By Topic

Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, 1996., Proceedings of the IEEE 1996

Date March 30 1996-April 3 1996

Filter Results

Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 34
  • Index to Color Plates

    Publication Year: 1996
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (51 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Color plates

    Publication Year: 1996
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (3698 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Author index

    Publication Year: 1996
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | PDF file iconPDF (92 KB)  
    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Virtual reality and medicine: from training systems to performance machines

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 5 - 13
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (644 KB)  

    The paper reviews a decade of work in applying virtual reality to medicine. Beginning with a brief history of simulations and surgery, we present a background to surgery simulators and then discuss the problem of limited human body models in past systems. We present our work at developing human body models beginning with the first virtual reality leg simulator in 1989. This model allowed simple tendon transfers and osteotomies with the computer able to predict the resulting mechanics and ability to walk. We also discuss the leg model's evolution into a performance machine which will allow a surgeon to predict position and subsequent function of an Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) repair. This is paralleled by Department of Defense work on a leg model that can have a simulated wound and predicts blood loss and its ability to function. We review computer aided surgery and virtual reality technologies. We then present our work in plastic surgery computer aided planning and predict the importance of this work for surgical training View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A network communication protocol for distributed virtual environment systems

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 214 - 221
    Cited by:  Papers (13)  |  Patents (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (688 KB)  

    Virtual environment (VE) applications involve many different tasks, including interfacing with input and output devices, providing responsive user interaction, and simulating a dynamic environment. The variety and number of tasks lends the application to a distributed computing system, where different tasks are performed by different computing resources. A critical issue that arises from such a design is how information is communicated between tasks. In particular, for virtual environments, how information is communicated promptly is the critical issue. In this work, we describe a pattern of communication common between VE tasks which is not addressed by other communication protocols, namely the communication of state information that continuously changes. We describe a new protocol based on an updatable queue abstraction which allows obsolete state information to be discarded, and compare a prototype implementation of that abstraction with a standard communication protocol View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Inertial head-tracker sensor fusion by a complementary separate-bias Kalman filter

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 185 - 194, 267
    Cited by:  Papers (79)  |  Patents (58)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1596 KB)  

    Current virtual environment and teleoperator applications are hampered by the need for an accurate, quick-responding head-tracking system with a large working volume. Gyroscopic orientation sensors can overcome problems with jitter, latency, interference, line-of-sight obscurations and limited range, but suffer from slow drift. Gravimetric inclinometers can detect attitude without drifting, but are slow and sensitive to transverse accelerations. This paper describes the design of a Kalman filter to integrate the data from these two types of sensors in order to achieve the excellent dynamic response of an inertial system without drift, and without the acceleration sensitivity of inclinometers View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Human interface using the Rutgers Master II force feedback interface

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 54 - 59
    Cited by:  Papers (8)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (392 KB)  

    The research presented investigated the effects of haptic display modalities on human performance in virtual environments. Force feedback information was presented through visual, auditory and haptic feedback modalities. Results show that haptic feedback greatly increases performance and reduces error rates compared with the open loop case. Redundant haptic information (two modalities at the same time) does not improve performance significantly, but is very useful in order to increase sensitivity View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Closed form and geometric algorithms for real-time control of an avatar

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 177 - 184
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1380 KB)  

    In a virtual environment with multiple participants, it is necessary that the user's actions be replicated by synthetic human forms. Whole-body digitizers would be the most realistic solution for capturing the individual participant's human form, however the best of the digitizers available are not interactive and are therefore not suitable for real-time interaction. Usually, a limited number of sensors are used as constraints on the synthetic human form. Inverse kinematics algorithms are applied to satisfy these sensor constraints. These algorithms result in slower interaction because of their iterative nature, especially when there are a large number of participants. To support real-time interaction in a virtual environment, there is a need to generate closed-form solutions and fast searching algorithms. In this paper, a new closed-form solution for the arms (and legs) is developed using two magnetic sensors. In developing this solution, we use the biomechanical relationship between the lower arm and the upper arm to provide an analytical, non-iterative solution. We have also outlined a solution for the whole human body by using up to ten magnetic sensors to break the human skeleton into smaller kinematic chains. In developing our algorithms, we use the knowledge of natural body postures to generate faster solutions for real-time interaction View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A dataflow representation for defining behaviours within virtual environments

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 163 - 167
    Cited by:  Papers (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1008 KB)  

    Construction of immersive virtual environments usually takes place outside the virtual environment in configuration files or application code. The system presented in this paper allows interaction with and behaviours of objects to be defined whilst immersed within the system by manipulating a dataflow representation of the dialogue occuring between the input devices and virtual objects. A concrete example is presented that illustrates the flexibility and customization opportunities that this approach provides View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Validation and verification of virtual environment training systems

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 123 - 130
    Cited by:  Papers (4)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (760 KB)  

    Sponsored by the U.S. Navy, a VE-based simulator for training submarine Officers of the Deck has been developed using a testbed of off-the-shelf hardware and software devices. The VE system uses a head-mounted display and voice recognition system to allow trainees to practice navigation of the surfaced submarine through a harbor channel marked by buoys, range markers, and other navigation aids. This paper describes the task analysis, derived requirements, and validation and verification (V&V) process used throughout development of the prototype simulation. Where possible, the general applicability of the V&V techniques to VE training is discussed View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Design and evaluation of an air-to-air combat debriefing system using a head-mounted display

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 131 - 138
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (956 KB)  

    The United States Air Force Red Flag exercise is the premier combat flight training experience for fighter pilots. We created and evaluated a computer system for replay of Red Flag air-to-air combat training data with alternative display systems. Air combat data could either be displayed on a console display system (CDS) which mimicked existing replay displays or in a head-mounted display (HMD). The effectiveness of replaying air combat data using these two displays was compared in a human-performance experiment with USAF fighter pilots as the subjects. Quantitative and qualitative data about display performance and preference were collected from the pilots who used each display to review mission replays. Although there was no statistically significant difference between the subject performance when using familiar CDS or the new HMD, there was a trend favoring the HMD View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Exploiting frame-to-frame coherence in a virtual reality system

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 95 - 102
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (5)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (744 KB)  

    A uniform frame rate can be achieved by selecting a level of detail for each visible object such that all the objects can be rendered within the given frame time. With many visible objects a low rendering quality must be chosen if every frame is rendered from scratch. This paper presents a load-adaptive rendering algorithm which exploits frame to frame coherence and re-uses most of the image data generated during previous frames thus decreasing the number of polygons actually rendered by an order of magnitude. Complex distant objects are replaced by polygons with an image of the respective object mapped onto them. Dynamic updates of the images before frame rendering lets these “impostors” closely resemble the original objects. The approach makes efficient use of texture memory and can advantageously be incorporated into the uniform frame rate algorithm View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Representative spherical plane method and composition of object manipulation methods

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 195 - 202
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (756 KB)  

    Natural and realistic object manipulation with the hand is a basic, yet vital issue for virtual reality technology to make the application a more useful one, and to display a higher degree of presence for the user via interaction. This paper aims to discuss the development of a globally-generic, realistic manipulation calculation model which is based on the integration of several subcomponent manipulation calculation models. First, the conceptual framework for composing manipulations is described. Manipulation is abstracted into three categories: the free, the restrictive and the boundary regions. The impetus method is introduced, which supports the boundary region and properly detects which region the current situation of an object belongs to. The manipulations are composed based on this type of capability. Next, the representative spherical plane method (RSPM) is proposed and realized for the restrictive region. This model can generate the behavior of an object manipulated with two or three fingertips. As a result of the successful integration of these models, a smooth sequence of different manipulations was realized. Experimental results support the advantage of this method View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • A virtual airplane for fear of flying therapy

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 86 - 93
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1092 KB)  

    Fear of flying is a serious problem that affects millions of individuals. Exposure therapy for fear of flying is an effective therapy technique. However, exposure therapy is also expensive, logistically difficult to arrange, and presents significant problems of patient confidentiality and potential embarrassment. We have developed a virtual airplane for use in fear of flying therapy. Using the virtual airplane for exposure therapy is a potential solution to many of the current problems of fear of flying exposure therapy. We describe the design of the virtual airplane and present a case report on its use for fear of flying exposure therapy View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • ScienceSpace: virtual realities for learning complex and abstract scientific concepts

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 246 - 252, 271
    Cited by:  Papers (8)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1172 KB)  

    Three virtual worlds have been built to investigate the effect of immersive, multisensory computer-generated experiences on learning topics in science. Currently targeted at high school and beginning college students, these worlds address Newtonian mechanics, electrostatics, and molecular structure and dynamics. Data has been collected on usability and learning through questionnaires, pre- and post-tests, in situ prediction and experiment and post-session interviews. The results are not uniformly conclusive but suggest that students can improve their mastery of abstract concepts through the use of virtual environments that have been designed for learning. Moreover, usability studies have identified many significant problems that have been addressed in successive refinements of these worlds. Future work will include collaborative learning studies (both local and distant), use of intelligent agents, and comparison with two-dimensional microworlds View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Distributed virtual environment for intravascular tele-surgery using multimedia telecommunication

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 79 - 85, 267
    Cited by:  Papers (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1748 KB)  

    The number of specialized medical doctors is decreasing. It is important to assist doctors in their operation of surgical tools. To solve this problem, we propose a distributed VR system using multimedia telecommunication for training, diagnosis, and assistance in surgery. To realize this system, it is important to exchange high quality moving pictures. We use high speed optical fiber network with ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode). ATM has excellent features such as bandwidth allocation which is suitable for multimedia communication on computer networks. Based on this new information infrastructure we built a prototype telesurgery system for intravascular neurosurgery. We made a virtual simulator for the operation of a catheter, that is designed for minimum invasive surgery inside complex and narrow brain blood vessels. A force display and visual assistance method are proposed to assist the doctor. We undertook teleoperation experiments between Nagoya and Tokyo, about 350 km away each other, using high speed optical fiber network, and evaluated the effectiveness of the proposed system View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Locales and beacons: efficient and precise support for large multi-user virtual environments

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 204 - 213, 268
    Cited by:  Papers (29)  |  Patents (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1408 KB)  

    There is a natural desire to make multi-user virtual environments large in spatial extent, in numbers of objects, and in numbers of users interacting with the environment. However, doing this brings up several problems: efficiently managing the flow of large amounts of data between large numbers of users, representing precise position and velocity information about objects that are arrayed across a large volume of space, and allowing designers to create parts of a virtual environment separately and combine them together later. Locales are an efficient method for solving these problems by breaking up a virtual world into compact chunks that can be described and communicated independently. In addition, locales can be used to support a number of special effects that allow virtual worlds to easily transcend reality. While having many benefits, locales introduce an additional problem: finding something when you do not know what locale it is in. This is solved by the companion concept of beacons, which makes it possible to find something no matter where it is View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Adding intelligence to the interface

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 168 - 175
    Cited by:  Papers (3)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (680 KB)  

    Virtual reality has made computer interfaces more intuitive but not more intelligent. This paper shows how a rule-based expert system can be combined with multimodal input and natural language techniques to add intelligence to the interface. In this way, virtual worlds can be built which recognize and respond intelligently to user actions. Coupling voice, gesture, body position and context together with an expert system creates an interface more powerful than any of these elements alone; one which establishes a true two-way dialog between human and machine. To illustrate these techniques, we present two prototype systems that allow intuitive multimodal communication within intelligent virtual environments View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Decision networks for integrating the behaviors of virtual agents and avatars

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 156 - 162
    Cited by:  Papers (2)  |  Patents (12)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (620 KB)  

    We examine the use of decision networks in animating virtual agents. We have developed a system that allows the realization of multiple, parallel behaviors for an agent. The networks we utilize, called PaT-Nets, are used both to represent individual behaviors and also to encode rules of engagement between agents. The multiple networks simultaneously attached to an individual agent are used to control locomotion, planning, visual attention and decision-making strategy. We discuss how human players may be substituted for autonomous players and still operate under the represented behaviors in the PaT-Nets View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Generalized surface and volume decimation for unstructured tessellated domains

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 111 - 121
    Cited by:  Papers (4)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (964 KB)  

    A general algorithm for decimating unstructured discretized data sets is presented. The discretized space may be a planar triangulation, a general 3D surface triangulation, or a 3D tetrahedrization. The decimation algorithm enforces Dirichlet boundary conditions, uses only existing vertices, and assumes manifold geometry. Local dynamic vertex removal is performed without history information, while preserving the initial topology and boundary geometry. The research focuses on how to remove a vertex from an existing unstructured n-dimensional tessellation, not on the formulation of decimation criteria. Criteria for removing a candidate vertex may be based on geometric properties or any scalar governing function specific to the application View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Haptic specification of environmental events: implications for the design of adaptive, virtual interfaces

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 147 - 153
    Cited by:  Papers (3)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (556 KB)  

    Future airborne crewstations are currently being designed that will incorporate multisensory virtual displays to convey operationally relevant information to crew members. In addition, these displays and associated controls will be designed to adapt to the changing psychological and physiological state of the user, and the tactical/environmental state of the external world. In support of this design goal, research is being conducted to explore the information extraction capabilities of the sensory modalities. Toward this end, an experiment was conducted to assess the degree to which force-reflective haptic stimulation can be used to provide individuals with information about their location and movement through space. Specifically, a force-reflecting, haptically-augmented aircraft control stick was designed and utilized with the goal of providing pilots with real-time information concerning lateral deviation (or “line-up”) with respect to the runway in a simulated instrument landing task. Pilots executed simulated landing approaches with either the force-reflecting stick or a standard aircraft displacement stick under either calm or turbulent conditions. The results indicated a consistent advantage in performance and perceived workload for the force-reflecting stick, particularly under conditions of simulated turbulence. The results are discussed in terms of their relevance for the design of advanced airborne crewstations that utilize multisensory, adaptive, virtual interfaces View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Virtual perambulator: a novel interface device for locomotion in virtual environment

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 60 - 65, 265
    Cited by:  Papers (15)  |  Patents (2)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)  

    Walkthrough simulation is effective for design and presentation of buildings or urban space. The paper presents a method of implementing a new interface device for locomotion in virtual space. The walker wears omni directional sliding devices on the feet, which generate the feel of walking while the position of the walker is fixed in the physical world. A hoop is set around the walker's waist, by which the position of the walker is limited. The walker can freely change the direction of walking in the hoop. The scene of virtual space is displayed in a head mounted display, corresponding with the motion of the feet and head. Usability of the system is tested by 235 novice users at SIGGRAPH'95. 94% of the participants could walk freely around the virtual space View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Virtual reality system effects on size-distance judgements in a virtual environment

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 139 - 146
    Cited by:  Papers (1)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (792 KB)  

    The paper provides an assessment of how selected properties of a virtual reality system impact size-distance judgments in a virtual environment. Manipulations are made in viewing conditions (biocular vs. stereoscopic), image resolution, field of view, scene contrast and target distance, while subjects attempt to match the attributes of a comparison object with a standard object. General findings suggest that under more natural viewing conditions, size-distance judgements in virtual environments differ from those found previously in physical environments whereas, under impoverished conditions, performance differences between the two environments are similar View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • What you can see is what you can feel-development of a visual/haptic interface to virtual environment

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 46 - 53, 265
    Cited by:  Papers (17)  |  Patents (78)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (1288 KB)  

    We propose a new concept of visual/haptic interfaces called WYSIWYF display. The proposed concept provides correct visual/haptic registration using a vision based object tracking technique and a video keying technique so that what the user can see via a visual interface is consistent with what he/she can feel through a haptic interface. Using Chroma Keying, a live video image of the user's hand is extracted and blended with the graphic scene of the virtual environment. The user's hand “encounters” the haptic device exactly when his/her hand touches a virtual object in the blended scene. The first prototype has been built and the proposed concept was demonstrated View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.
  • Gaze-directed adaptive rendering for interacting with virtual space

    Publication Year: 1996 , Page(s): 103 - 110, 267
    Cited by:  Papers (9)  |  Patents (9)
    Save to Project icon | Request Permissions | Click to expandQuick Abstract | PDF file iconPDF (2296 KB)  

    This paper presents a new method of rendering for interaction with 3D virtual space with the use of gaze detection devices. In this method, hierarchical geometric models of graphic objects are constructed prior to the rendering process. The rendering process first calculates the visual acuity, which represents the importance of a graphic object for a human operator, from the gaze position of the operator. Second, the process selects a level from the set of hierachical geometric models depending on the value of visual acuity. That is, a simpler level of detail is selected where the visual acuity is lower, and a more complicated level is used where it is higher. Then, the selected graphic models are rendered on the display. This paper examines three visual characteristics to calculate the visual acuity: the central/peripheral vision, the kinetic vision, and the fusional vision. The actual implementation and our testbed system are described, as well as the details of the visual acuity model View full abstract»

    Full text access may be available. Click article title to sign in or learn about subscription options.