By Topic

Digital Libraries, 2005. JCDL '05. Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on

Date 7-11 June 2005

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 128
  • You can lead a horse to water: teacher development and use of digital library resources

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (771 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This article presents findings from approximately 150 users who created instructional projects using educational digital library resources. One hundred of these users were teachers participating in professional development workshops on the topic of digital libraries. Our iterative approach to tool and workshop development and implementation was based on a framework that characterizes several input, output, and process variables affecting dissemination of such technologies in educational contexts. Data sources involved a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, including electronic surveys, interviews, participant observations, and server log file and artifact analyses. These multiple and complementary levels of analyses reveal that despite teachers reporting great value in learning resources and educational digital libraries, significant and lasting impact on teaching practice remains difficult to obtain View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Comprehensive personalized information access in an educational digital library

    Page(s): 9 - 18
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (683 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper explores two ways to help students locate most relevant resources in educational digital libraries. One method gives a more comprehensive access to educational resources, through multiple pathways of information access, including browsing and information visualization. The second method is to access personalized information through social navigation support. This paper presents the details of the Knowledge Sea II system for comprehensive personalized access to educational resources and also presents the results of a classroom study. The study delivered a convincing argument for the importance of providing multiple information presentation modes, showing that only about 10% of all resource accesses were made through the traditional search interface. We have also collected some solid evidence in favor of the social navigation support View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Facilitating middle school students' sense making process in digital libraries

    Page(s): 19 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (65 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Previous research on using digital libraries in science classrooms indicated that middle school students tend to passively find answers rather than actively make sense of information they find in digital libraries. In response to this challenge, we designed a scaffolded software tool, the Digital IdeaKeeper, to support middle school students in making sense of digital library resources during online inquiry. This study describes preliminary results from a study to see how middle school students use different IdeaKeeper features. Initial data analysis indicates that IdeaKeeper can facilitate online learners to engage in sense-making process in online inquiry View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Evaluating G-portal for geography learning and teaching

    Page(s): 21 - 22
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (188 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes G-Portal, a geospatial digital library of geographical assets, providing an interactive platform to engage students in active manipulation and analysis of information resources and collaborative learning activities. Using a G-Portal application in which students conducted a field study of an environmental problem of beach erosion and sea level rise, we describe a pilot study to evaluate usefulness and usability issues to support the learning of geographical concepts, and in turn teaching View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A new framework for building digital library collections

    Page(s): 23 - 31
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper introduces a new framework for building digital library collections and contrasts it with existing systems. It describes a significant new step in the development of a widely used open-source digital library system, Greenstone, which has evolved over many years. It is supported by a fresh implementation, which forced us to rethink the entire design rather than making incremental improvements. The redesign capitalizes on the best ideas from the existing system, which have been refined and developed to open new avenues through which digital librarians can tailor their collections. We demonstrate its flexibility by showing how digital library collections can be extended and altered to satisfy new requirements View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Using collection descriptions to enhance an aggregation of harvested item-level metadata

    Page(s): 32 - 41
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1062 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    As an increasing number of digital library projects embrace the harvesting of item-level descriptive metadata, issues of description granularity and concerns about potential loss of context when harvesting item-level metadata take on greater significance. Collection-level description can provide valuable context for item-level metadata records harvested from disparate and heterogeneous providers. This paper describes an ongoing experiment using collection-level description in concert with item-level metadata to improve quality of search and discovery across an aggregation of metadata describing resources held by a consortium of large academic research libraries. We present details of approaches implemented so far and preliminary analyses of the potential utility of these approaches. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of related issues and future work plans View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A web service framework for embedding discovery services in distributed library interfaces

    Page(s): 42 - 43
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (160 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Significant barriers deter Web page designers and developers from incorporating dynamic content from Web services into their page designs. Web services typically require designers to learn service protocols and have access to and knowledge of dynamic application servers or CGI in order to incorporate dynamic content into their pages. This paper describes a framework for embedding discovery services in distributed interfaces that seeks to simplify this process and eliminate these barriers, making the use of the dynamic content available to a wider audience and increasing its potential for adoption and use in educational design View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • xTagger: a new approach to authoring document-centric XML

    Page(s): 44 - 45
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (145 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The process of authoring document-centric XML documents in humanities disciplines is very different from the approach espoused by the standard XML editing software with the data-centric view of XML. Where data-centric XML is generated by first describing a tree structure of the encoding and then providing the content for the leaf elements, document-centric encodings start with content which is then marked up. In the paper we describe our approach to authoring document-centric XML documents and the tool, xTagger, originally developed for this purpose within the Electronic Boethius project, otherwise enhanced within the ARCHway project, an interdisciplinary project devoted to development of methods and software for preparation of image-based electronic editions of historic manuscripts View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Enhancing access to research data: the challenge of crystallography

    Page(s): 46 - 55
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (372 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes an ongoing collaborative effort across digital library and scientific communities in the UK to improve access to research data. A prototype demonstrator service supporting the discovery and retrieval of detailed results of crystallography experiments has been deployed within an Open Archives digital library service model. Early challenges include the understanding of requirements in this specialized area of chemistry and reaching consensus on the design of a metadata model and schema. Future plans encompass the exploration of commonality and overlap with other schemas and across disciplines, working with publishers to develop mutually beneficial service models, and investigation of the pedagogical benefits. The potential improved access to experimental data to enrich scholarly communication from the perspective of both research and learning provides the driving force to continue exploring these issues View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Information synthesis: a new approach to explore secondary information in scientific literature

    Page(s): 56 - 64
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (511 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Advances in both technology and publishing practices continue to increase the quantity of scientific literature that is available electronically. In this paper, we introduce the information synthesis process, a new approach that enables scientists to visualize, explore, and resolve contradictory findings that are inevitable when multiple empirical studies explore the same natural phenomena. Central to the information synthesis approach is a cyber-infrastructure that provides a scientist with both primary and secondary information from an article and structured information resources. To demonstrate this approach, we have developed the Multi-User Information Extraction for Information Synthesis (METIS) System. METIS is an interactive system that automates critical tasks within the information synthesis process. We provide two case-studies that demonstrate the utility of the information synthesis approach View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Comparative interoperability project: configurations of community, technology, organization

    Page(s): 65 - 66
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (155 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we describe the methods, goals and early findings of the research endeavor 'Comparative Interoperability Project' (CIP). The CIP is an extended interdisciplinary collaboration of information and social scientists with the shared goal of understanding the diverse range of interoperability strategies within information infrastructure building activities. We take interoperability strategies to be the simultaneous mobilization of community, organizational and technical resources to enable data integration. The CIP draws together work with three ongoing collaborative scientific projects (GEON, LTER, Ocean Informatics) that are building information infrastructures for the natural sciences View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Visualizing aggregated biological pathway relations

    Page(s): 67 - 68
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (225 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Genescene development team has constructed an aggregation interface for automatically-extracted biomedical pathway relations that is intended to help researchers identify and process relevant information from the vast digital library of abstracts found in the National Library of Medicine's PubMed collection. Users view extracted relations at various levels of relational granularity in an interactive and visual node-link interface. Anecdotal feedback reported here suggests that this multi-granular visual paradigm aligns well with various research tasks, helping users find relevant articles and discover new information View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Addressing the challenge of visual information access from digital image and video libraries

    Page(s): 69 - 78
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1473 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    While it would seem that digital video libraries should benefit from access mechanisms directed to their visual contents, years of TREC video retrieval evaluation (TRECVID) research have shown that text search against transcript narrative text provides almost all the retrieval capability, even with visually oriented generic topics. A within-subjects study involving 24 novice participants on TRECVID 2004 tasks again confirms this result. The study shows that satisfaction is greater and performance is significantly better on specific and generic information retrieval tasks from news broadcasts when transcripts are available for search. Additional runs with 7 expert users reveal different novice and expert interaction patterns with the video library interface, helping explain the novices' lack of success with image search and visual feature browsing for visual information needs. Analysis of TRECVID visual features well suited for particular tasks provides additional insights into the role of automated feature classification for digital image and video libraries View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Assessing tools for use with webcasts

    Page(s): 79 - 88
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (279 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This research assessed the effectiveness of selected interface tools in helping people respond to classic information tasks with Webcasts. Rather than focus on a classic search/browse task to locate an appropriate Webcast to view, our work takes place at the level of an individual Webcast to assess interactivity within the contents of a single Webcast. The questions guiding our work are: (1) Which tool(s) are the most effective in achieving the best response? (2) How do users use those tools for task completion? In this study, 16 participants responded to a standard set of information tasks using ePresence, a Webcasting system that handles both live and stored video, and provides multiple techniques for accessing content. Using questionnaires, screen capture and interviews, we evaluated the interaction, assessed the tools, and based on our results, make suggestions for improving access to the content of stored Webcasts View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Exploring user perceptions of digital image similarity

    Page(s): 89 - 90
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (148 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The MIDAS project is developing infrastructure and policies for optimal display of digital information on devices with diverse characteristics. In this paper we present the preliminary results of a study that explored the effects of scaling and color-depth variation in digital photographs on user perceptions of similarity. Our results indicate general trends in user preferences and can serve as guidelines for designing policies and systems that display digital images optimally on various information devices View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Detecting and supporting known item queries in online public access catalogs

    Page(s): 91 - 99
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (290 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    When users seek to find specific resources in a digital library, they often use the library catalog to locate them. These catalog queries are defined as known item queries. As known item queries search for specific resources, it is important to manage them differently from other search types, such as area searches. We study how to identify known item queries in the context of a large academic institution's online public access catalog (OPAC), in which queries are issued via a simple keyword interface. We also examine how to recognize when a known item query has retrieved the item in question. Our approach combines techniques in machine learning, language modeling and machine translation evaluation metrics to build a classifier capable of distinguishing known item queries and correctly classifies titles for whether they are the known item sought with an 80% and 95% correlation to human performance, respectively on each task. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such work, which has the potential to streamline the user interface of both OPACs and digital libraries in support of known item searches View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Downloading textual hidden web content through keyword queries

    Page(s): 100 - 109
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (271 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An ever-increasing amount of information on the Web today is available only through search interfaces: the users have to type in a set of keywords in a search form in order to access the pages from certain Web sites. These pages are often referred to as the hidden Web or the deep Web. Since there are no static links to the hidden Web pages, search engines cannot discover and index such pages and thus do not return them in the results. However, according to recent studies, the content provided by many hidden Web sites is often of very high quality and can be extremely valuable to many users. In this paper, we study how we can build an effective hidden Web crawler that can autonomously discover and download pages from the hidden Web. Since the only "entry point" to a hidden Web site is a query interface, the main challenge that a hidden Web crawler has to face is how to automatically generate meaningful queries to issue to the site. We provide a theoretical framework to investigate the query generation problem for the hidden Web and we propose effective policies for generating queries automatically. Our policies proceed iteratively, issuing a different query in every iteration. We experimentally evaluate the effectiveness of these policies on 4 real hidden Web sites and our results are very promising. For instance, in one experiment, one of our policies downloaded more than 90% of a hidden Web site (that contains 14 million documents) after issuing fewer than 100 queries View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • SpidersRUs: automated development of vertical search engines in different domains and languages

    Page(s): 110 - 111
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (636 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper we discuss the architecture of a tool designed to help users develop vertical search engines in different domains and different languages. The design of the tool is presented and an evaluation study was conducted, showing that the system is easier to use than other existing tools View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Grid-based digital libraries: cheshire3 and distributed retrieval

    Page(s): 112 - 113
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (181 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The University of California, Berkeley and the University of Liverpool are developing an information retrieval and digital library system (Cheshire3) that operates in both single-processor and "Grid" distributed computing environments. This paper discusses the architecture of the system and how it performs digital library tasks in a Grid computing environment View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Integrating digital libraries and electronic publishing in the DART project

    Page(s): 114 - 120
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (302 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The Digital Anthropology Resources for Teaching (DART) project integrates the content acquisition and cataloging initiatives of a federated digital repository with the development of scholarly publications and the creation of digital tools to facilitate classroom teaching. The project's technical architecture and unique publishing model create a teaching context where students move easily between primary and secondary source material and between authored environments and independent research, and raise specific issues with regard to metadata, object referral, rights, and exporting content. The model also addresses the loss of provenance and catalog information for digital objects embedded in "born-digital" publications. The DART project presents a practical methodology to combine repository and publication that is both exportable and discipline-neutral View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Annotating illuminated manuscripts: an effective tool for research and education

    Page(s): 121 - 130
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1075 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The aim of the paper is to report the research results of an ongoing project that deals with the exploitation of a digital archive of drawings and illustrations of historic documents for research and educational purposes. According to the results on a study of user requirements, we have designed tools to provide researchers with innovative ways for accessing the digital manuscripts, sharing, and transferring knowledge in a collaborative environment. We have found that the results of scientific research on the relationships between images of manuscripts produced over the centuries can be rendered explicit by using annotations. For this purpose, a taxonomy for linking annotation is introduced, together with a conceptual schema which represents annotations and links them to digital objects View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A generic alerting service for digital libraries

    Page(s): 131 - 140
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (190 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Users of modern digital libraries (DLs) can keep themselves up-to-date by searching and browsing their favorite collections, or more conveniently by resorting to an alerting service. The alerting service notifies its clients about new or changed documents. Proprietary and mediating alerting services fail to fluidly integrate information from differing collections. So far, no sophisticated service has been proposed that is integrated with the digital library software and covers heterogeneous and distributed collections. This paper analyses the conceptual requirements of this much-sought after service for digital libraries. We demonstrate that the differing concepts of digital libraries and its underlying technical design has extensive influence (a) the expectations, needs and interests of users regarding an alerting service, and (b) on the technical possibilities of the implementation of the service. Our findings show that the range of issues surrounding alerting services for digital libraries, their design and use is greater than one may anticipate. We also show that, conversely, the requirements for an alerting service have considerable impact on the concepts of DL design. Our findings should be of interest for librarians as well as system designers. We highlight and discuss the far-reaching implications for the design of, and interaction with, libraries. This paper discusses the lessons learned from building such a distributed alerting service. We present our prototype implementation as a proof-of-concept for an alerting service for open DL software View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Link prediction approach to collaborative filtering

    Page(s): 141 - 142
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (189 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recommender systems can provide valuable services in a digital library environment, as demonstrated by its commercial success in book, movie, and music industries. One of the most commonly-used and successful recommendation algorithms is collaborative filtering, which explores the correlations within user-item interactions to infer user interests and preferences. However, the recommendation quality of collaborative filtering approaches is greatly limited by the data sparsity problem. To alleviate this problem we have previously proposed graph-based algorithms to explore transitive user-item associations. In this paper, we extend the idea of analyzing user-item interactions as graphs and employ link prediction approaches proposed in the recent network modeling literature for making collaborative filtering recommendations. We have adapted a wide range of linkage measures for making recommendations. Our preliminary experimental results based on a book recommendation dataset show that some of these measures achieved significantly better performance than standard collaborative filtering algorithms View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Sentiment-based search in digital libraries

    Page(s): 143 - 144
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1903 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Several researchers have developed tools for classifying/ clustering Web search results into different topic areas (such as sports, movies, travel, etc.), and to help users identify relevant results quickly in the area of interest. This study follows a similar approach, but is in the area of sentiment classification - automatically classifying on-line review documents according to the overall sentiment expressed in them. This paper presents a prototype system that has been developed to perform sentiment categorization of Web search results. It assists users to quickly focus on recommended (or non-recommended) information by classifying Web search results into four categories: positive, negative, neutral, and non-review documents, by using an automatic classifier based on a supervised machine learning algorithm, support vector machine (SVM) View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Automatic extraction of titles from general documents using machine learning

    Page(s): 145 - 154
    Save to Project icon | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (362 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We propose a machine learning approach to title extraction from general documents. By general documents, we mean documents that can belong to any one of a number of specific genres, including presentations, book chapters, technical papers, brochures, reports, and letters. Previously, methods have been proposed mainly for title extraction from research papers. It has not been clear whether it could be possible to conduct automatic title extraction from general documents. As a case study, we consider extraction from Office including Word and PowerPoint. In our approach, we annotate titles in sample documents (for Word and PowerPoint respectively) and take them as training data, train machine learning models, and perform title extraction using the trained models. Our method is unique in that we mainly utilize formatting information such as font size as features in the models. It turns out that the use of formatting information can lead to quite accurate extraction from general documents. Precision and recall for title extraction from Word is 0.810 and 0.837 respectively, and precision and recall for title extraction from PowerPoint is 0.875 and 0.895 respectively in an experiment on intranet data. Other important new findings in this work include that we can train models in one domain and apply them to another domain, and more surprisingly we can even train models in one language and apply them to another language. Moreover, we can significantly improve search ranking results in do document retrieval by using the extracted titles View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.