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Telecommunications Energy Conference, 2006. INTELEC '06. 28th Annual International

Date 10-14 Sept. 2006

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  • Copyright page

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  • [Front cover]

    Page(s): C1
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  • Copyright page

    Page(s): ii
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  • [Commentary]

    Page(s): iii
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  • INTELEC?? 2006 Management Committee

    Page(s): iv
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  • INTELEC?? 2006 Advisory Committee

    Page(s): v
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  • INTELEC?? 2006 Conference Executive Committee

    Page(s): vi
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  • INTELEC?? 2006 Program Committee

    Page(s): Vii
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  • Future Conferences

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  • Table of contents

    Page(s): viii - xix
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  • INTELEC 2006 author index

    Page(s): xx - xxi
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  • A Hybrid Type DC-DC Converter with New Control Strategy for a Micro-Fuel Cell Power Supply System

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5787 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A micro-fuel cell power supply system realizes an electronic ubiquitous society. Especially, the micro-fuel cell power supply is promoted to apply mobile systems such as small personal computer, cellular phone and so forth. In this case, it is attracted strongly to employ both of the micro-fuel cell and battery as the hybrid power supply system. This paper proposes a hybrid type DC-DC converter with new control strategy for the micro-fuel cell power supply system, and provides the operation principle, the experimental result and so forth. The new hybrid type DC-DC converter has a new output power compensation and new optimum operating point tracker using the microcomputer. As a result, the new hybrid type DC-DC converter can operate stably against the variation of power from the micro-fuel cell and the variation of the load current View full abstract»

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  • The Wave of the Future in High Density PC Converters

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3560 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Recent advances in packaging and silicon design allow the design engineer to implement DC-DC converter designs breaking the current records in power density (Watt/in2) and current density (Amp/in2). We will discuss in details a recent design that boasts 400 Watt/in2 on standard 6-8 layer boards. This approach allows the design engineer to fully optimize both the electrical and PCB design as all the parasitic inductances and resistances are almost fully eliminated allowing high frequency high efficiency performance View full abstract»

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  • Design, Control and Simulation of a High-Efficiency Low-Cost DC-DC Converter for High Current Applications

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6273 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In this paper, a two-stage DC-DC converter for high current applications is studied. The converter consists of two three-phase full-bridge inverters connected through three AC inductors. First, a switching-functions based model of the converter is establishes, and then a control scheme is designed for both inverters in order to ensure a high power factor at the AC stage, and a regulated voltage at the DC load. The performance of the proposed control system is verified through numerical simulations View full abstract»

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  • Decreasing Owning Costs of MV/LV Substations Backup Batteries

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5682 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    From the utilities point of view, backup batteries are very important to secure substations of the electrical network. The economical criterion for those batteries are mainly the upfront capital costs and the operational costs including maintenance. Facing the battery's owning costs in the 2300 substations under operation in France, Electricite de France Research and Development has developed an innovative system called "Stationary Multibat". From an economical aspect, we have focused our work on the development of a battery management system adapted for low-cost batteries and the use of GSM supervision for reducing maintenance interventions and costs. Then, during the year 2004, EDF R&D has patented the system and developed a laboratory prototype of a 20 kWh backup system under 48 V which includes the following aspects: use of a low-cost lead-acid battery, use of a battery array with parallel strings managed independently to increase reliability, development of a battery manager monitoring capacity periodically and controlling the charge and floating state to be adapted for the selected low-cost batteries, remote control by GSM for maintenance service View full abstract»

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  • Considerations For High Reliability Energy Sources For Nigeria Telecommunication Limited

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4485 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nigerian Telecommunication Ltd NITEL is the first national carrier in Nigeria, and is one of the two companies licensed to carry out the telecommunication carrier business in the country. Power generation within the company's networks has remained for decades a determining factor in the evaluation of the reliability of the services provided. Hence, discussed in this paper are the migration processes with specific real-life experience on the installed power plants towards achieving high power system availability View full abstract»

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  • Consideration for Abnormal Phenomenon in Common-Source type Active-clamped Forward Converter with Self-driven Synchronous Rectifier

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4137 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Many switching converters use soft-switching techniques with an active-clamp snubber so as to reduce switching surge and common-mode noise. In particular, the common-source type active-clamped forward converter is known as an effective circuit topology for common-mode noise reduction. On the other hand, replacing the output rectifying diodes with synchronous rectifier circuits, the power efficiency can be improved in the DC-DC converter with low-voltage and large-current output. Furthermore, the self-driven synchronous-rectifier circuits are generally used because of isolation and simple structure of their gate-driving circuits. However, for this common-source type active-clamped forward converter with self-driven synchronous rectifiers, it has been recently noticed that an abnormal phenomenon such as the inductor-current oscillation and the acoustic noise generation in the transformer occur in some conditions. This paper discusses the above-mentioned abnormal phenomenon. The cause of the abnormal phenomenon is examined and its occurrence condition is clarified View full abstract»

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  • An Improved Current-Driven Method for Synchronous Flyback AC/DC Converters

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4407 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    For low output voltage and relatively high current applications, synchronous rectifier technique can help improve efficiency in a flyback converter. An improved current-driven method for the synchronous rectifier (SR) is presented. Compared to the previous proposed current driven synchronous rectifier (CDSR), the proposed CDSR features simple structure, low driving loss, low component voltage stress and good performance. Analysis and experiments on a flyback prototype converter demonstrate the performance of the improved approach View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and Design of Half-Bridge DC-DC Converters with Current Tripler Rectification

    Page(s): 1 - 7
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (5246 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    A half bridge DC-DC converter with a novel current tripler rectifier (HBCTR) is proposed for low-voltage high-current applications. The proposed topology features high efficiency, good thermal management and simple magnetics design. A unified steady-state model is derived for the symmetrical and asymmetrical controlled HBCTR, and the DC analysis shows that the proposed HBCTR topology has high current capability that meets the high-current low-voltage requirements for microprocessor and telecommunication power supplies. Design considerations are presented based on mathematical analysis. Experimental results show the efficiency improvement compared with other conventional topologies View full abstract»

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  • Sodium Nickel Chloride Battery Performance in a Stationary Application

    Page(s): 1 - 4
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (3191 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This study focuses on the backup power requirements of telecommunications operations that are representative of many stationary power storage applications across the utility spectrum. The study evaluated the performance of a Zebra NaNiCl2 battery at Southern California Edison's (SCE) Electric Vehicle Technical Center (EVTC). EVTC's experience with backup power systems, battery expertise, and ISO 9001:2000-registration uniquely qualifies the organization for the project. The Zebra NaNiCl2 battery under the telecommunication test protocols produces encouraging results over ambient temperatures ranging from -20degC, to 75degC View full abstract»

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  • Nickel-Metal Hydride Technology- A Solution for Niche Telecom Power Applications

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8202 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    Nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) technology is often overlooked by telecom users who are considering advanced battery technologies. The paper details the characteristics of Saft's large-format Ni-MH technology and provides comparisons with nickel-cadmium, valve-regulated lead-acid and lithium-based batteries. It will be seen that Ni-MH offers a viable solution for certain niche applications in telecom power. One such niche is the emerging application for modular central office (CO) power. The paper describes this application and discusses the results of trials with a large operating company that is beginning to develop modular CO installations. While these large-format Ni-MH batteries are best applied in floating applications with controlled temperatures, this does not mean that Ni-MH electrochemistry is excluded from outside plant applications. Certain legacy digital loop carrier systems with distributed power have long been known to overcharge traditional batteries. Based on the space savings available with the use of high-temperature cylindrical Ni-MH cells, Saft has been able to integrate these cells with an innovative charging and control unit, all in the same space as existing VRLA batteries. This arrangement bypasses the damaging overcharging normally imposed by the installed charger, without affecting the attached loads, and allows the battery to reach its full life expectancy of over 8 years at a continuous operating temperature of 37 degC (100 degF). The last section of this paper describes the components of this battery system. The results of field trials and NEBS testing will also be discussed View full abstract»

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  • NiMH vs NiCd Batteries under High Charging Rates

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (6202 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    In last years, NiCd and NiMH technologies have settled in the market of medium/high capacity batteries. Fast-charge is very interesting in different applications (communications systems, electric vehicles, low-earth-orbit spacecrafts) in order to minimizing charge time. The problem is that high currents involved in fast-charge process affect battery behavior modifying parameters as battery charge acceptance. Moreover, battery temperature increase and gasses production related to overcharging make necessary to detect accurately the end of fast-charge to avoid battery damage. Limited information about results of charging process at different charging rates (i.e. time reduction versus charge efficiency) makes difficult to select the optimum rate in each specific application. The lack of information is more problematic in NiMH batteries due to they can not support as well as NiCd batteries extreme working conditions. For these reasons, an intensive study about NiCd and NiMH battery behavior under different charging rates was developed. In this paper, the effects of fast-charging on medium/high capacity NiCd and NiMH batteries are shown. In this way, conclusions about the application range of fast-charging in both technologies are drawn View full abstract»

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  • Ground Fault Detection by Differential Monitoring of the Float Current

    Page(s): 1 - 5
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (4261 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The safety requirements for battery ground fault detection were recognised by UPS industry from its infancy. Detection of leak to ground as low as 4 mA is a standard feature in UPS battery installations. In Telco applications one of the battery busses is usually grounded, therefore ground fault detection appears to be redundant. Placement of the battery in closed cabinet initially removed the requirements of ground detection. However, the issue of serious failure of the system in the case of ground failure initiated the search not so much for ground detection as for leakage of current to ground. In some instances it is possible to use the same technique as for the "floating" battery. In this paper the specifics of the leak detection when the battery is intentionally grounded or connected directly to the AC will be discussed View full abstract»

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  • DC Power Plant Monitor Configuration and Acceptance Testing

    Page(s): 1 - 6
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (7023 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    The issue to be discussed in this paper is how to configure the monitoring system in a DC power plant to deliver what is most beneficial to the user. As monitoring systems get more complex and offer more functionality, there is often confusion within the user community about what is necessary and useful. All too often these sophisticated systems are not used to a fraction of their capabilities. The thrust of this paper is to explore the various features of modern monitoring systems and the benefits they offer to the user. Today, DC power plants are often installed by third party installation vendors. When there are no specifics given in the scope of work, the installation vendor does precisely what he was contracted to do, install the monitor, not configure it. This paper will conclude with suggestions on how to define specific configuration parameters to be included in the scope of work View full abstract»

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  • A New Advanced Management Solution for Telecom Infrastructure Equipments and Buildings

    Page(s): 1 - 8
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (8091 KB) |  | HTML iconHTML  

    This paper describes the advanced solution developed by Emerson for the remote management of buildings and telecommunication equipments as a consequence of existing operator needs caused by the heavy increase in the deployment of their networks View full abstract»

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