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Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, 1993., 1993 IEEE

Date 18-22 Sept. 1993

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 73
  • Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium

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    Freely Available from IEEE
  • Virtual Aristotelean physics

    Page(s): 512 - 518
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    Aristotle's physics provides a coherent set of physical laws which predict physical events less well than Newton's, but fit human expectations better. Embedded in a virtual reality, they thus provide a system which the user can more quickly learn to control, being more intuitive than Newton's laws and more consistent than ad hoc movement rules. Being simpler and cheaper to implement, they also give smoother behaviour (for given hardware investment) than the usual classical mechanics View full abstract»

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  • A direct 3-D shape modeling system

    Page(s): 519 - 524
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    A newly developed 3-D shape modeling system based on constructive solid geometry (CSG) is described, in which a direct and interactive shape modeling process is supported. This feature is realized by a voxel model for real-time set operations, and a volume scanning display for the direct visualization of the voxel model, besides the CSG model for data structure management. The set operations on the voxel model can be executed as simple bit calculations, and therefore, the voxel data for the set object can be created in real time. The volume scanning display is a suitable device for presenting the voxel data. There is not need for intensive calculations to display the set objects. The volume scanning display can provide exact 3-D images without goggles or glasses. The concept should be useful in an actual modeling environment View full abstract»

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  • The virtual sailor: An implementation of interactive human body modeling

    Page(s): 429 - 435
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    The primary focus of the Virtual Sailor project is the creation of virtual actors, for training and other applications where human figures must be coordinated. By the term virtual actor is meant computer animated figures that can mimic human beings in physical form, function and behavior. The underlying techniques and software systems for creating the skin, bone, and muscles of aspects of interactive human body models are discussed. The approach combines a kinematic description of the human skeletal system with a finite element model of the skin and soft tissue of the face. A set of numerical techniques is presented that allows implementation of these models efficiently so that they can be used in a real-time simulation environment. To animate these figures, a set of control systems to mimic basic human behaviors is being formulated View full abstract»

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  • Pen-based haptic virtual environment

    Page(s): 287 - 292
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    The development of a pen-based force display and its application to the direct manipulation of a free-form surface are described. A six degree-of-freedom force reflective master manipulator which has a pen-shaped grip has been developed. The system uses two three degree-of-freedom manipulators. Both ends of the pen are connected to these manipulators. The hardware of the force display is small and light-weight. The performance of the force display is exemplified in interactive deformation of a free-form surface View full abstract»

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  • A 1" high resolution field sequential display for head mounted applications

    Page(s): 364 - 370
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    Color displays used in binocular virtual reality are generally LCD arrays, with the maximum resolution determined by how small the individual color pixel elements can be made and driven electronically. A high resolution color display using a monochrome CRT and a liquid crystal shutter operated in a field-sequential color mode is described. The Tektronix 1-in frame sequential color monitor system significantly improves the resolution of color displays for virtual reality head-mounted displays to at least 640×480. The requirements of a field sequential full color monitor are discussed, as is the video drive for this device View full abstract»

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  • Ground control testbed for Space Station Freedom robot manipulators

    Page(s): 69 - 75
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    The Robotic Systems Technology Branch at the NASA/Johnson Space Center has completed a baseline ground control testbed for use in developing and evaluating technology for Space Station Freedom (SSF) Robotic Tasks. The focus of the first phase of this work has been addressing the effects of significant ground-to-orbit time delays on operations. This testbed uses a predictive display to enable virtual realtime control of a remote robot. The operator commands a graphical kinematic manipulator through hand controllers or automated sequences which, in turn, drive the actual manipulator after a user-defined delay. The predictive display provides artificial camera views that enable the operator to measure clearances not available in actual camera views. A delayed camera control interface, and a robot verification display are also available. All testbed components are connected in a distributed processing environment. The ground control testbed architecture and technology utilized to address the time delays are described View full abstract»

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  • Generating autonomous dynamic behavior for computer animation: A constrained optimal control approach

    Page(s): 422 - 428
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    An extensive simulator has been developed to simulate the dynamics of an intelligent system. The simulation program is written in C and it runs on IBM RISC/6000 workstations in a UNIX environment. A graphical user interface using NGI (Northstar Graphics Interface) has been built and all the results are displayed graphically. The authors show the result obtained in trying to avoid several planes, the implementation result for pole balancing behavior, and the simulation result for hopping motion, when the maximum allowable acceleration during a hopping cycle is limited View full abstract»

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  • The SIMNET virtual world architecture

    Page(s): 450 - 455
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    Many tools and techniques have been developed to address specific aspects of interacting in a virtual world. Few have been designed with an architecture that allows large numbers of entities from disparate organizations to interact in such a world, in real time, and over large geographic distances. A system architecture that does this is described. The key technologies that have made these virtual worlds possible are discussed, and it is explained and how the technologies fit into the architecture. A sample implementation of this architecture, the SIMulation NETworking (SIMNET) system, is then presented, along with various design decisions and the reasoning behind them View full abstract»

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  • The use of virtual reality at Boeing's Huntsville laboratories

    Page(s): 14 - 19
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    Some of the virtual reality (VR) and visualization efforts at Boeing's Advanced Computing Group in Huntsville Alabama are described. These labs are primarily focused on supporting aerospace and defense efforts including several NASA and DoD projects. Computer aided design (CAD) systems are playing a major role in these efforts. In order to better support and augment the current CAD design process and analysis tasks, the use of VR and visualization are being tested and used at Boeing's Huntsville facilities View full abstract»

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  • “Augeye” a compact, solid Schmidt optical relay for helmet mounted displays

    Page(s): 234 - 245
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    The optical design, fabrication and performance of a solid Schmidt prism used for relaying an optical signal or image to the eye while simultaneously providing the viewer with the capability to see-through to the outside world is described. It can be either of solid glass or plastic construction like a prism, or made of separate components. The novel aspect of this approach over previous designs is folding the system between the image and the Schmidt mirror as opposed to folding it at the image itself. This allows for a more compact design. The solid glass approach extends the apparent field of view to the viewer through refraction at the glass to air interface. If the spherical reflector of the Schmidt is rendered opaque, the viewer will only see the information provided by the optical stimulus. If partially reflective, the viewer can augment real world scenes with computerized symbology superimposed in the visual field. The stimulus may be either a high resolution CRT or a flat panel liquid crystal display (LCD) View full abstract»

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  • Real-time reproduction of 3D human images in virtual space teleconferencing

    Page(s): 408 - 414
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    Real-time reproduction of a 3D human image is realized by an experimental system built for the realization of virtual space teleconferencing, in which participants at different sites can feel as if they are at one site and can work cooperatively. In the teleconferencing system, a 3D model of a participant is constructed by a wire-frame model mapped by color texture and is displayed on 3D screen at the receiving site. In the experimental system, to realize real-time detection of facial features at the sending site, tape marks are attached to facial muscles, and the marks are tracked visually. To detect movements of the head, body, hands and fingers in real-time, magnetic sensors and data glove are used. When the movements of the participant are reproduced at the receiving site, the detected results are used to drive the nodes in the wire frame model. Using the experimental system, the optimum number of nodes for real-time reproduction is obtained. Results for real-time cooperative work using the experimental system are demonstrated View full abstract»

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  • Data complexity for virtual reality: where do all the triangles go?

    Page(s): 357 - 363
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    Screen space rendering statistics are gathered from 150 3D objects, each modeled by between 2-K and 40-K triangles. While there is wide variance by individual object, the overall trend is that the distribution of triangles by screen size is roughly exponential in the direction of small triangles. From a subjective esthetics point of view, tessellations require 10-K visible triangles per quarter million pixels covered for acceptable results View full abstract»

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  • A survey of perceptual feedback issues in dexterous telemanipulation. I. Finger force feedback

    Page(s): 263 - 270
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    Some specific requirements on the design of dexterous master devices meant for teleoperating multifingered robotic hands, within the context of finger force feedback, are identified and analyzed. The requirements are of two categories, i.e., constructional and functional. The constructional issues consist of the isomorphism, portability, motion range capability, and accommodation for human hand size variability. The functional issues consist of bandwidth compatibility with the human hand (which itself has asymmetric input/output characteristics), proprioceptive (force limit) compatibility, and consideration of the psychometric stability of the human hand in sensing force magnitudes and variations. Also of importance is the sensitivity of the master device that must be more than that of the human hand. In this regard, 14 existing designs of hand masters are evaluated to see how well they satisfy the stated constructional and functional requirements View full abstract»

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  • Realtime collision detection for virtual reality applications

    Page(s): 415 - 421
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    Virtual reality technology aims at the expansion of the communication bandwidth by providing users with 3D immersive environments. For the true direct manipulation of the environments, fast collision detection must be provided to increase the sense of reality. A collision detection scheme for virtual reality applications is proposed. The method exploits a hierarchical object representation to facilitate the detection of colliding segments View full abstract»

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  • Visual detection of coarticulatory anticipation or...guessing what has not yet been written

    Page(s): 148 - 154
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    A phenomenon observed in speech and cursive handwriting is discussed, namely, the visual detection of a coarticulatory anticipation. The contribution of visible motor information in linguistic message decoding is examined. Visual dynamic and static digram and word stimuli prepared by reproducing identical spatial templates, and on the basis of the presence of coarticulatory anticipation in the handwriting movements are administered without providing spatial cues on the identity of the subsequent letter. Results indicate that when kinematic information is provided in the dynamic visual stimulus, subjects are able to predict with fair accuracy the identity of the following letter. When the only information supplied by the stimulus is the static trace of the production, subjects cannot predict the identity of the following one. Therefore, the visual system detects temporal differences that translate anticipatory gestures in the handwriting movements View full abstract»

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  • Performance limits of stereoscopic viewing systems using active and passive glasses

    Page(s): 371 - 376
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    In time sequential stereoscopic displays a major contributor to ghost image intensity, as quantified by the system leakage ratio, is due to the persistence of the CRT's phosphor. Two approaches to solving this problem are presented. One is to use a system that has a sectioned electrooptical device mounted directly in front of the CRT. The second is to use phosphors that have less persistence View full abstract»

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  • A direct deformation method

    Page(s): 499 - 504
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    A new free form deforming interface named direct deformation method (DDM) is presented. DDM allows designers to touch and deform free formed surfaces directly, at any point of the surfaces, even if they are represented only by control points and knot vectors. Users do not need to know such parameters that represent surfaces. The deforming actions of a user are used to calculate new parameters that define the deformed shape of the object. The shape is then reconstructed using the new parameters, allowing the user to visualize his or her deformation. This technique is easy to apply and useful for various form representations View full abstract»

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  • Human performance evaluation of manipulation schemes in virtual environments

    Page(s): 155 - 161
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    Presents the results of one of the first experiments in a research program aimed at systematically investigating manipulation schemes for spatial input, from a human factors point of view. A 3D design space model is proposed as a framework for such investigations, and four options within this model are tested in a six degree-of-freedom target acquisition task within a virtual environment. Experimental results indicate strong performance advantages for isometric sensing combined with rate control and for isotonic sensing combined with position control. A strong interaction between sensing mode and mapping function is found. The findings are discussed in relation to the literature on spatial manipulation View full abstract»

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  • Spatial perception in virtual environments: Evaluating an architectural application

    Page(s): 33 - 40
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    An experiment was conducted to compare and explore the relationship between the way people perceive real and virtual spaces. Twenty-four architects toured either a real museum gallery or a realtime computer generated model of the same gallery under one of three increasingly inclusive viewing conditions, i.e., looking at a monitor, viewing through stereoscopic head-mounted displays without and with head-position tracking. Subjects were asked to perform spatial dimension, orientation and evaluation tasks. The most significant results indicate that subjects consistently underestimate the dimensions of the gallery in all three computer simulation conditions when compared to touring the real gallery. The most inclusive viewing condition yields underestimates for spatial dimensions which are significantly greater than the other two simulation conditions View full abstract»

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  • A toolkit for developing multi-user, distributed virtual environments

    Page(s): 401 - 407
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    The design and operation of the Virtual Reality Distributed Environment and Construction Kit (VR-DECK) toolkit developed at IBM Research is reviewed. It provides a designer with a development environment while supporting distributed computing, multi-user capability, and a variety of I/O devices. Virtual worlds are built as collections of modules which communicate via events. Extensive run-time support in the form of extensive C++ class libraries insulates the application designer from the low-level system details such as networking, inter-module data transport, event queuing and matching, and I/O device communication. A library of pre-defined modules is provided for commonly used functions and devices. An X Window System graphical user interface is provided for aggregating modules into applications. The system enables a developer to focus on the design of the application rather than on systems and integration issues View full abstract»

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  • A research testbed for virtual environment training applications

    Page(s): 83 - 89
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    A research testbed developed to investigate the use of virtual environment (VE) technology for army training is described. The objectives of the testbed and the first experiments conducted using the testbed are described, in which performance data is collected as participants complete a variety of basic tasks: vision (acuity, color vision, distance estimation, and search); location (walking and flying through structures); tracking and object manipulation (placing and keeping a cursor on an object, and using it to move objects); and reaction time View full abstract»

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  • Sparcchair: A one hundred million pixel display

    Page(s): 300 - 307
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    The authors investigate whether a high-resolution head-mounted display, roving around a much larger frame buffer image, can give a user the impression of viewing a single very large display screen. A prototype is constructed, consisting of an 1120 × 900 pixel head-mounted display, an ultrasonic head-tracker, a 16,386 × 6,144 pixel frame buffer, and suitable X-window control software, as a means of studying this question. Applications can write to the large frame buffer using the window system, and the view can navigate around the image rapidly using head rotations. The prototype system, although somewhat awkward to use due to a limited field of view in the head-mounted display, shows that head rotation is a fast, convenient way to switch display contexts View full abstract»

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  • The virtual panel architecture: A 3D gesture framework

    Page(s): 387 - 393
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    The Virtual Panel Architecture (VPA) has been designed to help implement an intermediate abstraction with elements of both a physical control panel and a computer-based control panel. This abstraction, handling 3D point-based gesticulative interaction with modeled object hierarchies, is suitable for both virtual reality environments and traditional environments. Based on the VPA, an environment of virtual panels is demonstrated which can be incorporated into keyboard-and-mouse-based computing. Users are able to turn virtual knobs, adjust virtual sliders, and point at virtual screens on these virtual panels in this environment View full abstract»

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  • Task-oriented design of virtual worlds

    Page(s): 97 - 103
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    A design methodology for task-oriented virtual world applications is proposed. An object-oriented approach is used for developing an agent (task) model, a problem domain data model, and an interaction domain model. These models are under the control of a particular component, namely the virtual world control mechanism. The introduced object hierarchy supports the construction of a design base with reusable objects, as well as the integration of further design knowledge, such as help concepts View full abstract»

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