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Industry Applications Conference, 1995. Thirtieth IAS Annual Meeting, IAS '95., Conference Record of the 1995 IEEE

Date 8-12 Oct. 1995

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  • Conference Record of the 1995 IEEE Industry Applications Conference Thirtieth IAS Annual Meeting Volume 3

    Publication Year: 1995
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Conference Author Index

    Publication Year: 1995
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Mine shaft conveyance load-monitoring system

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2048 - 2053 vol.3
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    Technology to enhance safety features for mine shafts and elevators is being investigated by researchers at the US Bureau of Mines. This paper describes the development of a slack rope sensor and data transmission and collection hardware to sense conditions and acquire data directly from the hoisting conveyance. A new type of load cell senses wire rope tension at the conveyance. A multichannel signal processing board has been designed and fabricated and is undergoing both static testing to evaluate long-term stability and dynamic testing under simulated hoisting conditions. Analog signals from the sensors are sampled at 100 ms intervals. Data transmission between the moving conveyance and the hoistroom is accomplished via a 2,400-baud FM-radio modem. Data are acquired at the conveyance or in the hoistroom through a serial communications port on a laptop computer. Software has been written to acquire, analyze, and process the data. The resulting system will allow operating personnel to determine conveyance load and thus rope tension and “slack” or “overload” rope conditions, in relation to conveyance position in the hoistway View full abstract»

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  • A new integrated controller for switched reluctance motor

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1917 - 1921 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The interest in switched reluctance motors (SRMs) have increased significantly in recent years, as these motors have found wide applications in industry as a possible alternative to adjustable speed AC and DC drives for many commercial applications. The simple construction and low cost of the SRM have made it an attractive candidate for replacing adjustable speed drives in automobile, aerospace, manufacturing and consumer product. Smooth operation and control of the SRM greatly depend on the external control unit. Instead of using a traditional digital controller with discrete devices, the authors have designed and fabricated a single chip logic controller for controlling torque and speed of an SRM. They have used a programmable logic device (PLD) to implement the digital logic coupled with a power controller. They have described the operational logic in the form of a block diagram and from there have derived the controller logic. Initial testing of the controller for a four-phase SRM drive has been completed. Thorough testing and further research are in progress View full abstract»

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  • A new three-phase AC-DC zero-voltage-switching isolated converter operating in DCM

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2602 - 2609 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    As an alternative to two-stage cascaded AC-DC power converters, the paper presents a single-stage three-phase rectifier with input/output isolation. The rectifier contains five active devices driven by a simple PWM controller. The proposed power converter operates in the discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) and provides an improved input current spectrum. Zero voltage switching for all active devices and diodes is implemented in the suggested power converter with low effort. Operational principles and design, as well as experimental results obtained from a 5 kW prototype, are also discussed View full abstract»

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  • Center driven winder basics for the rubber industry

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2711 - 2718 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
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    This paper presents the basic considerations for the design of center driven winders used in the rubber industry. The subject is presented in a step by step thought process to try to help a person understand the basics and how to modify the controls to meet specific requirements. The paper was designed as a teaching tool to help new engineers who have never worked on winders View full abstract»

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  • High speed PC-based data acquisition systems

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2140 - 2145 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (592 KB)  

    A number of PC-based data acquisition development systems are commercially available to users. These systems read and write data in real-time from embedded control systems, and then store and display that data for use by the end user. However, many of these systems falter when pushed into the realm of high speed data acquisition, which in this paper is defined as less than 0.5 second sampling. They not only falter in this regard, but also fail to achieve many of the goals established herein for a robust open system. This paper discusses goals and components for PC-based data acquisition systems which monitor high speed processes such as drive and tension control View full abstract»

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  • Short circuit current fundamentals: characteristics/magnitudes/definitions for high voltage circuit breaker duties

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1985 - 1992 vol.3
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    The ANSI/IEEE Standards C37 provide many sections identifying the characteristics, magnitudes and relationships for short circuit/fault currents. Also, these standards provide many sections defining the preferred ratings that circuit breakers and/or fuses are to be capable of. The goal for this paper is to provide a general/executive summary and clear definition for medium and high voltage short circuit (SC) current rating requirements for circuit breakers and present the five stages (steps) of SC current that are derived from the standards. One commercial power system analysis program calculated fundamental SC current values correctly, but did not comply with the IEEE/ANSI Standards definition for stage 2 asymmetrical values. This mis-directed the decision of the required circuit breaker rating. There is another commercial program that does provide values and definitions that comply with the Standards for all specified magnitudes in the five stages of SC current. It is important to be able to clearly understand the SC current characteristics when making circuit breaker selection. This paper provides a guide to evaluate the required circuit breaker capability/rating, per the latest ANSI/IEEE Standards, for the supplier to comply with View full abstract»

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  • Multifrequency FM-SWFM data transmission using optical fiber

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1867 - 1873 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    This paper describes the optical fiber transmission of multifrequency FM-SWFM signals on multiple data channels. Each data channel consists of 4 bits which are allocated for frequencies at 210 kHz, 520 kHz, 715 kHz, and 1.02 MHz. Data on multiple channels, modulating FM subcarriers at 2.3 MHz, 5.0 MHz, and 8.5 MHz, is grouped by mixer and FM data grouped on multiple data channels is fed to the VCO used as the SWFM modulator operating at 20 MHz before sent to the GI optical fiber. The electrical SWFM signal is converted into the optical SWFM signal by the E/O converter, the optical SWFM signal is fed from the sender to the receiver via the GI optical fiber, and the optical SWFM signal is converted into the electrical SWFM signal at the receiver. The GI optical fiber is used to send data on multiple data channels at low speed in a distance of up to 1 km. Data on three data channels was satisfactorily transferred between the sender and receiver at the same time. Temperature sensor outputs were digitized and used as data of 4 bits View full abstract»

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  • A novel, high-frequency, per-phase static VAr compensator

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2581 - 2586 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    Static VAr compensators are being used to provide voltage control, VAr compensation, damping of oscillations, and improved transient stability in power systems. Conventional SVCs which consist of thyristor-switched capacitors and thyristor controlled inductors suffer from disadvantages of size and slow dynamic response. This makes it unsuitable for applications such as controlling the voltage flicker due to arc furnace loads. Advanced SVCs (STATCON or STATCOM) eliminate the above disadvantages. However they have a disadvantage due to the presence of a large line-frequency transformer. In this paper, a novel, high-frequency, per-phase static VAr compensator is proposed which has all the advantages of the advanced SVC. Various related topologies and control strategies are also enumerated and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Power quality characteristics of computer loads

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2265 - 2272 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (2)
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    Computer loads and systems can be found in all of society's industrial, commercial and residential sectors. The nature of these loads is such that they distort the line current waveforms and in some cases can significantly distort the supply voltage waveforms causing disruption in computer system performance. The voltage (i.e., line to line, line to neutral and neutral to ground) and the phase current waveform characteristics of many computer loads are similar. Some waveform patterns remain fairly stable during loading cycles while others vary significantly and randomly. This paper presents several case studies to reveal the unique power quality characteristics of several commonly used computer systems (e.g., workstations, heating plant process computers and electron microscopes). The dominant even and odd harmonic components of the waveforms are presented and discussed in some detail. This paper also discusses the impact of the computer loads on the supply voltage waveforms View full abstract»

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  • Monte Carlo simulation for reliability analysis of emergency and standby power systems

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2290 - 2295 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (9)
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    This paper describes a sequential Monte Carlo simulation method for the reliability analysis of standby and emergency power systems. The results obtained from this method are compared with those from the Markov cut-set approach. It is shown that the Monte Carlo simulation can yield additional useful information on the probability distribution of indices in addition to obtaining the estimates of the mean values View full abstract»

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  • Study on interpolation algorithms of CNC machine tools

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1930 - 1937 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    The machining accuracy in a CNC machine tool greatly depends on the interpolation algorithm which consists of the interpolator and the acceleration/deceleration algorithm. In the conventional interpolation algorithm, there exists a path error between the desired curve generated by the interpolator and the coordinated one from the accelerated/decelerated traveling distances along the X, Y, and Z axes. This path error representing the machining accuracy is affected by the kind of acceleration/deceleration. The machining accuracy in parabolic acceleration/deceleration is best while that in exponential acceleration/deceleration is worst. To overcome this problem, they propose an interpolation algorithm, which applies acceleration/deceleration to the minute increment component of the parameter of the desired curve. The proposed interpolation algorithm guarantees the better machining accuracy than the conventional one which adopts the parabolic acceleration/deceleration. The experimental results obtained from the actual machining through a milling center are shown to agree well with the analyses View full abstract»

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  • Development of a general-purpose demand-side battery energy storage system

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 1893 - 1899 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (6)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (532 KB)  

    This paper presents a design and implementation of battery energy storage system (BESS) for general applications in a demand-side industrial power system. Different control modes for operating BESS to improve demand-side power supply capability is studied. The basic principle using the conventional control method is implemented to accomplish the desired control functions. The proposed methods are proved by both theoretical simulations and experimental test results on a prototype BESS View full abstract»

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  • Design for Start-Up at US Steel

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2146 - 2153 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    US Steel Engineering has developed an innovative technique to project management and implementation entitled Design for Start-Up (DFSU). The engineering department applies this thorough approach to all capital and cost projects at US Steel. The overall objective of Design for Start-Up is to execute a project with a clear focus on achieving the full realization of the financial benefits to the overall venture, without negatively impacting productivity or quality. In 1993, two large capital projects were approved that were critical to the future success and competitiveness of the Mon Valley Works. The power system reliability 6900 volt project and the force feed forward project directly affect production on the 80" hot strip mill and also tie into other areas of the plant. In order to ensure the success of these projects, Design for Start-Up was stressed and executed to the fullest extent. This paper focuses on the DFSU steps, methods, and actions utilized by US Steel to implement the 6900 volt and force feed forward projects View full abstract»

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  • PWM drive filter inductor influence on transient immunity

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2199 - 2205 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
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    Surges of less than 200% magnitude caused by utility capacitor switching can disrupt PWM drives. In this paper, the disruption mechanism is investigated by SPICE simulation of the drive and the results are compared to field tests. An overcurrent surge in the rectifier/filter section and DC overvoltage are the most common disruption mechanisms. The drive DC filter inductor is the most important factor in capacitor transient sensitivity of the drive. A drive without the inductor or one in which the inductor is saturated by the transient is vulnerable to disruption View full abstract»

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  • Applying HID high-pressure sodium lamps in a variable-voltage environment

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2059 - 2065 vol.3
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    This paper presents the results of laboratory tests to determine the effects of voltage sags, interruptions, and fluctuations on high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps and ballasts. The way these ballasted lamps react to sags and interruptions in the laboratory is then compared to a model of the real-world electrical environment created from data gathered during three North American power quality surveys. This work also shows how HPS immunity to voltage variations depends significantly on the ballast type and the lamp age View full abstract»

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  • Interference between electronic lighting and other appliances

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2076 - 2082 vol.3
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    This paper presents empirical data from the laboratory and the field to provide an overview of electromagnetic interference between high-efficiency electronic lighting and certain other electronic devices, such as power-line carrier systems, security systems, and remote controls for televisions and VCRs. Reported cases involving both electronic lighting emissions and immunity in building power systems are summarized according to basic interference mechanisms. To illustrate the potential complexities of this problem, the paper describes a case where high-efficiency lighting interfered with a hearing aid. The hearing aid case includes a field survey, laboratory investigations, and recommended solutions to the problem View full abstract»

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  • Asymmetrical phase-shifted full-bridge

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2408 - 2413 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    In comparison to forward-converters bridge topologies make use of parasitic components for resonant transition without need of additional clamping circuitry. Thus, they are privileged in building high frequency high power converters, even if high efficiency is required. This paper introduces a new modulation scheme for H-bridges, which combines PWM and phase-modulation. An analysis of the ideal circuit is presented together with design guidelines. Some experimental data for a converter prototype are given for 300 V/5 V-750 W, 250 kHz, View full abstract»

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  • The significance of zero space vector placement for carrier based PWM schemes

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2451 - 2458 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (24)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (732 KB)  

    Pulse width modulation has been one of the most intensively investigated areas of power electronics for many years, and the number and combination of permutations seem to be endless. However, a general hierarchial consensus appears to have emerged from this work which ranks space vector modulation techniques, regular sampled modulation and sine-triangle modulation strategies in decreasing order of merit based on harmonic performance. However, what has not been clearly identified is why space vector modulation should lead to a reduced harmonic current ripple compared to regular sampled modulation, especially since it is straightforward to show that they produce identical low frequency fundamental components. This paper addresses this issue, by showing how it is the placement of the zero space vector component within the carrier interval that determines the harmonic performance of the modulation strategy, rather than any intrinsic differences between the various methods of calculating the switching instances View full abstract»

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  • An adaptive digital control of current source inverter suitable for parallel processing inverter systems

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2670 - 2677 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    This paper presents a description, steady state analysis, modeling and digital control design of a single-phase CSI power supply system in stand-alone mode. The multi-functional features associated with modern parallel processing inverter systems can be realized with the proposed bidirectional power conversion scheme. A detailed power circuit and controller description of the proposed power supply system are given. The steady-state analysis of the system is performed. Continuous-time state-space model of the system and discrete-time and DARMA models of a single-phase CSI are derived. An adaptive discrete-time controller for CSI is designed in order to obtain fast transient response and low total harmonic distortion of the output voltage waveform. An adaptive controller for DC choppers is designed in order to reduce the DC link inductor and optimize its dynamic performance. DC link and output filter design is performed and a systematic design procedure with a design example are presented. A number of simulations are presented to illustrate the performance of the system View full abstract»

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  • Safe electrical design of mine elevator control systems

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2041 - 2047 vol.3
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    A mine elevator recently experienced an ascending car overspeed accident resulting in serious injuries to four passengers. Although the four miners laid down on the floor prior to impact, the miners struck the ceiling of the elevator car as it collided into the overhead structure at an estimated speed four times faster than normal. Several electrical design precautions can be implemented to prevent elevator control system failures. This paper examines safe electrical design of elevator control systems. Supplemental circuits and devices which improve the safety integrity and maintenance of the elevator control system are presented. These circuits and devices provide protection that eliminates the potential hazard and significantly reduces the possibility of a mine elevator accident View full abstract»

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  • Efficiency and reliability assessments of retrofitted high-efficiency motors

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2745 - 2751 vol.3
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
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    The majority of electric motor applications are pumps, fans, blowers, and certain compressors that follow the load torque pattern described in this paper. It has long been known that simply replacing the old motor with a high-efficiency motor might not produce the expected efficiency gain. This paper suggests calculations for the effective efficiency and temperature rise of high-efficiency motors. The reliability in terms of temperature rise, downsizing, power factor, harmonics, mechanical structure, etc., are discussed View full abstract»

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  • More about standby generator grounding, GFP, and currents that go bump in the night

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2241 - 2248 vol.3
    Cited by:  Patents (1)
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    The issue of generator grounding, separately derived systems, and the application of 3-pole and 1-pole transfer switches continues to be misunderstood and misapplied by design engineers in spite of several IEEE papers on the subject. Incorrect generator grounding and/or incorrect transfer switch selection can result in noncode complying installations, intermingling of ground and neutral currents, and possible incorrect ground-fault sensing. In order to properly ground multiple service and multiple generator installations, the electrical design engineer must have an in-depth understanding of all of the variables involved. The purpose of this paper is to look at a variety of systems utilizing multiple services, multiple generators, and multiple transfer switches, and analyze ground and neutral currents in terms of their effect on system safety and reliability. This paper examines configurations that are known to violate the National Electrical Code (NEC), and it examines possible problems with systems known to comply with the NEC. The paper addresses new systems as well as existing systems that are candidates for possible retrofit View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and minimization of ripple components of input current and voltage of PWM inverters

    Publication Year: 1995 , Page(s): 2444 - 2450 vol.3
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    Analysis and minimization of the ripple components of the input current and voltage of three-phase voltage-source PWM inverters are presented in this paper. The analytical expressions for the RMS values of the input current and voltage ripples as a function of the shape of the PWM reference signal are derived. It is found that the reference signal which produces a minimum ripple in the input voltage varies as a function of the load power factor. It is also found that the RMS value of the inverter input current ripple does not depend on the shape of the reference signal. In respect of the inverter input current and voltage ripples, the addition of harmonics other than the third into the sinusoidal reference is neither useful nor necessary. Experimental results are included to verify the derived expressions View full abstract»

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