. Technique for calculation and design of the special measurement section was developed. View full abstract»

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  • VIOMAP, 16QAM and Spectral Regrowth: Enhanced Prediction and Predistortion based on Two-Tone Black-Box Model Extraction

    Page(s): 19 - 28
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (574 KB)  

    Modeling a nonlinear device, based on measurements at the carrier frequency only, it is possible to predict its response to narrow-band signals like 16QAM. Using an inverse of this model to predistort the IQ signal may result in poor reduction of spectral regrowth due to unmodeled subtle side-effects. Based on two-tone measurements a better model can be extracted enhancing both the prediction and the reduction of spectral regrowth. This article focuses on the achieved results. An extended version does exist which also highlights some theoretical aspects. View full abstract»

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  • Production Testing of RF Power Modules

    Page(s): 29 - 30
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (121 KB)  

    One of the most difficult measurements to perform in a commercial production environment is that of absolute RF power. Issues of accuracy, repeatability and the effects of fixtures are magnified by the need to specify performance to 1 percent..T"iils paper describes an actual application, a production test system for cellular radio output modules, and will describe how these issues were addressed and the results obtained. View full abstract»

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  • On-Wafer Intermodulation Distortion and Third Order Intercept Measurements Using Computer Controlled Microwave Tuners

    Page(s): 31 - 35
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (259 KB)  

    Intermodulation distortion (IMD) and third order intercept (TOI) have been used for some time to determine the linearity of microwave amplifiers. By using a computer controlled microwave tuner system commonly used for load pull measurements, this measurement can be performed on discrete devices, and the effect of load or source impedance on the linearity characteristics evaluated. Combined with on-wafer measurement techniques, the resulting test system can quickly and non destructively characterize relatively large numbers of devices. This information adds to the tools available to the circuit designer for amplifier development. In this paper the development of such a measurement system is discussed, along with the sources of error discovered. View full abstract»

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  • Key Considerations in RFIC Production Test

    Page(s): 36 - 45
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (604 KB)  

    In the highly competitive world of RFICs and Wireless Communications, component production test plays a key role. While the main objective is to test the most product possible in the least amount of time and minimal added cost, many key factors need to be considered to successfully achieve that goal. This paper addresses those key considerations and provide insight into successfully achieving the goals of RFIC production test. View full abstract»

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  • The K-50L Coaxial Probe: Its Origin, Applications, and Benefits

    Page(s): 46 - 55
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1607 KB)  

    The commitment to achieve excellence in quality has led to advancements in many fields of endeavor, wireless communications notwithstanding. Motorola¿s SIX SIGMA quality culture has motivated many technological advancements including the K-50L broadband coaxial probe. Widely employed within Motorola, the K-50L was commercialized through Everett Charles Technologies for the general benefit of the electronics industry. Hewlett Packard has supported K-50L applications by developing calibration techniques. This presentation seeks to promote the successful implementation and broad scale utilization of the K-50L by practitioners in all applicable disciplines. The K-50L excels in test and measurement applications where high frequency high density surface mount circuitry is employed. Topics presented for consideration and subsequent discussion include: the origin of the K-50L, present and future applications, benefits and standardization potential, and needed enhancements. View full abstract»

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  • Calibration for PC Board Fixtures and Probes

    Page(s): 56 - 63
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (749 KB)  

    The advance of wireless communication and Cable TV systems to 1 GHz and beyond requires advances in measurement techniques used for production test and tuning of the components used in these systems. Circuits used in these systems utilize PC board techniques, but at higher frequencies, variation in component performance means morepst assembly tuning, and test connections to the components or circuits can dramatically affect the meaSured results. View full abstract»

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  • Simplified Vector Network Analyzer Design Using an Electronic Calibrator

    Page(s): 64 - 73
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (399 KB)  

    The characterization of at least three reflection coefficients of a Multi State Electronic Transfer Standard (MSETS), at the user defined reference plane, plus the knowledge of a THRU standard, is sufficient for a two-port Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) calibration. A new technique is presented where the MSETS are used both during calibration of the VNA, as well as for measurements of the device under test (DUT). The benefits of this technique are a simpler VNA hardware requirement and an improved procedure for the active device characterization. View full abstract»

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  • Process Control Monitor to Device Data Correlation

    Page(s): 74 - 82
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (727 KB)  

    Process Control Monitor (PCM) to device modeling is used as an aid in selecting wafers for testing to meet high throughput demands. It can also be used to check for design centering and to facilitate lot starts to meet demand. The output from the model is based on early information provided from PCM testing of the wafer during wafer fabrication. Additionally, the model output can be used to provide an FMA flag, for wafers that have low yield when they are predicted to have high yield. Wafers have limits on PCM parameters. It was found, however, that these limits did not always guarantee a good wafer. View full abstract»

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  • A Full Automatic On-Wafer High Frequency Measurement Station in Industrial Environment for Silicon Devices

    Page(s): 83 - 91
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (581 KB)  

    Improvements in performance of MOSFET and BJT in MOS and BICMOS silicon technologies related to low cost productions make these technologies attractive for the fabrication of radio frequency integrated circuits. The high frequency characterization of such devices and of the interconnect elements is of primary importance for the simulation of advanced HF integrated circuits. Since more and more measurements are required and have to be conducted in an industrial environment at wafer level, a full automatic high frequency measurement station has been developed and is presented in this paper. The particularity of the silicon wafer probing is described in terms of calibration ("off-wafer" calibrations) and de-embedding (not HF optimized patterns situated in scribe lanes of production wafers). Parameter extraction procedures are described and examples of results with advanced technologies are pointed out. The potential problems in implementation of such a station, problems observed during measurements, and in the calibration step are explained and their solutions are indicated. View full abstract»

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  • Requirements for Stable DC Biasing of High Gain Discrete Phemts During Wafer Level Screening

    Page(s): 92 - 96
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (162 KB)  

    DC testing of unmatched dscrete PHEMT device wafers is complicated by the tendency of such devices to oscillate under DC bias due to their iugh gain and broad frequency range. For t h ~ sre ason, dscrete PHEW wafer level screening is often limited to a small set of parameters wluch can be measured without oscillation problems. such as pinch-off voltages. drain leakage currents, and drain breakdown voltages. The typical approach to eliminating such oscillations is empirical modification of probe impedances with chp components and test station cabling. In general, such approaches are unsuccessful. This paper presents a more rigorous approach to tlus problem. Analysis of PHEMT deice characteristics is used to define the device termination impedance requirements for stable device biasing. The wafer DC test setup is configured to acheve these impedance requirements at the evice "terminals" while also maintaining necessaq Kellin and sense connections to the PHEMT' die from the DC test equipment. View full abstract»

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  • A Method for Deriving Large-Signal Input Impedance of Microwave Devices Using a Modified Source and Load Pull Technique

    Page(s): 97 - 104
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (650 KB)  

    Microwave power-amplifier technology is no longer dominated by class-A FET designs. For example, GaAs HBTs offer high-efficiency microwave performance in class-B and class-C operation. When operated at lower conduction angles, device input impedance is often a strong function of input-signal amplitude. Knowing Zin for the expected bias and drive conditions is essential to first-pass success of input- and interstage-matching circuits. One widely-used, yet incorrect, method of estimating large-signal input impedance optimizes the input tuner for maximum power transfer. Assuming that this produces a complex-conjugate impedance match, the designer assigns the device under test an input impedance equal to the complex conjugate of the tuner's s22. This procedure has triggered numerous unnecessary design iterations to correct the frequency responses of high-efficiency amplifiers. The authors present a technique for accurately calculating Zin of a device under test from tuner data obtained in a modified source and load-pull configuration. The new technique inherently improves the robustness of tuner-optimization algorithms, and also allows an input tuner to function for higher device reflection coefficients than previously possible. View full abstract»

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  • Accurate I-V Characterization of GaAs Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors Using A Precision Pulsed I-V System

    Page(s): 105 - 108
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (192 KB)  

    Accurate HBT I-V characterization using a precision VXI-based pulsed I-V system is presented. Narrow pulse (sub microsecond) characterization of HBTs minimizes the self-heating (thermal) effects, and trapping effects associated with I-V characterization. Long and short pulse width I-V measurements are compared, and observed thermal (conduction band and substrate) effects are discussed. This is the first accurate HBT pulsed (<1 microsecond) I-V characterization capability reported in the open literature. View full abstract»

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  • Up to Date Version of a Computer-Driven Noise Figure Measuring System for the Simultaneous Determination of Noise, Gain and Scattering Parameters of Microwave Transistors

    Page(s): 109 - 112
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (222 KB)  

    The complete characterization of microwave transistors in terms of (four) noise, (four) gain and scattering parameters sets ({N), {G) and [SI, respectively) vs. frequency and bias conditions (and also vs. decreasing temperature, if required) is the first and most important step to design low noise amplifiers (LNAs). The characterization of the device under test (DUT) in terms of [SI is friendly by means of commercial Automatic Network Analyzer; then the { G) set may be determined by computation. View full abstract»

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  • Single-Port Technique for Adaptor Efficiency Evaluation

    Page(s): 113 - 118
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (357 KB)  

    The `single-port adaptor efficiency evaluation¿ (SPAEE) technique uses swept-frequency measurements to evaluate broadband efficiency of low-loss, reciprocal 2-ports, including noninsertable devices such as adaptors. The 2-port is terminated in two reflective terminations, a shielded open and a short. The value of the intrinsic efficiency as a function of frequency is extracted from the automatic network analyzer S11 data. The frequency range is limited only by the availability of the two reflective terminations. The major advantages of the SPAEE technique are its simplicity, speed, and accuracy. The expanded uncertainty (k=2) is typically about 1.5%. View full abstract»

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  • A Generalized Self-Calibration Theory for Dual Six-Port Network Analyzers

    Page(s): 119 - 128
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (549 KB)  

    A novel calibration theory for dual six-port network analyzers is presented. The strict separation of the procedure into an establishment of the complex measurement ability and an analyzer error coefficient determination leads to a closed form theory for performing a dual six-port calibration using a general TNA procedure [1]. It is possible to apply all known self-calibration procedures to a dual six-port. As will be seen, the well known TRL method is a special case of the genaral TNA technique. View full abstract»

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  • LZY: A Self-Calibration Approach in Competition to the LRM Method for On-Wafer Measurements

    Page(s): 129 - 136
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (312 KB)  

    The theory and measurement results of the LZY self-calibration procedure are presented. The LZY method is specifically designed for measurements on planar structures. The self-calibration part determines the propagation constant of the line-standard and the impedance value of the ground-connection of the impedance standard. This LZY procedure deals with only two standards. The fact, that it is not necessary to know completely both standards, allows to create calibration standards in an easy way and allows to perform a self-control after the calibration process. This LZY self-calibration procedure is based on closed solutions, so that the accuracies and viabilities are very good, as proved by measurements. View full abstract»

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  • Guidelines for Design and Testing at Millimeter Wave Frequencies

    Page(s): 137 - 138
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (134 KB)  

    In recent years, the advancement in PHEMT device technology has pushed the operational frequency of many new devices to millimeter wave frequencies. This abstract summarizes some of the problems and solutions encountered in designing and testing circuits which operate at these frequencies. Device modeling, both linear and nonlinear is an integral part of any amplifier design process. View full abstract»

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  • Waveform Analysis of GaAs FET Breakdown

    Page(s): 139 - 142
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (257 KB)  

    drain-gate breakdown of GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors analyzed using high frequency waveform probing. Peak drain-gate voltage was theoretically and experimentally found to be a determining breakdown factor. The impact ionization induced conduction component of the gate and drain current of pinched-off MESFET at RF was found to correspond to the dc breakdown currents. The transit time of 30 ps was obtained for the impact ionization generated electrons to travel from gate to drain. This yields the hot electron drift velocity of 4.3×106 cm/s which is in good agreement with the published data. View full abstract»

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  • Automatic RF Techniques Group Executive Committee Members October 12, 1994

    Page(s): 152 - 154
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • ARFTG Mailing and Membership List as of 04/12/95

    Page(s): 155 - 167
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Table of contents

    Page(s): 1 - vii
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Survey of the articles

    Page(s): 1 - 146
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    Freely Available from IEEE