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Industry Applications Conference, 2006. 41st IAS Annual Meeting. Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE

Date Oct. 2006

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  • Conference Record of the 2006 IEEE Industry Applications Conference Forty-First IAS Annual Meeting

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): i
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  • Copyright page

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): ii
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  • IEEE Industry Applications Society

    Publication Year: 2006
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Society council, executive board, operating departments, and staff departments

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): iv - vi
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  • 2006 Society Executive Board

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): vii - ix
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  • IAS 2006 Conference Session Chairs and Organizers

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): x - xiv
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  • Contents

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): xv - xlii
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  • High Efficiency High Power Density DC/DC Converter with Wide Input Range

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2115 - 2120
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (552 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A high efficiency parallel post regulator (PPR) for wide range input DC/DC converter is presented in this paper. It achieves ZVS in the primary side switches in full range load due to 0.5 duty cycle operation; it also reduces voltage stresses across main rectifiers and it has smaller conduction losses compared with the conventional secondary side post regulators; furthermore the requirement of input and output filters are significantly reduced due to the filtered waveforms PPR produced. A 250sim;400Vdc 12V/40A prototype has been built and detailed experimental results are given to verify the theoretic analysis View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of two soft switching DC-DC converters for fuel cell applications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2121 - 2128
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (425 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper is going to develop two soft switching DC-DC isolated converters for the design of the power electronic interface for fuel cell applications. One is based on the half -bridge capacitive converter and operates in ZVS mode. Another, in ZCS mode, is issued from the half-bridge inductive converter. Each structure has its own advantages and drawbacks. The ZVS converter can, actually, overcome the drawbacks of the original structure but is more complicated. As for the ZCS converter, the duty cycle is limited greater than 0.5 but more simple and suitable for the fuel cell applications thanks to the inductive feature of the input. Operation principle, characteristics and components sizing and losses estimation of each converter show that both of these structures allow optimizing the choice of components. Finally, experimental results on 2.5kW converter are going to validate prediction results View full abstract»

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  • A New High Frequency Linked Soft-Switching PWM DC-DC Converter with High and Low Side DC Rail Active Edge Resonant Snubbers for High Performance Arc Welder

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2129 - 2135
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (555 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper presents a new circuit topology of active edge resonant snubbers assisted half-bridge soft switching PWM inverter type dc-dc high power converter for DC bus feeding power plants. The proposed dc-dc power converter is composed of typical voltage source fed half-bridge high frequency PWM inverter with a high frequency transformer planar link in addition to dc busline side power semiconductor switching devices for PWM control scheme and parallel capacitive lossless snubbers. The operating principle of the new dc-dc converter treated here is described by using switching mode equivalent circuits, together with its unique features. All the active power switches in the half-bridge arms and dc buslines can achieve ZCS turn-on and ZVS turn-off commutation transitions and consequently the total turn-off switching losses of the power switches can be significantly reduced. As a result, a high switching frequency IGBTs can be actually selected in the range of 60 kHz under the principle of soft switching. The performance evaluations of the setup are illustrated experimentally. The effectiveness of this new converter topology is proved for low voltage and large current dc-dc power supplies such as DC bus feeding from a practical point of view View full abstract»

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  • Multiphase LLC Series Resonant Converter for Microprocessor Voltage Regulation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2136 - 2143
    Cited by:  Papers (16)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In order to further reduce the power loss, and increase the computation speed, future microprocessors desires lower voltage, higher current, tighter voltage regulation, and faster transient from their voltage regulators. In the last decade, interleaved buck converters have been studied and used extensively for powering microprocessors. Due to their inherent limitations in current sharing, capacitor size, step down ratio, and energy flow pattern, it becomes very difficult for interleaved buck converters to keep up with the demands of the future microprocessors. In this paper, a new candidate, a multiphase LLC resonant converter is proposed, which features zero voltage switching for both inverter and rectifier switches; wide load range; limited frequency range; fast dynamic response; high efficiency; and automatic current sharing. These features ensure the proposed multiphase LLC resonant converter a good voltage regulator candidate for the next generation microprocessors. All theoretical analyses are verified by a 1 V 50 W prototype and its experimental results View full abstract»

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  • A New Circuit Geometry SAZZ for An EV Drive Application

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2144 - 2149
    Cited by:  Papers (7)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (581 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A new circuit geometry SAZZ (snubber assisted zero voltage and zero current transition) is presented. It has the solution to supersede the conventional hard switched DC-DC converter currently in use for an electric vehicle (EV) drive application because of the simplicity and efficiency. Through the discussion of the circuit geometry, the operation principle of SAZZ topology can be applied to the 6 basic DC-DC converters. Moreover, new SAZZ circuit geometry can be created by combining two basic SAZZ circuit types, as shown as the bidirectional converter based on SAZZ topology. A 100kHz-8kW SAZZ mini-model using IGBT was fabricated and evaluated by a fundamental operational test. In addition, the 100kHz-8kW SAZZ bidirectional converter is also presented as a case study of SAZZ geometry for an EV drive application View full abstract»

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  • LCC Zero-Voltage-Switching Buck Converter with Synchronous Rectifier

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2150 - 2156
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (387 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    LCC cell is proposed in this paper to achieve zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) and eliminate body-diode conduction and reverse recovery in buck converter with synchronous rectifiers (SRs). In low-voltage dc-dc converters, SRs are widely utilized to reduce rectifier conduction loss. However, during switches' transition, SRs' parasitic body diodes unavoidably carry load current, which result in extra body diode conduction loss. In addition, body diodes' reverse recovery leads to significant switching losses and electromagnetic interference (EMI) problem, which is the key obstacle for SR applications for high-voltage and high switching frequency. With the proposed LCC cell in buck converter, the SR body diode never involves during switching transition, therefore, body diode conduction loss is saved, and reverse-recovery-related switching loss and ringing are eliminated. The experimental results show that the proposed converter achieves significant improvement in efficiency running at 1MHz switching frequency compared to the conventional buck converter and QSW buck converter View full abstract»

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  • N Interleaved Boost Converter with a Novel ZVT Cell Using a Single Resonant Inductor for High Power Applications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2157 - 2161
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (262 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, the interleaved boost converter (IBC) with ZVT cell using single resonant inductor in continuous conduction mode (CCM) is proposed. The IBC with the proposed ZVT cell has the advantages such as a simple circuit, reduced size and low cost by using single resonant. It is more suitable for high power applications. The proposed ZVT cell circuit and principles for the IBC are explained in detail. The validity of the IBC with proposed ZVT cell is verified through the simulation results View full abstract»

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  • A fully analytical PEM fuel cell system model for control applications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2162 - 2168
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1587 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Maintaining a fuel cell system in correct operating conditions when subjected to fast load changes requires good system control. Best results are typically achieved using model based control strategies. This paper elaborates a control oriented PEM fuel cell system model in two distinct steps. First, the fuel cell auxiliary systems (i.e. air and hydrogen supply along with thermal management) are described in a state space approach linking user input to fuel cell operating conditions. A steady state fuel cell stack model then describes the effect of those operating conditions on system performance. The model then allows implementation of advanced control strategies such as multivariable control with decoupling, actuator sensitivity analysis or maximum efficiency tracking algorithms View full abstract»

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  • Cost Considerations on Fuel Cell Renewable Energy Systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2169 - 2176
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (526 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The purpose of this paper is to economically evaluate the use of a fuel cell along with a photovoltaic array to provide electricity to residential houses. The use of a fuel cell is compared to the use of a battery as a way of storage. Different scenarios are presented regarding the use of the fuel cell with the PV system and the grid. Each scenario was based on an arrangement of the energy sources, considering cases where net metering and avoided cost were used and considering overproduction and underproduction cases. For each scenario it was determined how much money could be saved or lost if renewable energies were used compared to just buying electricity from the utility. The importance of operation cost optimization is described in brief along with linear programming based optimization scheme that can be used for a household with PV. It was concluded that renewable energies are cost-effective and that currently batteries are a better choice for storing energy View full abstract»

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  • A Novel Motor Energy Monitoring Scheme using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2177 - 2184
    Cited by:  Papers (6)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems, wireless communications, and highly integrated electronics have enabled the implementation of low-cost wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The unique characteristics of WSNs make them the ideal structure for energy monitoring and management in industrial environments. This paper presents a novel motor energy monitoring scheme using WSNs. Low-cost IEEE 802.15.4 functioned sensor devices are installed at the motor control centers to collect the motor terminal voltages and currents. These data are then sent through a WSN to the central supervisory station, where energy usage efficiencies and health conditions of the motors are estimated using nonintrusive methods. As a continuation of the authors' pervious work, this paper specifically focuses on the experimental realization and validation of the proposed scheme. A test bed is demonstrated with prototype wireless sensors. Four induction motors with different physical conditions are fully tested and the experimental results are analyzed View full abstract»

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  • Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine Hybrid APU System for Aerospace Applications

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2185 - 2192
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (473 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Traditionally, electric generators, driven by an aircraft's main propulsion engines or by a gas turbine auxiliary power unit (APU), have supplied the electrical needs of commercial aircraft. In flight, the marginal efficiency of electric power generated by the main engines and their generators is at most 30-40%. While on the ground with the engines shut off, the average fuel efficiency of the turbine powered APU is typically less than 20% and also has undesirable noise and gaseous emissions. As environmental concerns mount, aircraft manufacturers and others are challenged to reduce fuel consumption while simultaneously reducing emissions. Hence, there is very strong interest in developing fuel cells for aerospace applications. This paper reports on the study results of using solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) in combination with a gas turbine (GT) as a hybrid APU system for a commercial aircraft. The purpose of this feasibility study is to investigate the potential use of fuel cell based APUs for onboard power generation in future "more electric" commercial aircraft. In this paper, the modeling of the major components of the SOFC-GT power generation system, summary of the findings, challenges, and final recommendations are presented View full abstract»

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  • Influence of Voltage and Frequency Dimming on Power Losses in HF Electronic Ballasts for Compact Fluorescent Lamps

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2193 - 2197
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (985 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) incorporating electronic ballasts are widely used in lighting. In many cases the ability to dim the lamp is a requirement. Dimming can be achieved by varying the voltage supplied to the inverter or by changing the switching frequency of the inverter. The effect of dimming by both approaches on the power losses in the inverter is studied in this work. The lamp and associated inverter has been modeled in PSPICE, using a behavioral model for the CFL. Predicted losses are in good agreement with experimental data obtained from calorimetry. The model was then used to determine the distribution of losses within the inverter, enabling a comparison of the effects of the two dimming methods to be made View full abstract»

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  • Comparison of Class E and Half Bridge Inverters for Use in Electronic Ballasts

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2198 - 2201
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (201 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Resonant converters are often used in florescent ballasts for highly efficient operation. Typically half bridge converters have been used in this application. As an alternative to reduce the number of switching devices, class E resonant converters have been considered. This paper compares the use of a class E converter to a half bridge converter for ballast applications. The operation and design methodology are described for each converter. Experimental measurements were made on each converter to evaluate the stresses on the switching components. Results show that although the class E converter has fewer switching components, voltage stresses on those components are considerably higher View full abstract»

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  • Physical and Mathematical Meaning of the Alpha Constant, Einstein's Equation, and Planck Dimensions

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2202 - 2209
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (202 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A space-time constant is proposed that explains the physical and mathematical meaning for some of the constants in the present standard model. These include the alpha fine structure constant of hydrogen, Einstein's famous equation, E = mc2, and Planck dimensions. This proposed dynamic and quantized space-time constant is precisely related to a cubic mathematical function and predicts a resonant frequency property that is related to the electromagnetic energy structure. It should become the cornerstone constant for a more unified energy theory. Some examples of this resonant constant as it can be applied to electronic ballasts and lamps used in discharge lighting are also mentioned View full abstract»

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  • Extended Simplification of Einstein's Famous Equation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2210 - 2214
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (133 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    An extended simplification of Einstein's relativistic energy equation shows the rest energy and the kinetic energy relationship for all electromagnetic energy can be given by the general equation, Es2 = Er2 + Ek2. The ratio of the kinetic energy component of any mass with motion compared to the rest mass energy (no motion) can be determined using this equation. The basic constraints for this generalized energy equation is the rest mass must be invariant but the kinetic energy can be variant with respect to the velocity of its motion. This work shows the quantized electromagnetic energy structure resonates at a ratio proportional to three-dimensional space and is consistent with the alpha constant ratio. No hidden dimensions are needed to solve any of these resonant relationships because it is predicted hidden dimensions do not exist View full abstract»

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  • Predicted Resonance with Alpha Constant and Einstein's Equation

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2215 - 2223
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (270 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Energy resonance occurs in lighting systems within electronic ballasts as well as discharge lamps and this resonance is related to the alpha constant, to Einstein's famous energy equation, E =mc2 and to Planck's quantized dimensions involving mass, energy, and space. This report will show how both the alpha constant and Einstein's equation have the same type of resonance characteristic and that characteristic is comparable to a space-time relationship dependent on three spatial dimensions and time. It is predicted this resonance occurs at a specific frequency that is proportional to the square of the cube of three-dimensional space-time. A periodic triune energy resonance map for subatomic structures has been mathematically formulated using this predicted space-time resonance relationship that is based on a triune dependent and dynamic structure consisting of electric fields, magnetic fields, and gravitational fields View full abstract»

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  • On Outdoor Lighting Installations Grounding Systems

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2224 - 2229
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (261 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Outdoor lighting installations are publicly accessible electrical pieces of equipment. Upon faults-to-ground, the appearance of dangerous potentials on the metal parts of such equipment exposes persons to shock hazards. This unsafe situation poses serious problems to utilities, or municipalities, or whoever operates the lighting installations. Owners must carefully design and maintain the electrical distribution system available for their street/parking lights and, accordingly, protect persons from direct and indirect contact. This paper, through the analysis of the fault loops, seeks to clarify the reasons of the manifestation of stray voltages on public-exposed non-current carrying metal parts, in light of different distribution systems as defined in IEC standards View full abstract»

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  • Power Lines Made by Many Parallel Single Core Cables: a Case Study

    Publication Year: 2006 , Page(s): 2230 - 2237
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (264 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A low voltage three phase power line constituted by many single core cables in parallel is analysed. The geometry of the line is referred to IEC and European Standard suggestions and different possible solutions are compared. Rated loads are evaluated both under balanced and unbalanced conditions. Steady state three phase short circuit currents are also examined. The protection of such a line using a set of parallel single core cables by means of one protection under over current condition is discussed, making reference to the actual current sharing among the conductors View full abstract»

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