1996 International Symposium on Technology and Society Technical Expertise and Public Decisions. Proceedings

21-22 June 1996

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  • 1996 International Symposium on Technology and Society Technical Expertise and Public Decisions. Proceedings

    Publication Year: 1996
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Index of authors

    Publication Year: 1996
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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Esperanto: to enhance international collaboration on technology in the broader interest of society

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):515 - 520
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (548 KB)

    Technology is a worldwide concern and IEEE is a worldwide organization. A major problem in all international concerns is the language barrier. For instance, ten percent of the UN budget is consumed in translation services. Then beyond this immediate monetary cost, translation slows the process and increases the risk of serious misunderstanding. For instance, our war against Viet Nam went on for we... View full abstract»

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  • Limited horizons, limited influence: information technology experts and the crisis of the London Ambulance Service

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):506 - 514
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    The failure of a safety-critical system in November 1992 gave the opportunity for IT experts to become involved in a wide-ranging public discussion. Their response largely focused on the process of systems development and the methods used in it. Partial solutions were marketed as the technological fix which would solve all problems. Few considered the technology in a wider social and political con... View full abstract»

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  • The development of expertise in a disciplinary interstice: antilock braking systems and the electronic control of a mechanical device

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):497 - 505
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1040 KB)

    Case study in the development of expertise is presented. The development of antiskid braking systems (ABS) for automobiles between the 1950s and 1970s is used to create a model of expertise formation in a new engineering community. Both the technical and social dynamics of expertise formation are considered. The case study centers on the emergence of three engineers, Leiber, Jonner, Gerstenmeier, ... View full abstract»

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  • Identifying obstacles in the shift to electronic media by professional societies: a Delphi study of the IEEE

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):337 - 346
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    A Delphi panel of 30 experts and stakeholders of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) was formed in order to assess the impact of IEEE's shift to electronic communication and information dissemination. The panel designed to reflect the organization's diverse areas of interests, included representatives from IEEE's leadership, staff, membership and customers, across a ... View full abstract»

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  • Generating understanding of technology

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):491 - 494
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (384 KB)

    The importance of mathematics as a tool for exposition has been greatly exaggerated by trends in educating people who hope to become technical experts. As a result, such experts have difficulty getting others to understand them, but are also diverted from a major point: if you have to use mathematics to explain something, you don't really understand it yourself. Technology is more difficult than s... View full abstract»

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  • The Foz Coa rock art case: towards a new relationship between science and policy making in Portugal?

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):130 - 138
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (832 KB)

    In a less-industrialised country like Portugal, the relationships between scientific expertise and the public decision-making system have been negatively marked by the low relevance assigned to science by public decision-makers and by the lack of a scientific culture in society at large. Decision-makers have shown the propensity, either to disregard scientific opinion, or to manipulate it, wheneve... View full abstract»

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  • Personal computing in community organisations: expertise out of context

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):323 - 336
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1008 KB)

    The objectives of community-based organisations usually differ significantly from those of more market-driven business and corporate institutions. Recent developments in information technology, such as personal computing, have been largely directed to assist the goals of market-based organisations. Personal computing has had great success in this area, and this success has led to an increasing use... View full abstract»

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  • Technology, language, and public decisions: finding common ground for experts and citizens

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):482 - 490
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (884 KB)

    Many conflicts over specific technologies could be alleviated by focusing attention on the design stage and by encouraging communication between designers and users. We present two approaches to achieving these goals. The first, pattern languages, provides a common language for designers and users. The second, component designs, allows technologies themselves to serve as a shared workspace for des... View full abstract»

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  • Who cares about lifelong learning?

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):167 - 171
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (440 KB)

    It seems that everyone agrees that lifelong learning is vital to the success of an individual's career. Yet, it seems that lifelong learning is not a high priority among engineers who have been in industry for some years. This paper discusses lifelong learning and focusses on the roles that the individual the company, the IEEE and the university must play if lifelong learning is to be a reality View full abstract»

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  • “Negotiating `Expertise'”: biotechnology and agricultural development in Zimbabwe

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):120 - 129
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (764 KB)

    Analyses of historical contestations over the meanings of “expertise” and its impact on agricultural development are presented. The paper illustrates the power struggle between competing groups to define expertise and to then use these experts to maintain their economic dominance. The paper also examines current and potential challenges to the political and material sustainability of b... View full abstract»

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  • The media and government officials: environmental policy communication

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):394 - 397
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    The media play an important role in connecting citizens to government officials. Much of what citizens learn about environmental policy making and implementation is learned through media coverage of government actions. We have evidence to suggest that the media can influence citizens' perceptions of government, but we know less about the media's dependence on government. The paper is meant to exte... View full abstract»

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  • Space and place in geographic decision making

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):311 - 317
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (804 KB)

    Recent innovations in computer science seem in some ways to have undercut traditional objections to the use of computers in decision making. For example, if some argued that traditional programming promoted a mindset within which decision making itself was a linguistic and rigidly rule-guided process, new systems of object-oriented programming seem to offer a much richer image of thinking. Yet, in... View full abstract»

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  • Different drums: contrasts between scientific communication and journalism

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):476 - 481
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    The qualities which symbolize excellence in a scientific paper contrast in many respects with those that characterize excellent journalism. In part, this dichotomy arises because significant science, based on careful assessment of uncertainties and possible errors as well as prior results, intrinsically lacks qualities that provide journalistic interest. In addition, journalism and scientific comm... View full abstract»

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  • Undergraduate engineering education curriculum and educational research

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):158 - 166
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (868 KB)

    This paper analyzes a set of undergraduate engineering education curriculum reform. Proposals that have a relationship with educational research and cognitive psychology. In addition, the paper explores educational research and cognitive psychology research results that provide guidance on undergraduate engineering curriculum design View full abstract»

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  • Risk-based regulatory reform and public participation

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):242 - 248
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    Meaningful public participation has been perceived as difficult to accommodate in regulatory proceedings requiring technical scientific judgments, especially those involving quantitative risk assessments. Quantitative risk assessment, however, is not a purely technical exercise, but instead involves the application of policy preferences in the form of assumptions, extrapolation from animal data to... View full abstract»

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  • The democratization of systems of public opinion formation

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):110 - 117
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    The process of democratic decision making has always involved systems of public opinion formation. Systems of public opinion formation have not, however, always been democratic. With the increase in the use of computer mediated communications technology we may be witnessing the democratization of systems of public opinion formation. A fresh look at an old debate between Walter Lippmann and John De... View full abstract»

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  • Informing policymakers and the public in landfill siting processes

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):376 - 393
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (1012 KB)

    Policymakers and the public often turn to scientific experts for help in developing solutions to their most challenging policy problems. This emphasis on science informing policy has been especially prevalent in the realm of environmental policy. This approach relies, in part, on a belief by policymakers and the public that a best answer or a best decision exists. A serious problem with this appro... View full abstract»

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  • Courts, technology and the boundaries of expertise

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):207 - 213
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    The popularity of `new' technologies, such as the Internet and similar interactive media, has propelled controversies relating to their applications and purposes into the courtroom. Contemporary jurisprudence is now confronted with a constellation of issues which, while frequently masked as purely technical in nature, concern fundamental themes such as privacy and freedom of expression. This paper... View full abstract»

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  • The growth, accretion, and decay of cities

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):301 - 310
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
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    The decision analysis way of thinking, including the notions of state and motion in state-space, is used to analyze the evolution of a city over decades of time and in response to a stream of decisions made by local government and others. Due to the numerous and complex interactions between the variables that characterize a city, we focus on a subsystem, or bipole, consisting of land use and trans... View full abstract»

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  • Norms of communicative analysis

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):468 - 475
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (728 KB)

    Analytical tools are hard to learn and use. Yet getting the numbers right is only part of the job for engineers, economists and other quantitative modelers. Bosses, clients, colleagues and members of the public need to understand-and believe-the analytical results, or else the job is not done. Practicing analysts work in a social, communicative context which few academics understand and about whic... View full abstract»

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  • Introducing technology to a traditional society: social and psychological implications

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):151 - 155
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    Every society is keen on `development' through the application of technology. Thanks to the influence of the dominant culture, traditional societies are adopting Western technology, and the experience is not always pleasant. While the ecological and environmental aspects of adoption of new technology have received much attention, the social and psychological aspects have not. Take for example, the... View full abstract»

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  • Harmonization difficulties of European biotechnology regulation: EC directive 90/220 on the deliberate release of genetically modified organisms (GMOS)

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):84 - 86
    Request permission for commercial reuse | Click to expandAbstract |PDF file iconPDF (296 KB)

    In recent years, `risk' debate has become a means for adjudicating the legitimacy of contentious technologies (U. Beck, 1992). Often such debate centres upon `unacceptable risk', implying that the extent (and even type) of risk may not be scientifically known. As a response to the problems of reflexive modernization, discursive forms of technology assessment have been conceptualized for democratis... View full abstract»

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  • Technology, environment and public policy in perspective: lessons from the history of the automobile

    Publication Year: 1996, Page(s):67 - 75
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    The spread of the automobile over the course of the twentieth century has had a dramatic impact upon the environment. Drawing upon an extensive investigation of the early history of the automobile in the United States, the paper proposes a dynamic model connecting technological and environmental change. Three concepts are central to the operation of the model-technological choice, system, and scal... View full abstract»

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