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System Sciences, 1996., Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Hawaii International Conference on ,

Date 3-6 Jan. 1996

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  • Introduction to the Minitrack on Digital Documents in Organizations and the Workplace

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  • Interorganizational relationships and online information resources

    Page(s): 82 - 91 vol.5
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    We present a description of research-in-progress into the organizational contexts and interorganizational relationships which generate demand for online information (OI) resources. Researchers who examine the use of OI resources have found that people don't use online information as often as providers generally expect. But some organizations use these resources intensively within certain contexts. Our study focuses on professional firms and biotechnology companies who use OI resources routinely during interorganizational relationship building and mediation seeking activities. The OI resources they use contain digital documentation of corporate histories, researcher expertise, product marketing success, and executive affiliations that help firm members develop legal strategies, evaluate potential partners and size up the competition. Our examination of how these networked organizational professionals interact with OI resources will help us theorize about OI resource demand. As we identify how organizations use OI resources to help establish and maintain interorganizational relationships, we will also identify, how associated business and organizational practices may be changing View full abstract»

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  • Designing a digital documents curriculum

    Page(s): 153 - 158 vol.5
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    The paper reports on an (in-progress) effort to design a curriculum that will train professionals to use and construct digital documents. As part of an effort to reinvent information studies curriculum at the University of Michigan's School of Information & Library Studies, a committee has been exploring an interdisciplinary curriculum emphasis that will prepare students to deal with the increasingly important role that digital documents will play in work, education, and daily life. Digital documents include what have been previously called publications, online documents, Web resources, and multimedia materials. The curriculum straddles the traditional fields of information studies, publishing, and of design. It also takes up business issues (such as marketing) and legal issues (such as copyright). The curriculum will train students to provide digital document collection access and support, to be digital publishers and marketers, and to design and develop digital documents. The paper discusses the current design of the curriculum, the process of developing that design, and the problems raised in trying to implement such a design within an existing discipline-based university infrastructure View full abstract»

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  • Exploring the impacts of electronic imaging on organizational process, structure, and strategy

    Page(s): 33 - 42 vol.5
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    Although the benefits of electronic imaging (EI) are relatively easy to evaluate at the process level, there is a growing number of case studies suggesting EI also positively impacts many aspects of the organization's structure and strategy. However, these studies fail to identify the procedural, structural, and strategic constructs that are affected by EI. Based on a field study, the paper identifies organization factors that benefit/suffer from the introduction of electronic imaging. It was found that EI, in addition to its primary function of enhancing corporate document management, does have a critical value in supporting the organization structure and strategy to sustain business competitiveness. EI was also found to be a technology enabler that strengthens linkages between business strategies, on the one hand, and structures and processes that implement them, on the other View full abstract»

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  • Arts ancient and digital: telling stories old and new

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    Summary form only given, as follows. The paper engages a discussion of the appearance over the last quarter century of digital technologies which permit individuals and groups to create and share documents which combine cultural and original artifacts in a seamless fashion. Specifically, it focuses on emerging computer-based tools for story telling and uses as a centerpiece “What's my Story?,” a set of activities for children aged four and older and their families. In this CD-ROM-based application, children can listen to a re-telling of eight classic folk tales by a storyteller that are illustrated with professional films of the tales. They can take part in a series of exercises in developing storytelling skills led by the storyteller in which the child, children or family construct tales from scenes taken from the classic tales, record their own original story, and mix music and sound effects to enhance their story. They can, as well, construct stories in free form using any of the characters from the tales and others thrown in to encourage deviation from the the classic texts. The activities are accompanied by a coloring book and screen art that allows children or parents to incorporate artifacts from the stories into electronic or printed transcriptions of their tales. Finally, for schools, there is a collection of dozens of activities using standard classroom technology (face paint, flannel boards, construction paper, chalk boards) to extend the activity away from the computer into the mainstream of classroom activity, as well as a deck of character cards which can be used to construct stories without the aid of a computer View full abstract»

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  • Towards a better understanding of electronic document management

    Page(s): 53 - 61 vol.5
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    Documents are central to the functioning of an organization. Among other roles, they are critically, important as a means of communication, as organizational memory, and in business processes. In addition, office workers spend as much as 60 percent of their time handling documents. For these reasons, many organizations have tried to improve document handling and use through the application of information technology: but progress in this area has been slow. However, recent technological advances, such as new storage technologies, higher computation speeds, and system integration are lifting many of the traditional restrictions on the conversion of paper to electronic systems, and on the media richness of these electronic documents. As a result, many of the envisioned benefits of electronic document management (EDM) are within reach. Successful exploitation of these benefits requires managers to address specific issues in system design, system implementation, and organizational support View full abstract»

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  • Digital documents: a product architecture perspective

    Page(s): 43 - 52 vol.5
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    The paper presents a case study describing the use of Lotus Notes to automate the publishing process of a large subscription based industry research firm. The case is described and analyzed using a framework that builds on concepts used in designing physical product architectures. These concepts were applied by treating the document as an information product. The product and process platforms of both the traditional and Notes based approaches to producing the product were compared. Notes, in addition to providing a new distribution channel, enabled the firm to move from a traditional document based publishing paradigm to one more akin to an information refinery based on the storage and integration of modular information units. That move had significant impact on the way in which documents were written, edited, and marketed. It was shown that digitizing documents by itself is not sufficient to create a flexible platform from which multiple versions of a document may be derived. Rather, the entire structure of the document must be reconceived in terms of more primitive information units which can be digitized, indexed, and linked for retrieval in a variety of ways View full abstract»

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  • Challenges and solutions of document and workflow management in a manufacturing enterprise: a case study

    Page(s): 4 - 12 vol.5
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    We present an integrated document and workflow management system (DMS/WMS) applied to the core business process “customer-oriented offer processing” of a machine tool company. We emphasize the integrational aspect where the challenge is to integrate various types of electronic documents and formatted data, different existing and innovative application systems. Furthermore, it is necessary to flexibly integrate the business process-related activities into a homogenous workflow while considering the organizational structure. We introduce the concept of an integrated DMS/WMS and a phase model to structure the numerous complex aspects of a running DMS/WMS. Only a completely integrated DMS/WMS allows an efficient control of business processes. We address the problem of controlling the offer processing of our industrial partner company. We present the design of a DMS/WMS prototype which is able to solve the mentioned integrational problems. In addition, we report the performance of this prototype that is already largely implemented as a running system in the environment of our industry partner. We show several key features of this implementation View full abstract»

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  • Automated categorization of real-time newswire stories. Hooked on lexiconics: how I taught my Sun to read

    Page(s): 92 - 97 vol.5
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    Modern international trade activities rely heavily on thousands of daily information artifacts reporting the state of the world's trading blocks. These information artifacts often require handling by human operators for indexing, sorting, and categorization. Intervention by human operators costs precious hours in the dissemination of these artifacts to end users. The paper describes the information recognition capability that the California Agricultural Technology Institute (CATI) developed as part of its Advanced Technologies Information Network (ATI-Net). The capability includes software using statistical analysis of previously human-recognized documents in order to seed information recognition databases. The recognition databases are used by automated recognition software to classify and store information artifacts without human intervention. This software is discussed with reference to two ATI-Net projects: automatic storage of newspaper articles into categories of interest to the public, and the assignment of Department of Commerce industry codes to international trade lead reports. Each of these projects takes advantage of several years of previously human-recognized information artifacts in order to automate the recognition process View full abstract»

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  • Standardization of digital legislative documents: a case study

    Page(s): 72 - 81 vol.5
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    The paper describes research in analysing legislative documents handled in the Finnish parliament and government and studies means for developing standards for the documents. The current document management status in the Finnish parliament and government as well as problems in management are described. The paper discusses the special features of legislative documents and shows that, as an application area of document standardization, legislative documents are extremely difficult. Because of the difficulties, a major task in the project is to develop suitable methods for the document analysis and standardization. The project has started the development of an analysis method from the basis of an object-oriented method. The initial results of the project are introduced and the future directions are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Multivalent documents: inducing structure and behaviors in online digital documents

    Page(s): 144 - 152 vol.5
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    Digital documents have advanced only slightly from their non-digital ancestors, incorporating a few such innovations as hypertext links and full text searching. Even the much heralded advent of multimedia, just as embedded images and video clips, are rather straightforward digital analogs of books and film. We believe that computer technology makes possible far more interesting and complex digital documents, and propose a new general paradigm that regards complex documents as “multivalent documents” comprising multiple “layers” of distinct but intimately related content. Small, dynamically-loaded program objects, or “behaviors”, activate the content and work in concert with each other and layers of content to support arbitrarily specialized document types. Behaviors bind together the disparate pieces of a multivalent document to present the user with a single unified conceptual document. Examples of the diverse functionality in multivalent documents include: “OCR select and paste”, where the user describes a geometric region on the scanned image of a printed page and the corresponding text characters are copied out; video subtitling, which aligns a video clip with the script and language translations so that on the one hand the playing video can be presented simultaneously in multiple languages, and on the other hand the video can be searched with text-based techniques; geographic information system (GIS) visualizations that compose several types of data from multiple datasets; and distributed user annotations that augment and may transform the content of the conceptual document. In general, a document management infrastructure built around a multivalent perspective can provide an extensible, networked system that supports incremental addition of content, incremental addition of interaction with the user and with other components, reuse of content across behaviors, reuse of behaviors across types of documents, and efficient use of network bandwidth. Multivalent documents exploit digital technology to enable new, more sophisticated document interaction View full abstract»

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  • In the fun house: visions of information technology in the domestic sphere

    Page(s): 118 - 125 vol.5
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    The paper examines the marketing and advertising of information technologies in the domestic sphere by examining a number of new publications aimed at the home market. By considering representations of the new “wired” households imaged in sources like HomePC and FamilyPC. I explore the ways in which these magazines call into play a number of other cultural discourses about home, family and gender and question whether these new stories of the domestic cyberfuture are really so new after all. Looking at these newly developing images can help us understand how popular discourses, while managing cultural anxieties about technology, also construct specific subject positions along gendered and familial lines. Such an understanding is the first step in challenging visions of the future which reproduce power hierarchies familiar from the past. Finally, this project, by examining popular representations of new technologies, offers a way to add a new level of specificity and detail to the often ungrounded theorizations of cyberspace which proliferate today View full abstract»

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  • Media wars in children's electronic culture: domesticating the world with Carmen Sandiego and the Mighty Morphin Power Rangers

    Page(s): 126 - 132 vol.5
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    The paper analyzes the strategies currently being used on commercial television to face the challenge of multimedia: the attempt to simulate the computer screen, to rival its promises of interactivity and “edutainment”, and to emphasize TV's own promised values of free access and social mobility. The paper discusses how these dynamics operate in two series on the Fox Children's network, The Mighty Morphin Power Rangers (the most popular kids' show on television) and Where on Earth is Carmen Sandiego (an animated series based on Broderbund's successful educational software) View full abstract»

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  • NELS: a system for creating, archiving and serving digital courseware documents

    Page(s): 136 - 143 vol.5
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    The paper discusses an infrastructure needed to design, develop, and support a new National Educational Learning System (NELS). The NELS system, when established, would be a resource for those institutions with undergraduate curricula that want to evolve their educational program in new ways. It would capitalize on the development and use of newly emerging technologies in higher education. It would provide exemplars of digital documents, furnish tools, and help find national support for those faculty interested in the future of teaching. It would be a unique system that would provide an opportunity to combine pedagogy and technology. It is our belief that NELS would be a critical national resource available to educators focused on the following four specific areas: (1) A National Information Exchange (NIE), which includes authoring studios and delivery environments. (2) Quality assessment. (3) Educational theory and instructional pedagogy, and (4) Distance learning. These areas include elements that demand new roles for instruction, such as an ability to quickly access new information of high textual and visual quality, an ability for faculty and students to access and create information that fosters new teacher-student relationships, techniques that measure the impact of electronically mediated instruction, and studies that promote a sound educational and pedagogical foundation for the application of technology to learning both at local and remote sites View full abstract»

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  • Organizational usability of digital libraries in the courts

    Page(s): 62 - 71 vol.5
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    Digital libraries (DLs) are the focus of professional movements in the medical, legal, and scholarly communities. DLs are being used increasingly nationwide in the legal profession for research; computer-integrated court reporting; and for trial presentations of multimedia documents and evidence photos. We present results of a study which contributes to DL research by examining some new DL design concepts within the legal domain. Two key forms of DL usability-interface and organizational-are discussed. While the human-computer-interaction (HCI) research community has made progress in improving interface usability, organizational usability is less well understood. We introduce the concept of organizational usability which refers to the mix between a computer system's design and an organization's characteristics such that the system can be effectively integrated into the work practices of members of the organization and is socially accepted by them. We explore the technical and sociotechnical dimensions of organizational usability by applying them to DLs used in the California Superior Courts View full abstract»

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  • Back to the wall: home video and digital decorating

    Page(s): 110 - 117 vol.5
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    The paper describes the experimental use of home video images as source materials for home decoration. It includes a brief description of the reasons for the experiment, as well as the equipment and software used. The remainder of the paper examines issues raised by the potentials offered by the availability of film titles in electronic form, and their use as sources in digital media View full abstract»

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  • Implementing workflow automation systems: implications for management control

    Page(s): 13 - 22 vol.5
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    Automation has revolutionised industry and initiated profound economic change. In the past two decades, manufacturing productivity has seen substantial improvements, yet office productivity has remained practically unaffected. Workflow automation systems, a new class of system which focus on automating document flows, promises to redress this imbalance. The study looks at the implication of adoption of a workflow automation system and in particular the impact on the managerial control system. The financial service sector is a main adopter of this technology and many such companies are planning future implementation of workflow automation systems. The study sets out to explore the extent of the control features that will be included in the systems and attempts to ascertain the attitude of three groups i.e. users, managers and IT personnel. Their opinions on the consequences which this would have for the operation of the control process in their organisations were then documented and analysed. The control process model developed by J. Child (1984) proved useful in the classification of process control activities. Following analysis of the research data, an amendment to Child's framework is proposed View full abstract»

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  • Applications of multilingual text retrieval

    Page(s): 98 - 107 vol.5
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    The recent enormous increase in the use of networked information access and on-line databases has led to more databases being available in languages other than English. The Center for Intelligent Information Retrieval (CIIR) at the University of Massachusetts is involved in a variety of industrial government, and digital library applications which have a need for multilingual text retrieval. Most information retrieval research, however has been evaluated using English databases and queries, and relatively little is and own about how well advanced statistical techniques that incorporate ranking and term weight perform in different languages. We describe our experience with a range of projects involving text retrieval in Spanish, Japanese and Chinese. The issues covered by these projects include document representation techniques such as morphology and segmentation, query formulation and expansion techniques, relevance feedback and comparisons of retrieval effectiveness with English databases. The results indicate that advanced statistical techniques are effective in a wide range of languages, and that new languages can be incorporated with only moderate effort View full abstract»

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  • The impact of organizational memory information systems: the case of product information management systems

    Page(s): 23 - 32 vol.5
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    The research attempts to determine whether case studies from fieldwork and secondary data on product information management systems (PIMS) map to E.W. Stein and V. Zwass' (1995) framework for an organizational memory information system (OMIS). Overall, we find support for the two layers in the framework, and for organizational effectiveness from an OMIS. The secondary data suggest first and second order measures for future empirical research. The fieldwork data supports the first order measures and second order communication improvements but as yet we cannot find evidence of second order productivity improvements. Furthermore, our data suggests that PIMS implementation problems focus on the user interface, which can be located as points on the framework. These findings increase our understanding of OMIS and suggest improvements in designing PIMS View full abstract»

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