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Intelligent Agent Technology, 2006. IAT '06. IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on

Date 18-22 Dec. 2006

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 132
  • IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology [Cover]

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): c1
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  • IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology-Title

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): i - iii
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  • IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology-Copyright

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): iv
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  • IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Intelligent Agent Technology - TOC

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): v - xiii
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  • Welcome Message from Conference Chairs

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): xiv - xv
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  • Welcome Message from Program Chair

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): xvi - xvii
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  • IAT'06 and WI'06 Conference Organization

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): xviii - xix
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  • Program Committee

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): xx - xxii
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  • IAT'06 Non-PC Reviewers

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): xxiii
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  • Neuroscience: New Insights for AI?

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 3 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (208 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Understanding the processing of information in our cortex is a significant part of understanding how the brain works and of understanding intelligence itself, arguably one of the greatest problems in science today. In particular, our visual abilities are computationally amazing and we are still far from imitating them with computers. Thus, visual cortex may well be a good proxy for the rest of the cortex and indeed for intelligence itself. But despite enormous progress in the physiology and anatomy of the visual cortex, our understanding of the underlying computations remains fragmentary. This position paper is based on the very recent, surprising realization that we may be on the verge of developing an initial quantitative theory of visual cortex, faithful to known physiology and able to mimic human performance in difficult recognition tasks, outperforming current computer vision systems. The proof of principle was provided by a preliminary model that, spanning several levels from biophysics to circuitry to the highest system level, describes information processing in the feedforward pathway of the ventral stream of primate visual cortex. The thesis of this paper is that - finally - neurally plausible computational models are beginning to provide powerful new insights into the key problem of how the brain works, and how to implement learning and intelligence in machines. View full abstract»

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  • Service-Oriented Science: Scaling eScience Impact

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 9 - 10
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (126 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Computational approaches to problem solving have proven their worth in many fields of science, allowing the collection and analysis of unprecedented quantities of data, and the exploration via simulation of previously obscure phenomena. New "systems" approaches in fields as diverse as biology, earthquake science, and environmental science are enabled by, and are spurring the further development of, such computational approaches. But as computational and system-level science methods become increasingly sophisticated, we must ask: how do we scale their impact, from the specialist to entire communities? View full abstract»

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  • Two Obvious Intuitions: Ontology-Mapping Needs Background Knowledge and Approximation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 11
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (94 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Ontology mapping (or: ontology alignment, or integration) is one of the most active areas the semantic Web area. An increasing amount of ontologies are becoming available in recent years, and if the semantic Web is to be taken seriously, the problem of ontology mapping must be solved. Numerous approaches are being proposed, a yearly competition is being organized, and a number of survey papers have appeared. Nevertheless, with only a few exceptions, two obvious intuitions on ontology mapping have been overlooked: if humans perform "ontology mapping" in their daily life (a task we all solve every day), they do not do this in a vacuum. Instead, they exploit a rich body of background knowledge already shared by both agents involved in the mapping process. Similarly, humans do not expect that their daily-life ontology mapping is perfect. We can very well cope with approximate translations between concepts used by different agents (in fact, we are so good at it that we barely notice that we do this). In this talk I will discuss recent work where we have quantitatively shown that indeed, ontology mapping can benefit from background knowledge, and that, somewhat surprisingly, more background knowledge leads to continuously improving results. We also discuss how the use of such background knowledge can be exploited to find approximate mappings when perfect mappings cannot be found. View full abstract»

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  • Approximate Reasoning in MAS: Rough Set Approach

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 12 - 18
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (108 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In modeling multiagent systems for real-life problems, techniques for approximate reasoning about vague concepts and dependencies (ARVCD) are necessary. We discuss an approach to approximate reasoning based on rough sets. In particular, we present a number of basic concepts such as approximation spaces, concept approximation, rough inclusion, construction of information granules in calculi of information granules, and perception logic. View full abstract»

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  • Engaging in a Conversation with Synthetic Agents along the Virtuality Continuum

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 19 - 20
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (318 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    During the last decade research groups as well as a number of commercial software developers have started to deploy embodied conversational characters in the user interface especially in those application areas where a close emulation of multimodal human-human communication is needed. Incarnations of such characters differ widely in type and amount of embodiment - starting from simplistic cartoon-style 2D representations of faces, fully embodied virtual humans in 3D virtual worlds to physically embodied androids co-habiting the user's real world. Despite of their variety, most of these characters have one thing in common: In order to enter the user's physical world, they need to be physical themselves. My talk focuses on challenges that arise when embedding synthetic conversational agents in the user's physical world. Following [4], we may classify the contact between synthetic and human agents according to a "virtuality continuum" (see Fig. 1). At one extreme, we find android agents that are completely integrated in the user's physical world and even allow for physical contact with the user. Mel, a robotic penguin developed by Sidner and colleagues [5] (see image 1 in Fig. 1), is one of the most sophisticated physical agents that engages in face-to-face communication with a human user. At the other extreme, there are purely virtual environments that are populated by human and synthetic agents. A prominent example is the pedagogical agent Steve [3] (see Image 4 in Fig. 1). Steve is aware of the user's presence in the virtual space, monitors her actions and responds to them, but has no access to the external world. That is it is only able to perceive user actions that are performed in the virtual space. In between, we find a new generation of characters that inhabit a world in which virtual and digital objects are smoothly integrated. In these applications, projections of virtual characters overlay the user's physical environment or projections of real persons - - are inserted into a virtual world. For instance, Cavazza and colleagues [2] propose a magic mirror paradigm which puts the user both in the role of an actor and a spectator by inserting the user'svideo image in a virtual world that is populated by synthetic agents (see Image 3 in Fig. 1). In the Virtual Augsburg project (see [1]), a synthetic character called Ritchie jointly explores with the user a table-top application that combines virtual buildings of the city center of Augsburg with a real city map being laid out on a real table. Most work so far has concentrated on the design and implementation of conversational agents at the two extremes of the Virtuality Continuum. In my talk, I will report on a new generation of synthetic characters that are no longer bound to a flat screen, but able to enter a physical world and to engage in a conversation with a human user. Users and characters do not inhabit separated spaces, but share an informational and physical reality that is augmented by digital objects. As a consequence, communication has to take into account both the physical and the digital context. New forms of deixis are enabled by the manipulation of objects and movements of characters in the physical space. Further challenges arise from the realization of so-called traversable interfaces that allow human and synthetic agents to cross the border from the digital to the real world and vice versa. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating Different Genetic Operators in the Testing for Unwanted Emergent Behavior Using Evolutionary Learning of Behavior

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 23 - 29
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (166 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    We present an experimental comparison of different genetic operators regarding their use in an evolutionary learning method that searches for unwanted emergent behavior in a multi-agent system. The idea of the learning method is to evolve cooperative behavior of a group of so-called attack agents that act in the same environment as the tested agents. The attack agents use action sequences as agent architecture and the quality of a group of such agents is measured by how near their behavior brings the tested agents to show the unwanted behavior. Our experiments within the ARES II rescue simulator with an agent team written by students show that this method is able to find unwanted emergent behavior of the agents. They also show that rather standard genetic operators (on the team level and the agent level) are already sufficient to find this unwanted behavior. View full abstract»

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  • Non-normative Behaviour in Multi-agent System: Some Experiments in Traffic Simulation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 30 - 36
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (186 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Most of the works related to norms and multi-agent systems focus on the design of normative agents systems making the assumption that agents always respect norms. Our aims in this article are (i) to discuss the relevance of this assumption in some specific contexts and to highlight some benefits of designing non-normative behaviour agents, (ii) to expound the methodology followed in a concrete application which consists in traffic simulation at junction. In particular, based on statistical traffic results, we show how non-normative behaviours contribute to improving the realism of simulation. View full abstract»

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  • Dependency of Network Structures in Agent Selection and Deployment

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 37 - 44
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (299 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper shows that the statistical properties of the network topology are indispensable information for improving performance of multi-agent systems (MASs), though they have not received much attention in previous MAS research. In particular we focus on the applicability of the degree of an agent-the number of links among neighboring agents- to load-balancing for the agent selection and deployment problem. The proposed selection algorithm does not need global information about the network structure and only requires the degree of a server agent and the degrees of the nodes neighboring the server agent. Through simulation of several topologies reproduced by the theoretical network models, we show that the use of the local topological information significantly improves the fairness of the servers even for a large-scale network. We also find that the key mechanisms for load-balancing in a given network topology are highly asymmetric degree characteristics (scale- free) and the negative degree correlation. View full abstract»

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  • Integrating Value-Directed Compression and Belief Space Analysis for POMDP Decomposition

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 45 - 51
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (244 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) is a commonly adopted framework to model planning problems for agents to act in a stochastic environment. Obtaining the optimal policy of POMDP for large-scale problems is known to be intractable, where the high dimension of its belief state is one of the major causes. The use of the compression approach has recently been shown to be promising in tackling the curse of dimensionality problem. In this paper, a novel value-directed belief compression technique is proposed,together with clustering of belief states for further reducing the underlying computational complexity. We first cluster some sampled belief states into disjoint partitions and then apply a non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) based projection to each belief state cluster for dimension reduction. We then compute the optimal policy is then computed using a pointed-based value iteration algorithm defined in the low-dimensional projected belief state space. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using a synthesized navigation problem. Solutions with quality comparable to the original POMDP were obtained at a much lower computational cost. View full abstract»

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  • Developing Multi-Agent Systems with Dynamic Binding Mechanism

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 52 - 58
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (202 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Agents in many complex applications are often dynamic, which means that their abilities, services and even design objectives can change at run-time. Though a great number of agent-oriented modeling languages and methodologies have been proposed, it is still a challenge to develop complex multi-agent systems with dynamic agents. In this paper, the technology requirements to analyze, design and implement dynamic agents are discussed. A dynamic binding mechanism to develop multi-agent systems is proposed based on caste that is the basic abstraction to specify agents' behaviors and elementary modular unit to design and implement multi-agent systems. In our approach, the dynamic behaviors of agents are realized as the change of castes that agents bind to by executing "join" and "quit" operations on agent's casteships at run-time. The mechanism also enables agents to change the status of its castes to be either active or inactive at run-time by executing operations "activate" and "deactivate". In order to specify and analyze the adaptive agents, a graphical notation of caste transition diagram is designed and an example is illustrated. The posed problems and future research about dynamic binding mechanism are also discussed at last. View full abstract»

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  • Properties of Capability Based Agent Organization Transition

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 59 - 65
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (455 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    It has been said that the only constant in life is change. This rule can also be directly applied to the lives of organizations. Any organization of non-trivial size, scope, life expectancy or function, is destined to change. An organization without the ability to transition is not robust, evolvable or adaptable within its environment. These basic preconditions to human organizations must also hold in viable agent organizations. To model an adaptable agent organization, the capability must be present to transition from one state to the next over the life of the organization. The organization model must include not only the structural components, but also the ability to facilitate change. The ability to change empowers the organization to transition from one state to the next, over its useful life. To enable transition, we must formally capture and define what triggers an organization transition. In this paper, we will define the properties to formally model the ability of an adaptable organization to transition throughout its useful life. View full abstract»

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  • Goal-Oriented Development of BDI Agents: The PRACTIONIST Approach

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 66 - 72
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (168 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The representation of goals and the ability to reason about them play an important role in goal-oriented requirements analysis and modelling techniques, especially in agent-oriented software engineering, as goals are more stable than other abstractions (e.g. user stories). In PRACTIONIST, a framework for developing agent systems according to the Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI) model, goals play a central role. Thus, in this paper we describe the structure of the goal model in the PRACTIONIST framework and how agents use their goal model to reason about goals, desires, and intentions during their deliberation process and means-ends reasoning as well as while performing their activities. View full abstract»

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  • Towards Agent-Based Coalition Formation for Service Composition

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 73 - 80
    Cited by:  Papers (11)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (138 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The topic of agent-based service composition has been experiencing much attention recently. Researchers are applying agent technology with the aim to improve adaptiveness and flexibility of prevailing static Web service composition solutions. One major characteristic of multi-agent systems in particular is their ability of emergent behavior that allows gaining complex system behavior from small distributed sets of simple rules. This paper describes a multi-agent-based coalition formation approach for service composition that achieves emergent behavior based on a light-weight interaction protocol and decentralized decision making. The paper also presents evaluation results of first experiments to underline the validity of the approach. View full abstract»

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  • Evaluating JACK Sim for Agent-Based Modelling of Pedestrians

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 81 - 87
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (200 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we describe the use of an agent-based simulation language, JACK Sim. JACK Sim is one of several add-ons for the agent language JACK, which is based on the belief-desire-intention architecture. The implementation of a prototype model of pedestrian way finding behaviour is described and the prototype is then evaluated using software engineering quality principles. A recent addition to the simulation language world, JACK Sim solves several problems encountered with using JACK alone for certain simulations and provides a solid framework for creating discrete-event simulations with BDI agent technology. View full abstract»

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  • A Design and Operation Model for Agent-Based Flexible Distributed System

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 88 - 95
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (851 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, we propose a new scheme for observing and controlling behavior of the QoS(quality of service)- aware agent organization, which provides a flexible QoS control of multimedia service components. In particular we propose two models, i.e., flexible distributed system (FDS) Model and its behavioral characteristics model (BCM) in this paper. By using these two models, a multiagent system with the flexible QoS control capability that can deal with changes of system's operational situations to maintain the required QoS as well as its behavioral characteristics. View full abstract»

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  • Assignment and Integration of Distributed Transport Services in Agent-Based Architecture

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 96 - 102
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (574 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Transport users require relevant, interactive and instantaneous information during their travels. A Transport Multimodal Information System (TMIS) can offer a support tool to response to their demands. Such a system has to take into account the exponential growth of services and information available on intended large networks like the Internet. In this context and even if many researchers have longer discussed its benefits, mobile agent paradigm might be very efficient compared to the classical client server one if it is used through an optimization approach. In this paper, we propose an efficient model based on a multi-agent system, using the mobile agent paradigm, in order to optimize the services research and composition in transport business. View full abstract»

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