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Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities, 1995. ICIASF '95 Record., International Congress on

Date 18-21 July 1995

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  • ICIASF '95 Record. International Congress on Instrumentation in Aerospace Simulation Facilities

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  • Transputer-based static data acquisition systems at DNW

    Page(s): 45/1 - 4510
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    In general a substantial part of wind tunnel measurements consists of the acquisition of static signals. Static in this context refers to the slowly varying signals representing the steady conditions during a measurement. Recently the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel DNW has replaced its static data acquisition systems. The data acquisition hardware for two new systems has been delivered by the Dutch National Aerospace Laboratory NLR. The channel hardware is based on the proven concept of the NLR conditioning unit. This unit was selected by DNW because of its excellent analog characteristics. The unit type delivered to DNW is a further development of the generation of units in use at several wind tunnels (e.g. European Transonic Wind Tunnel ETW, Germany). This generation of conditioning units supports host computer controlled data acquisition but requires manual setting and adjustment of gain excitation voltage etc. The upgrade mainly consists of the replacement of this manual control by computer control. The internal control functions are performed by a special type of microprocessor (transputer). This microprocessor also performs initial computations on the digitized input signal. The systems have been fully operational since early 1995 and have fulfilled all specifications and operational requirements View full abstract»

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  • An image resection method applied to mapping techniques

    Page(s): 46/1 - 46/8
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    Mapping techniques have emerged as reliable measurement methods in a wide variety of fields. This is the case for temperature mapping and flow field visualization. Another promising technique is pressure mapping based on pressure-sensitive paints. All these mapping methods provide images which are very useful by themselves because 2D or 3D views allow improved knowledge about the studied behavior. The usefulness of the image could further be enhanced by relating each image point to a point on the viewed object. A resection method is described. It allows data to be extracted from the image and virtual images to be created. The method includes two parts. The first part covers recognition of the camera location. The second part is the resection method itself. The background is described and the software used is discussed. Finally three applications connected with temperature mapping in wind tunnels illustrate the capability of the method View full abstract»

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  • Measurement of rotational temperatures near surfaces in hypersonic flow

    Page(s): 38/1 - 38/7
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    Rotational temperatures of NO in hypersonic flow have been measured by Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) at low densities. In undisturbed free jet expansions, the experimental results are in good agreement with the theory of isentropic flows. Near a hot surface in the flow, the rotational temperature of the reflected molecules were determined at nearly free molecular conditions. Testing parameters were the surface temperature, the kinetic energy of the incoming molecules, and the Knudsen number. The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC) has been applied to study the flow conditions near the surface. The experimental results show a significant deviation from total accommodation at high surface temperatures and the translational energy of the incoming molecules has to be taken seriously View full abstract»

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  • Signal processing hardware and software applied to the development of a real-time infrared mission simulation test capability

    Page(s): 42/1 - 4212
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    The Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) Scene Generation Test Capability (SCTC) program has completed the development of a laser based Direct Write Scene Generation (DWSG) facility that provides dynamic mission simulation testing for infrared (IR) Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) and their associated signal processing electronics. The AEDC DWSG Focal Plane Array Test Capability (FPATC) includes lasers operating at 0.514, 1.06, 5.4, or 10.6 μm, and Acousto-Optic Deflectors (AODs) which modulate the laser beam position and amplitude. Complex Radio Frequency (RF) electronics control each AOD by providing multi-frequency inputs. These inputs produce a highly accurate and independent multi-beam deflection, or “rake”, that is swept across the FPA sensor under test. Each RF amplitude input to an AOD translates into an accurate and independent beam intensity in the rake. Issues such as scene fidelity, sensor frame rates, scenario length, and real-time laser beam position adjustments require RF control electronics that employ the use of advanced analog and digital signal processing techniques and designs. By implementing flexible system architectures in the electronics, the overall capability of the DWSG to adapt to emerging test requirements is greatly enhanced. Presented in this paper is an overview of the signal processing methodology and designs required to handle the DWSG requirement. Further, electronic design techniques that enabled the system to be implemented within program cost constraints will also be presented. These electronic designs include a broad range of disciplines including digital signal processing hardware and software, programmable logic implementations, and advanced techniques for high fidelity RF synthesis, switching, and amplitude control. Techniques for validating electronic performance will also be presented along with data acquired using those techniques View full abstract»

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  • Dissolved oxygen quantitation in fuel through measurements of dynamically quenched fluorescence lifetimes

    Page(s): 39/1 - 39/6
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    An optical method for the quantitation of dissolved molecular oxygen in aviation fuels has been developed to aid the study of thermally induced fuel oxidation. The technique is based on the propensity of dissolved molecular oxygen to quench probe molecule fluorescence excited with a pulsed nitrogen laser. Linear calibration curves based on Stern-Volmer kinetics are generated through measurement of the time-resolved fluorescence signal produced by pyrene doped into aviation fuel at parts per million (ppm) levels. The advantages of nondestructive in-situ monitoring, reduced measurement time, and enhanced capabilities (including spatially resolved and rapidly time-varying measurements) make this optical technique a very attractive complement to current chromatographic and electrochemical methods. Application to flowing-fuel simulators demonstrates the technique View full abstract»

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  • Application of pulse tube for the test of the engines of hypersonic aircraft

    Page(s): 51/1 - 51/6
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    At MH=10, 12.2; TOH=2400 K, POH=300-400 MPa in the hot-short aerodynamic tunnel, investigations of operating processes in the engine path of the scramjet model were performed. The model has rather simple external configuration. The inner channels are those ones which allow the burning of gaseous hydrogen as in sub- and super-sonic flows. Quantitative data on the distribution of pressure in the engine path were obtained. The experiments were performed in the IT-302M wind tunnel View full abstract»

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  • Laser anemometry for in-flight flow investigations

    Page(s): 23/1 - 23/6
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    Two laser anemometers, a differential laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) of NLR and a laser-two-focus (L2F) anemometer of DLR, were installed in a research aircraft to demonstrate their capabilities for in-flight flow investigations. Both anemometers use a diode laser as a light source and an avalanche photodiode for detecting scattered light. The aircraft was flown in different atmospheric conditions, e.g. close to temperature inversion layers, in clouds and in polluted air above industrial regions to investigate whether it is possible to measure without artificially seeding air. The optical access was provided by two glass inserts in the emergency exit of the aircraft. Measurement volumes were traversed through the flow perpendicular to the fuselage. In this manner, the anemometers measured mean velocities, turbulence levels and for L2F additionally to these quantities the flow direction in the boundary layer of the fuselage. A ground test with the anemometers was performed before the flight tests. Experience with parallel operation of the anemometers was gained in a free jet and properties of both systems were investigated. Information from the tests enabled us to analyze performance data in the free jet and in flight. The experiment shows that laser anemometry can be applied successfully for in-flight flow measurements. The inherent characteristics of the technique are exploited extensively in windtunnel tests and in other ground applications, and are also promising for in-flight experiments. In particular the absence of flow disturbance, the high bandwidth and the high accuracy are useful in flight View full abstract»

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  • The flow reference system-an air data system for wind tunnels

    Page(s): 40/1 - 4014
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    The paper describes an integrated system specifically developed for establishing the elementary flow quantities Total Pressure (Pt ), Static Pressure (Ps), and Total Temperature (Tt ) in a windtunnel environment with the highest presently attainable accuracy. These quantities are required for calculating quintessential aerodynamic parameters like Mach number (Ma), Dynamic Pressure (Q), Reynolds number (Re), and Flow Velocity (V). Up to four extremely accurate (0.015% Full Scale) absolute or differential Pressure Sensing Units can be accommodated on a plug-in basis in this “Flow Reference System”. Temperature measurement is based on the use of a Platinum 100 ohm RTD sensor; accuracy of signal conditioning and linearization are better than 0.05°C over a range of -200 to +100°C. Data output for pressures and temperature is in fully corrected Engineering Units over two independent output links at a high sampling rate of 10 Hz. A status word output allows an effective monitoring of system integrity. The concept was originally developed by the European Transonic Windtunnel GmbH for application in their High-Reynolds number cryogenic facility, but the flexible, modular approach makes it an attractive proposition for any windtunnel. The implementation is based on the 5400 System Processor (SP) of Pressure Systems Inc. (PSI). The paper discusses the design considerations including an accuracy analysis, and presents details of the practical realization. Some results are given based on two years of operational experience View full abstract»

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  • Use of laser Doppler anemometry in the investigation of roughness particle induced transition on suction surfaces

    Page(s): 52/1 - 5210
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    This paper examines the effect of isolated surface roughness elements on the development of suction stabilised laminar boundary layers. Laser Doppler anemometry was used to enable detailed flow measurements to be taken within the boundary layer over porous suction surfaces, using several techniques which are described and illustrated in the paper. These ranged from pseudo-visualisation of the induced turbulent wedge by close scans parallel to the surface using RMS velocity to identify the turbulent region, to full three component velocity surveys. In addition quick and precise methods were developed to identify the critical Reynolds number at which disturbances were induced by a given particle. Experimental data are presented to illustrate the principal findings. These showed that in the presence of boundary layer suction, disturbances were initiated at a constant critical Reynolds number, based on particle height and velocity at the top of the particle, the same as that found in the un-sucked case. Suction downstream of the particle was not found to delay the formation of a turbulent wedge, but did result in a progressive reduction in the included angle of the wedge, leading to complete stabilisation of the disturbance at very high suction levels. Suction upstream of the particle was found only to reduce the thickness of the boundary layer at the particle, resulting in the initiation of disturbances at reduced freestream velocities. However the critical value of roughness Reynolds number remained constant View full abstract»

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  • Vibrational diagnostics and prediction of technical state of aviation turbine coolers

    Page(s): 4/1 - 4/8
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    Transfer of aviation aggregates to exploitation according to their technical state anticipates exploitation until reaching the limit of their service life. For turbine coolers (TC) with bearings, usual signs of technical state (TS) considered are: concentration of metallic particles in lubrication oil, axial and radial gaps, vibrations, etc. This report considers bands of vibrational spectrum, which are maximally varied depending upon object's operating age. Presented is a formal method of forming of vibration sign space. It is based on computer search of vibrational spectrum bands of several objects of one type (and with the same operating age as well). In such a way a “teaching process” was performed for spectral bands, which have maximal variation depending upon the object's operating age. Results were extended to general objects' population View full abstract»

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  • Vectored transport proof-of-concept and catastrophic failure prevention demonstrated by flying thrust-vectoring flight-controlled RPVs: methodology and instrumentation

    Page(s): 29/1 - 2910
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    The author's proposal to convert military thrust-vectoring-flight-control [TVFC] technologies into civil transport applications, translates combat-agility capabilities into new and unprecedented flight-safety standards. Dealing mainly with the latter, this paper compares high expected vectored-transport air-safety potentials with the limited conventional air-safety standards dictated by aerodynamic flight control [AFC]. Fundamental criteria for maximizing catastrophic failure prevention [CFP] potentials are defined for deployable TVFC means integrated with AFC means during emergency. Methodology and instrumentation used for vectored transport proof-of-concept and TVFC-induced CFP implementation are presented. CFP was demonstrated by flying dynamically-scaled, vectored 727 transport and roll-yaw-pitch-TVFC F-22 fighter prototypes View full abstract»

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  • An investigation on the interference of internal six-component wind tunnel balances with FEM

    Page(s): 16/1 - 1610
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    One of the factors which affect the accuracy of an internal wind tunnel balance is the interference. Within the scope of conventional balance configuration the reasons for the interference and the possibility of reduction were analysed with FEM. It proves that both the linear and nonlinear interferences can be reduced through a better design of structure, but they can't be totally eliminated. Therefore a new balance configuration was suggested, which is point symmetrical and thus geometrically interference-free View full abstract»

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  • Thin flat internal strain gauge balances for testing slab delta wing models at hypersonic speeds

    Page(s): 18/1 - 18/6
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    Details of a 2.5 mm thick, 3-component balance and a 4 mm thick, 6-component balance, which can be housed inside thin slab delta wing models are given. The 3-component balance has been used to generate data on aerodynamic characteristics of slab delta wing models in the pitch plane and to demonstrate the considerable amount of interference introduced by lee-side housings used in conjunction with regular balances (which cannot be housed inside the slab delta wing model), not only at small incidences but also at incidences where the housings are supposed to be completely in the aerodynamic shadow of the wing. Some of these aerodynamic data which have been obtained at M=8.0, in the 200 mm hypersonic pressure-vacuum blow-down wind tunnel of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, are presented View full abstract»

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  • A combined holographic interferometer and laser-schlieren system applied to high temperature, high velocity flows

    Page(s): 12/1 - 12/7
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    The High Enthalpy tunnel in Gottingen (HEG) is operated by the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR). Nominal test conditions of a free stream Mach number of 10, reservoir enthalpies of up to 23 MJ/kg and reservoir pressures of up to 100 MPa make the HEG ideal to study the “hot” entry phase of space vehicles. For the flow visualisation in the HEG a holographic interferometer with a 300 mm field of view is set-up. It uses the phase step technique for the evaluation of the holograms. This method enables computerized evaluation of the holograms to create high quality interferograms by increasing the signal to noise ratio. Complete flow field density gradients around two dimensional models can be calculated from the interferograms. Nevertheless for three dimensional models, where the integration length of the light path is too short to obtain a large fringe shift, the exact localisation of the shocks is difficult. To overcome this lack of the holographic interferometric system it has been extended by a laser-schlieren system to obtain simultaneous interferometric and schlieren information. Results that are presented for the hyperboloid flare model demonstrate the feasibility of the combined system. A comparison of laser-schlieren and hologram-schlieren images made for the axisymmetric Electre model show that the resolution of a direct recorded schlieren image is much higher than the latter View full abstract»

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  • Synthesis of MSTIP calibration campaigns in ONERA F4 hot shot wind tunnel

    Page(s): 49/1 - 49/8
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    The ONERA F4 Hot Shot wind tunnel provides hypersonic air flows at high enthalpy and high pressure total conditions. In such a hypersonic wind tunnel, real gas effects are large yielding experimental difficulties to assess either the free stream conditions in front of the model or the actual total enthalpy. In F4, the test condition knowledge was achieved mainly by indirect means, i.e. through the numerical rebuilding of experiments (classical and optical measurement results), concerning calibrations with rakes and standard models. The present paper described how topics of first importance for this type of wind tunnel were addressed i.e. the assessment of total enthalpy and of free stream uniformity and properties. A striking element of the conclusion is that, at high enthalpy, the free stream flow seems to be close to equilibrium View full abstract»

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  • Design and calibration of a new surface-obstacle skin-friction and flow direction meter

    Page(s): 7/1 - 7/7
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    Calibration data of surface-obstacle skin friction meters, including blocks, fences, Preston tubes and Stanton tubes, are examined throughout the available ranges of dimensionless wall-shear-stress and pressure-differential parameters. The calibration relationships, including the effect of compressibility, are reformulated in terms of variables containing physical quantities at the wall and including the probe size in only one parameter. In view of the current trend toward miniaturization, special attention was given to the range where the flow disturbance introduced by the probe remains within the near-linear part of the velocity profile. Criteria are derived for the smallest probe protrusion which provides a practically measurable differential pressure at given flow situation. Design of an adjustable/retractable surface-obstacle device for the Wright Laboratory M3 and M6 supersonic wind tunnels is described, and initial results obtained with a simple prototype in the Washington University low-speed wind tunnel are presented View full abstract»

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  • Using of large amplitude free oscillations in pitch and roll to investigate unsteady aerodynamic characteristics at separated flow regimes

    Page(s): 24/1 - 24/7
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    The experimental technique of large amplitude dynamic setups is given. These setups are using to investigate unsteady aerodynamic characteristics at high angles of attack at low subsonic wind tunnel. The data processing technique and some experimental results are presented. The dynamic properties of separation flow development are investigated on the example of aerodynamic model with high aspect ratio wing large amplitude pitch oscillations. The investigation of regular and chaotic wing rock motion of slender delta wing is also presented View full abstract»

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  • Infrared inspection method for actively cooled panels

    Page(s): 15/1 - 1511
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    This paper discusses a new technique for determining the integrity of Actively Cooled Thermal Protection Systems designed for testing in high heat flux environments. These components, which use common as well as leading edge materials, are expensive and time consuming to fabricate. Using commercial thermography systems, a technique has been developed to detect blocked passages that would effect the performance and in many cases the survivability of the components. This not only avoids wasted test time but also provides a new capability for accepting manufactured systems. The technique is applied before, during and after testing as a damage assessment tool. The thermography system consists of a camera, video recorder, and a PC for data processing and viewing. The camera can detect the spatial and temporal distribution of infrared radiation emanating from the surface of a specimen. This information, together with material property data, can be used to calculate and display surface temperature distribution. The images are processed to provide false-color contour plots View full abstract»

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  • Dynamic testing in wind tunnels using the wind-driven manipulator

    Page(s): 25/1 - 25/7
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    The Wind-Driven Dynamic Manipulator is a robotic device which executes multidimensional maneuvers of aircraft models in a wind tunnel. Tunnel freestream kinetic energy is used to power the device. Transmission of reactions to the tunnel structure is thus minimized, and power requirements are negligible compared to conventional devices. Support interference can be minimized by using slender and flexible supports and correcting for deflection errors. The concept and results achieved with the device are summarized, and a new 3-degree of freedom device is described. Several example applications are described. Transient vortex interactions are visualized quantitatively in coupled pitch-yaw maneuvers. Dynamic stability parameters are measured using a second-order dynamic model of the system. An adaptive control algorithm improves trajectory tracking and enables new dynamic characteristics to be learned. WDM design parameters are discussed, and the performance equations of the device show maneuvering rates increasing faster than the reduced frequency as tunnel speed increases View full abstract»

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  • Large-area velocity measurement in low-speed flows

    Page(s): 20/1 - 20/9
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    Spatial cross-correlations are used to measure velocity fields over large areas from time-separated images of instantaneous patterns in flow sections. The location of the cross-correlation peak between corresponding sub-images determines the 2-D displacement vector. Since particle image features are not sought, white light and large areas can be used as well as lasers. A single video camera is adequate for low relative displacements. A phase-shifted dual camera extends the speed range and resolution. Five example applications are presented. Quasi-static wind tunnel testing of a canard-wing model demonstrates application to configuration development. Robustness to out-of-plane motion is shown in the wake of a 2-bladed rotor in forward flight. Phase-averaging in periodic flows is discussed. A single camera is used to map the mean and r.m.s. velocities in a large rotor test chamber. A halogen tight sheet is used to validate SCV results against point probe data at the exit of a wind tunnel. Finally, extraction of the out-of-plane component in incompressible flows is presented. The swirling viscous flow above a flat plate is used to analytically represent a 3-D flow. The differential mass conservation equation is used to solve for the third component using slices of 2-D vector fields. A second-order differencing procedure is examined with added noise View full abstract»

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  • The use of pressure sensitive paints on rotating machinery

    Page(s): 32/1 - 3214
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    The current work involves measuring the surface pressure on a rotating blade with a laser scanning pressure paint system. The pressure paint consists of a fluorescent molecule which is mixed with a binder than painted on the surface of interest. The laser is scanned across the model surface which excites the fluorescent molecule. The intensity with which the molecule emits light is dependent on the amount of oxygen quenching and therefore the local air pressure. The system can be calibrated in two ways. The first would be to take an intensity reading with the known pressure and then take a reading at the condition of interest. The Stern-Volmer relationship of intensities is used to calculate the pressure. A second way is to measure the decay time of the emitted intensity and calibrate that versus pressure. The purpose of the experiment is to get a complete surface map of the pressure on the rotating blade View full abstract»

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  • Instrumentation techniques of the Aachen shock tunnel TH2

    Page(s): 1/1 - 116
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    High enthalpy short-duration facilities are mainly used to simulate the hypersonic flow during a reentry into an atmosphere. The special operational features of these facilities put somewhat different requirements on the instrumentation compared to usual supersonic or hypersonic blow down tunnels. The short running times of the order of some milliseconds require sensors with a very fast response and rise time. To avoid time lags by tubings, usually the sensors are installed flush into the model wall or a very short distance behind it. This implies that they have to withstand the impact of small particles of high energy, which are transported by the flow. This is the most important reason why for heat flux measurement at severe flow conditions very robust coaxial thermocouples are used. To allow also for a pressure measurement almost at the same location a pressure tap is drilled through the thermocouple. From the measurement of the stagnation point heat flux and the Pitot pressure some information can be found about the free stream. More detailed free stream measurements are possible with a mass flux gauge an a static pressure probe. Due to their complexity the development of these gauges require intensive testing and the support of numerical calculations. The same holds for the development of a force balance which meets the requirement of a shock tunnel application View full abstract»

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