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1996 International Symposium on Technology and Society Technical Expertise and Public Decisions. Proceedings

21-22 June 1996

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  • 1996 International Symposium on Technology and Society Technical Expertise and Public Decisions. Proceedings

    Publication Year: 1996
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (524 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Index of authors

    Publication Year: 1996
    Request permission for commercial reuse | PDF file iconPDF (103 KB)
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Industrial society as Hubbard's pimple. Is this the Unabomber's manifesto?

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):410 - 418
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB)

    This paper is not about the Unabomber; it is about his indictment of the entire techno-industrial enterprise as expressed in his 35,000-word “manifesto” published under threat of further mail bombings by The Washington Post in joint arrangement with The New York Times. The Unabomber's claim is that as it grows exponentially, the industrial engine that technology drives creates the myth... View full abstract»

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  • Facts and values, cars and smog: analytical perspectives of stakeholders in air quality and transportation planning in Los Angeles, CA

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):398 - 405
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB)

    Technical policy decisions can be thought of as resulting from two models: an environmental model and a preference model. The environmental model is a description of the physical and social systems affected by the policy decision. The preference model is a description of the preferences of the decision maker for the outcomes predicted by the environmental model. In many technical policy making pro... View full abstract»

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  • The media and government officials: environmental policy communication

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):394 - 397
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (336 KB)

    The media play an important role in connecting citizens to government officials. Much of what citizens learn about environmental policy making and implementation is learned through media coverage of government actions. We have evidence to suggest that the media can influence citizens' perceptions of government, but we know less about the media's dependence on government. The paper is meant to exte... View full abstract»

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  • A systems approach for collaborative decision support in water resources planning

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):357 - 363
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (6)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (608 KB)

    The paper presents a decision support system (DSS) for collaborative group planning of hydroelectric development projects. The framework for planning is described with a systems approach for dynamic evaluation. Systems involving human frailties will always be complex, and that complexity will always be intimidating from a systems perspective. However, systems thinking is evolving into concepts tha... View full abstract»

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  • The democratization of systems of public opinion formation

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):110 - 117
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (840 KB)

    The process of democratic decision making has always involved systems of public opinion formation. Systems of public opinion formation have not, however, always been democratic. With the increase in the use of computer mediated communications technology we may be witnessing the democratization of systems of public opinion formation. A fresh look at an old debate between Walter Lippmann and John De... View full abstract»

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  • Informing policymakers and the public in landfill siting processes

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):376 - 393
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1012 KB)

    Policymakers and the public often turn to scientific experts for help in developing solutions to their most challenging policy problems. This emphasis on science informing policy has been especially prevalent in the realm of environmental policy. This approach relies, in part, on a belief by policymakers and the public that a best answer or a best decision exists. A serious problem with this appro... View full abstract»

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  • Building public confidence in energy planning: a multimethod MCDM approach to demand management at BC Gas

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):348 - 356
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (908 KB)

    Energy supply and demand-side resource selection processes often must involve stakeholders, with the purposes of informing them of technical options and tradeoffs, and asking them for value judgments. Multicriteria decision making (MCDM) methods are one means of quantifying stakeholder judgments, but the way in which such methods are usually applied can cause stakeholders to feel manipulated by a ... View full abstract»

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  • The role of experts in Federal hazardous waste legislative decisions

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):76 - 82
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (700 KB)

    The history of hazardous waste legislation in the US has been problematic. The limited input of experts from EPA, industry and environmental organizations has been a significant factor in the unsatisfactorily effective legislation that has been adopted. A review of the legislative history exposes the perpetuation of errors. The Congress currently reviewing environmental laws is not “environm... View full abstract»

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  • Agile cities: the role of intelligent transportation systems in building the learning infrastructure for metropolitan economic development

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):448 - 456
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (908 KB)

    The concepts of agile cities and regional learning infrastructure are systematically presented as a post-Fordist response to the changing nature of global competition. The potential leverage underlying these two concepts in balancing the bargaining power between the cities and private investors is analyzed. The importance of agile government and agile communities in the establishment of regional l... View full abstract»

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  • Public reaction to power frequency electric and magnetic field (EMF) effects

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):103 - 109
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB)

    The presence of various power frequency electric and magnetic field (EMF) effects has always implied the need for technological control of their manifestations. The power frequency EMF effects are associated not only with the transmission and distribution lines of the electric power system, but also with work environments, office machines, illumination sources, home appliances, computers and enter... View full abstract»

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  • Space and place in geographic decision making

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):311 - 317
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (804 KB)

    Recent innovations in computer science seem in some ways to have undercut traditional objections to the use of computers in decision making. For example, if some argued that traditional programming promoted a mindset within which decision making itself was a linguistic and rigidly rule-guided process, new systems of object-oriented programming seem to offer a much richer image of thinking. Yet, in... View full abstract»

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  • Fuzzy cognitive maps for policy analysis

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):369 - 373
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (412 KB)

    Fuzzy cognitive maps are introduced as a way to model state changes in a dynamic system where policy and technological components must be directly compared. To illustrate the process of developing a map and infer state changes from it, an action/reaction arms race of the Richardson type is modeled. Because fuzzy cognitive maps qualitatively capture the essential interactions of a system, numerical... View full abstract»

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  • The Foz Coa rock art case: towards a new relationship between science and policy making in Portugal?

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):130 - 138
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (832 KB)

    In a less-industrialised country like Portugal, the relationships between scientific expertise and the public decision-making system have been negatively marked by the low relevance assigned to science by public decision-makers and by the lack of a scientific culture in society at large. Decision-makers have shown the propensity, either to disregard scientific opinion, or to manipulate it, wheneve... View full abstract»

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  • From big science to postmodern science: technology-intensive research in an era of competing public values

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):15 - 24
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1012 KB)

    This paper uses the concept of “postmodern science” to illuminate the present social context for large-scale, technology-intensive research. Important recent changes in this social context are identified, and four case studies are used to demonstrate how scientific organizations are responding to these changes. A number of implications for science and technology policy are generalized ... View full abstract»

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  • Identifying obstacles in the shift to electronic media by professional societies: a Delphi study of the IEEE

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):337 - 346
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)

    A Delphi panel of 30 experts and stakeholders of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) was formed in order to assess the impact of IEEE's shift to electronic communication and information dissemination. The panel designed to reflect the organization's diverse areas of interests, included representatives from IEEE's leadership, staff, membership and customers, across a ... View full abstract»

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  • Critical digital systems and the ethic of expediency

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):252 - 261
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (996 KB)

    Software based digital equipment is finding its way into critical applications. This paper suggests that in our quest to use this equipment, we must place this new technology in the perspective of past technologies. Our current practices and understanding of how to create error-free, failure-free, and hazard-free software are based on empirical observations. As users, our understanding of how to e... View full abstract»

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  • Technology, environment and public policy in perspective: lessons from the history of the automobile

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):67 - 75
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB)

    The spread of the automobile over the course of the twentieth century has had a dramatic impact upon the environment. Drawing upon an extensive investigation of the early history of the automobile in the United States, the paper proposes a dynamic model connecting technological and environmental change. Three concepts are central to the operation of the model-technological choice, system, and scal... View full abstract»

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  • When expertise goes awry, and when it proves helpful

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):200 - 206
    Cited by:  Papers (20)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (716 KB)

    Places the political use of expertise into a larger conceptual framework. Argues that there are sharp limits on knowledge of any kind displacing politics as a method of settling value-laden disputes, and that purveyors of expertise ought to see it as an aid or supplement to partisan negotiations among affected interests-never a substitute for it. Argues that the main path for improving expertise i... View full abstract»

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  • Technical expertise and public decisions. British watchmaking, 1842-43: a case study

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):438 - 447
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (868 KB)

    This case study is about a failed attempt, in early Victorian England, to introduce new technology to the British watchmaking industry. The episode culminated in a public decision by the House of Commons. The issues involved an understanding (or misunderstanding) of the implications of adopting new technology, in this case through an Act of Parliament which, if it had been passed, would have grant... View full abstract»

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  • Democratising the policy process on the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):93 - 100
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (640 KB)

    The issue of the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the environment was posed as a policy problem. This was perhaps unavoidable since one of the reasons why the contained use of GMOs was regulated was that an unintentional release should be prevented. It was perceived as a problem with manifold aspects which could only be dealt with by appealing to science, manageabil... View full abstract»

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  • Science and technology advice to state legislatures

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):45 - 54
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1092 KB)

    We examine technical information and decision making in state legislatures. Reporting on field work from eleven state legislatures, we examine: their need for science and technology policy support; internal and external sources of such support available to them; the characteristics of useful support; their use of computer technology; the role of technical information in a political environment; an... View full abstract»

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  • Technology, language, and public decisions: finding common ground for experts and citizens

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):482 - 490
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (884 KB)

    Many conflicts over specific technologies could be alleviated by focusing attention on the design stage and by encouraging communication between designers and users. We present two approaches to achieving these goals. The first, pattern languages, provides a common language for designers and users. The second, component designs, allows technologies themselves to serve as a shared workspace for des... View full abstract»

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  • The growth, accretion, and decay of cities

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):301 - 310
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract | PDF file iconPDF (1000 KB)

    The decision analysis way of thinking, including the notions of state and motion in state-space, is used to analyze the evolution of a city over decades of time and in response to a stream of decisions made by local government and others. Due to the numerous and complex interactions between the variables that characterize a city, we focus on a subsystem, or bipole, consisting of land use and trans... View full abstract»

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