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Industry Applications Conference, 1996. Thirty-First IAS Annual Meeting, IAS '96., Conference Record of the 1996 IEEE

Date 6-10 Oct. 1996

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  • Conference Record of the 1996 IEEE Industry Applications Conference Thirty-First IAS Annual Meeting

    Page(s): i - xxxiv
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    Freely Available from IEEE
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  • Conference Author Index

    Page(s): 2585 - 2589
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  • Diameter sizing of rolls in bridles that utilize powder clutches

    Page(s): 2537 - 2540 vol.4
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    The use of powder clutches for regulation of torque in entry and exit bridles of tension levelers must take into consideration the constraints imposed by the slip requirements of the powder clutch. This paper provides guidelines for roll diameter sizing as a function of the maximum linear line speed and worst case application tension profiles such that the powder clutch always operates in a reasonable slip operating range View full abstract»

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  • Analytical simulation of current effect on radiation energy emitted from high current wall-stabilized arcs

    Page(s): 2169 - 2172 vol.4
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    In order to know the effect of the arc current on the radiation power, an analytical simulation of the radiation or the lighting energy emitted from stabilized arcs has been made using an analytical relation between voltage gradient E and arc current I. Under the condition that the continuous spectrums are stronger than line ones, the radiation power is proportional to the square of electron density. When E-I curves are denoted as E=f(I)∝Im, the radiation power Φ can be expressed as Φ∝I2(1-m), where 2(1-m) is 2.7 for I<10 A, 2 for I=10~100 A and 1.2 for I>1000 A. These simulated exponents fairly agreed with the experimental ones in Ar and SF6 high current stabilized arcs at 1 atm View full abstract»

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  • Distributed measurement of conductor temperatures in mine trailing cables using fiber-optic technology

    Page(s): 2480 - 2483 vol.4
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    Mine trailing cables operated above safe thermal limits can cause premature insulation failure, increasing electrocution and fire hazards. Previous US Bureau of Mines (USBM) Pittsburgh Research Center research showed that, under static test conditions, electrical current levels permitted under present regulations may not limit cable temperatures to less than the 90°C rating of reeled trailing cable. The USBM began a study of thermal characteristics of reeled trailing cable using dynamic test conditions more representative of field conditions where operators constantly reel in and pay out cable. This research is in support of efforts by industry associations and the Mine Safety and Health Administration to establish safety guidelines for cyclically rated reeled machines. The paper describes a unique approach to measuring temperatures within reeled cable under dynamic test conditions. Fiber-optic sensors embedded within the metallic conductors measure temperatures at 1-m intervals along the entire length of cable. Temperature measurements are reported to be accurate to within ±1°C. The test setup requires access to only one end of the trailing cable, allowing researchers to freely reel in and pay out cable while temperature measurements are made, simulating field conditions. Manufacture of a fiber-optic-embedded trailing cable is described along with initial test results that indicate the fiber optic approach is viable View full abstract»

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  • New generation UPS technology, the delta conversion principle

    Page(s): 2389 - 2395 vol.4
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    Harmonics, low power factor and high energy waste from traditional double conversion uninterruptible power systems (UPS) are becoming of increasing concern to electric utility engineers and operators of such UPS systems. Actually, today many UPSs are not being viewed as solutions, but rather as culprits. This paper introduces a new, line-interactive, online UPS technology that eliminates harmonic input current distortion, provides unity controlled power factor and saves energy. The paper gives a brief overview of the traditional double-conversion UPS as well as the causes and consequences of the problems associated with this topology. Then the line-interactive, single conversion UPS topology with its advantages is reviewed. Next the new delta conversion UPS topology is presented and discussed in detail showing further advantages. Finally a performance comparison of all three types of UPS technology is made View full abstract»

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  • The effect of DC offset on instantaneous operating characteristics of low-voltage circuit breakers

    Page(s): 2265 - 2268 vol.4
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    This paper addresses the effect of asymmetrical currents on factory adjustments and field verification of low-voltage circuit breaker instantaneous trip units. Both MCCBs and power circuit breakers are pertinent. Factory adjustment of low-voltage circuit breakers, based on test results using asymmetrical current, may cause the circuit breaker instantaneous unit to perform improperly and result in inadequate protection and coordination of electrical system apparatus. Similarly, field testing conducted to verify proper performance of low-voltage circuit breakers, using asymmetrical current, may lead to the erroneous conclusion that the circuit breaker's instantaneous unit is out of specification. In addition to addressing the difficulties presented by this phenomenon, this paper also proposes an approach to identifying and overcoming these testing difficulties View full abstract»

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  • Electromagnetic processing of liquid steel

    Page(s): 2541 - 2546 vol.4
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    The use of electromagnetic processing of liquid steel at Inland Steel is in various stages ranging from commercial usage, with suggestions to vendors for improvements, to new application research. The status of commercially available electromagnetic stirring and electromagnetic braking are discussed. Application research of electromagnetic containment, and electromagnetic throttling are also discussed. The basic theory for electromagnetic processing of liquid steel is presented View full abstract»

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  • The Port Alice papers [power system load additions]

    Page(s): 2407 - 2409 vol.4
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    This paper describes project site conditions at a remote location on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, and defines the challenges faced when adding a large new load to an existing small power system. The Port Alice Papers describe a major installation in an existing pulp mill in Port Alice, British Columbia. Consideration of maintenance, operations and safety appropriate for this plant were vital to the success of the project. The information given in these papers will be useful to engineers working on projects in existing facilities where conditions are not ideal View full abstract»

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  • An electronic ballast with high power factor for compact fluorescent lamps

    Page(s): 2129 - 2135 vol.4
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    This paper introduces a new low cost, high power factor electronic ballast for compact fluorescent lamps. The proposed ballast integrates power factor correction and half-bridge power converters. Another feature of this work is that the self-oscillating technique is used. The MOSFET's gate drive can be implemented with simplicity and low cost. Theoretical analysis is presented and a very simple design methodology is obtained, since the integrated topology can be treated separately as two independent power converters. Simulation and experimental results are provided to verify the principle of operation and the high power factor of the proposed topology View full abstract»

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  • Performance improvement of electrostatic actuator by skewing electrodes

    Page(s): 1980 - 1985 vol.4
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    The authors have developed several types of high power electrostatic actuators. DEMED (dual excitation multiphase electrostatic drive) is one of those actuators and features a higher power/weight ratio compared to conventional electromagnetic motors. DEMED is expected to replace the conventional motors in applications that require high power or light weight, For those applications, DEMED has sufficient performance in terms of power generation, however, its output is very rippled. This paper proposes the use of the skewing technique, which is commonly used in electromagnetic motors, to DEMED electrodes, in order to reduce the force ripple. Some analytical results along with fundamental experimental results are presented. The analysis indicates that appropriately skewed electrodes can reduce the force ripple considerably and can also increase the practical force of DEMED View full abstract»

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  • Mine grounding, factors that prohibit a universal grounding solution

    Page(s): 2484 - 2491 vol.4
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    A uniform grounding procedure interacts with MSHA, OSHA and the NEC over a wide range of articles. Those that encompass personal safety and GFCI requirements address ampacities of 7 mA. Those that address system fault currents and resistance grounding deal with excitation ampacities that are 5 to 7 orders of magnitude higher. The need for a sound grounding technique is quite clear. Sooner or later the system will be exposed to a major system fault that will stress the electrical distribution system to its design limits and place the operating staff in extreme danger. The authors discuss the following aspects of mine grounding systems: personnel safety; possible range of local earth impedance; on-site ground impedance measurements; isolation of ground fields; and the electrical power distribution options View full abstract»

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  • The phenomenon of electrode polarization in dielectrophoresis

    Page(s): 2008 - 2014 vol.4
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    A theoretical model is set up to examine the question: are the results of dielectrophoretic measurements influenced by the frequency response of the diffuse double layer in the low frequency region (<100 Hz)? Within the constraints or the model and assumptions made in this paper our results show that under the typical electrolyte concentrations that are used in experiments the frequency response of the double layer does not color the experimentally observed dielectrophoretic spectrum View full abstract»

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  • Finite element solution of monopolar corona as influenced by ion life time

    Page(s): 1919 - 1924 vol.4
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    This paper presents an iterative finite element technique for the analysis of monopolar ionized field in transmission line conductor to plane configurations. One of the main underlying assumptions adopted in the literature, namely, the constant ion mobility, is waived in a simple way. The impact of waiving this assumption on the computed corona current and ground plane current density profile is investigated. A laboratory model was built to check the accuracy of the calculated corona current and the ground plane current density characteristics. It has been found that the present calculated corona current and the ground plane current density, which assumed variable ion mobility, agreed well with those measured experimentally for laboratory and full scale models and are less than those obtained when assuming constant ion mobility View full abstract»

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  • Investigation of the optical and electrical characteristics of a spark gap

    Page(s): 2059 - 2064 vol.4
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    A spark gap apparatus and a high speed optoelectronic measurement system were used to examine the optical and electrical characteristics of spark discharges. Parameters studied included the magnitude and polarity of the discharge voltage, gap length and the impedance of the discharge circuit. Analyses were performed to compare the measured optical signatures as a function of the discharge current. Results of the experimentally measured parameters compare well with theoretically computed values. The work has application in the study of electrostatic discharge (ESD) events View full abstract»

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  • An energy conversion and integration methodology for end-user groups in deep level mines

    Page(s): 2492 - 2498 vol.4
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    Energy models are powerful tools for studying energy problems. A model that represents an end-user group very accurately, can be very complicated. The purpose of this paper is to show how energy conversion models that represent end-user groups in a deep level mine with an acceptable accuracy, without being too complicated or seating unacceptable errors, are created. Simplifying assumptions are made to reduce the complexity of the end-user group's model, to enable the energy engineer to solve problems with a pocket calculator. The models must be useful to an energy engineer who has to calibrate the energy consumption of an end-user group without the use of simulation packages View full abstract»

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  • Generation of fine dry toner and its charging characteristics

    Page(s): 2026 - 2030 vol.4
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    Ultra-fine dry toner particles for electrophotography were obtained using a new system which is composed of an ultrasonic atomizer and a drying system. Atomized droplets produced by the ultrasonic transducer were dried using a microwave oven. The diameter of fine dry toner particles obtained using this system was less than 1 μm. The dried particles were charged by the induction charging method. In the case of applying -3 kV to the induction electrode, the surface charge density of the fine dry toner particle was 20.9 μC/m2. Using these dry toner particles, the system is considered to be able to obtain developed images of ultra-high resolution View full abstract»

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  • The BC hydro/port Alice utility intertie

    Page(s): 2410 - 2413 vol.4
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    Western Pulp Limited Partnership's mill at Port Alice, British Columbia, operated as an island power system that generated all its own power. BC Hydro served only one isolated load of 2 or 3 MW for which the mill lacked generating capability. Upon the addition of an 8 MW load, customer (Western Pulp) and utility (BC Hydro) agreed that it was time for the two power systems to be interconnected. The 30 km, 25 kV line from Keogh substation was converted to 132 kV so it could transmit this much power. The 132 kV line was served by tapping into an existing line, making it a multi-terminal power transmission line served from the middle, with generation at both ends. Western Pulp built the 132/25 kV Jeune Landing substation to serve the pulp mill and provide 25 kV power to BC Hydro for other customers. In an emergency, the mill is capable of backfeeding Jeune Landing substation from its generators if the 132 kV line fails. This paper discusses the difficult problem of operating and protecting a multi-terminal power transmission line as well as problems associated with the utility/customer interface, and the solutions chosen to overcome such problems View full abstract»

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  • Reducing the uncertainty in fluorescent lamp/ballast system compatibility

    Page(s): 2189 - 2193 vol.4
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    The traditional method of life testing for fluorescent lamps is to determine the median operating hours until failure for a large sample of lamps, when operated on a 3 hours on and 20 minutes off cycle. This method may take 3 years to get results. Because many new fluorescent lighting products have been introduced and many new manufacturers have entered the marketplace, the compatibility of fluorescent lamp/ballast system is of concern for manufacturers, specifiers, and end-users, who cannot wait 3 years to determine compatibility. To address this issue, some researchers have tried to develop methods to predict whether or not lamp/ballast combination will be compatible. This paper reviews different methods used to predict fluorescent lamp life, and discusses the importance of developing a reliable method for predicting fluorescent lamp/ballast compatibility. A pilot study using X-ray fluorescence is summarized, to demonstrate the potential of using this technique to better characterize the nature of the lamp/ballast system View full abstract»

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  • Modelling of the cooling process on the runout table of a hot strip mill-a parallel approach

    Page(s): 2563 - 2571 vol.4
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    This paper deals with the development of a new model for the cooling process on the runout table of hot strip mills. The suitability of different numerical methods for the solution of the proposed model equation from the point of view of accuracy and computation time are studied. Parallel solutions for the model equation are proposed. The numerical methods discussed are the finite difference method, the orthogonal method, and the integral profile method View full abstract»

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  • High-power-factor electronic ballast with self-excited series resonant inverter

    Page(s): 2136 - 2140 vol.4
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    This paper presents a simple configuration of a high power factor electronic ballast. The proposed approach makes an integration of two power processing stages, a boost power converter and a self-excited series resonant inverter. The self-excitation mechanism makes a merit of self-adjustment on the inverter duty-ratio resulting in an almost unity power factor at the input line. Experimental tests are carried out an the circuit designed for a 36-W compact fluorescent lamp View full abstract»

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  • Power supply design considerations for maintaining a minimum sustaining current in a vortex water wall high pressure argon arc lamp

    Page(s): 2219 - 2224 vol.4
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    Vortex water wall high-pressure argon arc lamps are used to generate intense light and are capable of operating at radiative efficiencies greater than 50%. These lamps are being considered for use in a pulsed DC mode of operation in the next generation of rapid thermal processing applications. The results of a series of experiments have shown that the breakdown to arc transition consists of a prethermionic electrode emission phase and a nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium positive column phase. The large dynamic voltage and current range between the breakdown phase and the arc phase necessitates the use of the following power circuit topologies: a high voltage ignition circuit connected in series with an arc sustaining power source; and an arc sustaining current source consisting of a step down hysteresis current controlled DC/DC power converter cascaded with a constant off-time output voltage controlled step up DC/DC power converter. The current controlled power converter supplies the minimum arc sustaining current whereas the step-up power converter provides the minimum post ignition pre-arc positive column voltage. A switch placed across the high voltage supply is closed after ignition and allows a reduction of the current ratings of the high voltage circuit components. Finally experimental verification of the circuit operation and design guidelines are provided View full abstract»

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  • Control problems in armored face conveyors for longwall mines

    Page(s): 2501 - 2505 vol.4
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    This paper is a tutorial discussion of the current difficulties being experienced with the performance of armored face conveyor (AFC) drive systems as used in longwall mining. It presents the traditional approaches to the design of the drive system, and highlights the inadequacies. The final part of the paper presents a possible solution approach using variable speed drive systems, emphasizing the advantages of this approach. The paper is significant as it discusses, in one document, a number of problems related to the operation of longwall AFCs. Furthermore it presents a solution path for these problems. The details of the control strategies to solve the problems highlighted are left to a companion paper View full abstract»

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  • Transition engineering

    Page(s): 2557 - 2562 vol.4
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    To solve the problems of upgrading existing systems and processes in various industries from concept and design to installation and startup, methods have been developed and techniques created to minimize the interruptions, outages and downtime associated with these upgrades. In some cases, no outages are experienced or needed because of these transition engineering techniques. Through the use of disciplined project management and technical expertise, transition goals are met at minimum of cost and time. These methods and techniques have successfully been applied in industries such as metal processing, petroleum production and data centers. Significant economic benefits are obtained with unique technical management techniques that include preplanning, proper scheduling, synchronized phasing-in of critical equipment, and optimum interfacing. Above all, it has been learned that successful installation of hardware and software in an existing system can only be accomplished with “humanware” involving the customer along with the supplier View full abstract»

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