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Security Technology, 1993. Security Technology, Proceedings. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 1993 International Carnahan Conference on

Date 13-15 Oct. 1993

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Displaying Results 1 - 25 of 49
  • Proceedings of IEEE International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology

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  • Design of a remotely operated intrusion detection system for security applications

    Page(s): 145 - 153
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    The author discussed a group of recent system level advancements in electronic security systems technology in the areas of sensor signal processing, remote site command, control and communications, and long-life battery operation. The technology for the advancements presented here have been designed, constructed, tested, and incorporated into operational security systems. Actual system architectures and practical embodiments of the designs are presented. The primary applications for these systems are the protection of high value facilities in remote locations and for law enforcement and military operations View full abstract»

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  • New evaluation methods for reducing environment effects in radar detection

    Page(s): 143 - 144
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    Dornier has developed a radar intrusion detection sensor (RADOBS) which largely eliminates environmental and ambient effects such as rain and electromagnetic interference. RADOBS is a monostatic pulse Doppler miniradar for mobile and stationary use. The system can be installed in two versions: RADOBS-R for omnidirectional detection by means of a ring zone and RADOBS-V with a directed sector zone. The detection zones of both versions can be defined precisely to ensure that no alarm is released outside these defined zones View full abstract»

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  • Considerations in outdoor intrusion sensor testing

    Page(s): 66 - 71
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    The author reviews the role of a test site for outdoor intrusion sensor testing in a commercial environment and describes its application to sensor research, development, product verification, and training. Elements of a test site are reviewed along with its varied uses in the bringing of new sensors to market and performing comparative analyses of existing technologies. Particular references and examples relating to the Senstar SITE (Sensor Integrated Test Environment) are used for illustration of a site structure and function View full abstract»

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  • An application of neural networks to reconstruct crime scene based on non-mark theory-suspicious factors analysis

    Page(s): 78 - 84
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    A non-mark theory methodology for investigating crime scenes is proposed. A back propagation network model is used to analyze suspicion factors in order to setup a dynamic knowledge based to help investigators View full abstract»

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  • Transferring technology to the terrain

    Page(s): 60 - 65
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    The author highlights a number of areas in which designers, specifiers, and system operators of perimeter intruder detection system (PIDSs) should be careful to pay particular attention to whether the full benefits of existing technology, and new technologies can be transferred from the supplier's warehouse into reliable operational systems on site. He recommends a thorough survey in close cooperation both with the site owners and the intended system operators. Selection of a suitable system should be underpinned by rigorous testing of a number of possible options prior to making a final choice. The importance of quality control during the installation phase is stressed. A method of carrying out nondestructive tests on fences by the use of a cut simulator tool is described. This allows quick-and-easy tests to be carried out reliably by the guard force or other nontechnical staff. The present work draws on assessment, installation, and maintenance experience in the author's organization at sites throughout the United Kingdom View full abstract»

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  • CCTV systems; adding value with new technology

    Page(s): 38 - 40
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    The author examines the impact which new technologies and techniques will have upon both existing and future closed-circuit television (CCTV) systems. He considers devices ranging from video entry phones to advanced surveillance cameras and proposes ways in which value can be added by extending the range of functions which the devices can perform. Examples are presented which show how the value of CCTV systems will increase through the expansion of the basic imaging capability or through the use of CCTV within new, complex devices. Particular attention is given to the video entry phone and similar devices, where end users should expect to see products with much more flexibility and more functions. It is further noted that advances in computer technology will continue to impact upon the facilities and functions which operators have at their disposal, making through increased operator efficiency. Advanced surveillance camera systems are also considered View full abstract»

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  • Analysis and selection of communication security equipment

    Page(s): 208 - 214
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    The author addresses criteria for selecting communications security (COMSEC) equipment into existing and planned communications systems. Specific areas addressed include needs, threats, value of information, response to threats, user interface issues, key management considerations, cryptographic types, future requirements, compatibility, special COMSEC characteristics, host nation connection approvals, maintenance approaches, standard security attributes, practical realities, and future trends View full abstract»

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  • Simple motion detection methods in TV image for security purposes

    Page(s): 41 - 43
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    The authors present some simple detection procedures and algorithms for TV security systems implemented on a standard PC for detection and localization of targets. The approach is based on motion detection and target identification procedures suitable for fast and efficient image processing on relatively simple hardware. Both the classical approach (spatiotemporal filtering) and a neural-network-oriented alternative (Kohonen map) are discussed View full abstract»

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  • Future law enforcement and internal security communications architectures employing advanced technologies

    Page(s): 194 - 202
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    The requirements for advanced multi-dimensional tactical communications architectures are discussed. In addition, attention is given to practical means of specifying and quantifying advanced digital system performance in the planning, design, and implementation of these systems, and to the intelligence process needed to back-stop these technologies. A unified virtual architecture is considered. It is concluded that to be effective in this area, our use of technology must be guided by a master stratagem. Globally, this mindset requires both a policy and concept of operations integration of CI (counterintelligence) and OPSEC (operations security) and the migration to a communications architecture that facilitates seamless information transfer in a fashion that protects sensitive LE (law enforcement) and IS (internal security) operations View full abstract»

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  • Integrity and security in AM/FM-GIS

    Page(s): 203 - 207
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    The authors present the integrity and security requirements of AM/FM-GIS (geographic information system) systems, involving the security of the operating system, the DBMS (database management systems), and graphic information. Well-established security services and mechanisms developed for EDP on-line systems can be applied to AM/FM-GIS. In AM/FM-GIS, the security issue can be approached with formal methods in the pre-evaluation and evaluation phases. The security requirements should produce a well-defined input to the system design and could influence the selection of the data base with regard to the implementation technique. In AM/FM-GIS systems, different access modes should be possible on several data structures: layers, element groups, objects, and drawings View full abstract»

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  • Development of computer-aided design software with standards for security engineering

    Page(s): 235 - 243
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    The authors give an overview of the development of computer-aided design (CAD) software with standards for security engineering. The intent of the developed software is to increase design productivity and generate CAD standards for security engineering View full abstract»

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  • CCTV operator performance and system design

    Page(s): 32 - 37
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    The introduction of the Rotakin test is shown to be an important step toward improving the performance of closed-circuit television (CCTV) systems. Analysis of the alarm event process calls attention to the areas of sensitivity whereby the system can fail. Reference to knowledge in the human visual performance field makes it possible to improve the images presented to the operator, thereby permitting him to do his job more easily. The addition of systems performance testing to systems specifications provides a non-altruistic motive for the pursuit of the relevant engineering knowledge View full abstract»

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  • Concrete at high temperatures above 1000°C

    Page(s): 263 - 268
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    Ordinary concrete samples made from the most common Portland Type I cement as well as some uncommon glossy-looking concrete lumps collected from an actual fire scene have been examined using thermal gravity analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX) with the aid of an unsealed furnace. Changes in crystallography, color, appearance, shape, density, and elemental composition with respect to temperature are carefully examined. Concrete rapidly losses all of its strength when exposed to high temperatures above 900°C. As the temperature exceed 1200°C, concrete tends to melt and yield numerous lumps or awls, even though each of its components has an extremely high melting point. The atmospheric current and the classes and amounts of the combustible materials at the fire scene as well as the structure of the construction can further influence the distribution of the lumps or awls. It is therefore very important for fire fighters and fire investigators to be aware of these aspects so as to do a safer and better job. A sufficient amount of high molecular-weight organic polymers with the aid of a good air supply is most likely to result in high temperatures exceeding 1200°C View full abstract»

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  • Smart card, computer security, access control, cryptology

    Page(s): 157 - 158
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    An alternative approach to applications which need expensive smart cards with cryptoprocessors is suggested. The idea is to perform cryptographic features in special smart card reading devices. Thus, the price of data protection and access control in computing systems and networks may be substantially reduced. In most applications cheap EEPROM smart cards can be used instead of microprocessor cards View full abstract»

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  • A cryptographic system based upon the continued fraction

    Page(s): 219 - 223
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    The authors propose a cryptographic system in which the sender and the receiver hold the same secret key. The system is a one-key system while the RSA system is a public-key system in which the enciphering key and the deciphering key are not identical. The encoding function in the proposed system is based on a linear equation with two variables. The processes of encoding and decoding are simple in this system. The operations in the system include multiplication and addition only, thus making efficient ciphering possible View full abstract»

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  • WIDE (Wireless Integrated Digital Equipment) System

    Page(s): 189 - 193
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    To deal flexibly with interprefectural criminal cases, the National Police Agency (NPA) developed the mobile radio communication system, the WIDE (Wireless Integrated Digital Equipment) system. The WIDE system, which is usually used for telephone communications, provides a wholesale command function in the event of interprefectural criminal cases. Its wholesale command function makes it possible to build up an exclusive communication network transcending prefectural borders and covering all police vehicles concerned. The WIDE system is highly resistant to interception and is operated with a narrow occupied bandwidth of 8 kHz View full abstract»

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  • The importance of the site survey in planning and implementing an electronic security system

    Page(s): 58 - 59
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    It is noted that the conduct of a detailed site survey is critical to the successful implementation of an electronic security system. The author discusses the rationale for a site survey, the contents of the survey report, and the planning of the site survey, and the composition of the site survey team View full abstract»

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  • Optimal allocation of security sensors/guards-graph theoretic approach

    Page(s): 134 - 138
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    The problem of optimal allocation of security sensors and/or guards is formulated as a graph/network problem, where the importance of the concept of degree of security or multiple minimal cut set is stressed. An algorithm for solving the formulated graph/network problem is developed and it is shown that the algorithm is very effective from the viewpoint of computational complexity. Examples are given to illustrate the concept of degree of security, optimal allocation of security sensors/guards, multiple minimal cut set, and computational efficiency. A typical example among them is: assume a terrorist or a thief is going to attack a target in a town. The problem is to find the minimum number of sensors/guards and where and how to allocate them in the town, detecting him at least twice (or more generally k times) on his way to the target, even if he may take any route among numerous possible routes View full abstract»

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  • Attacks on ID-based signature scheme based upon Rabin's public key cryptosystem

    Page(s): 28 - 31
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    Two attacks are given to show that the identity-based signature scheme proposed by C. C. Chang and C. H. Lin (1991) based upon Rabin's public key cryptosystem is not secure enough. One of the attacks is based on the conspiracy of two users in the system while the other can be performed by anyone alone. It is shown that, in this second attack, the scheme can be broken by anyone (not necessarily a user in the system) who has the ability to observe the communications between the signer and the receiver View full abstract»

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  • Two complementary approaches to the full identification of automobile paints

    Page(s): 96 - 105
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    Pyrolysis/gas chromatography (Py-GC) and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDX) are two commonly used methods for the identification of automobile paints. Some modifications were made on the conventional Py-GC to improve its discriminating power. Twelve exemplar samples of similar white remedy paint chip were unambiguously differentiated using this method. To further enhance the evidential value of automobile paints, nondestructive and convenient SEM/EDX is recommended whenever needed View full abstract»

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  • Acoustic aircraft detection sensor

    Page(s): 127 - 133
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    A great deal of illicit cargo enters the United States on small, fixed wing, propeller-driven aircraft. Acoustic sensors are capable of detecting, recognizing, and locating low flying fixed wing aircraft even when the aircraft are not within line of sight. The authors present the technology principles for the design of an acoustic aircraft detection sensor, including prediction of detection range, atmospheric propagation effects, signal processing algorithms, microphone characteristics, and data transmission alternatives. Data obtained with an experimental acoustic sensor system were used to evaluate detection and tracking algorithms. The results of the evaluation are presented View full abstract»

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  • A heuristic approach to reconstruct crime scene based on mark-theory

    Page(s): 228 - 234
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    The authors consider the use of a CD model to reconstruct a crime scene using the technology of artificial intelligence, with particular reference to gunshot-caused bloodstain evidence. They attempt to incorporate the domain knowledge of mark theory and the experiences of investigators in their expert system, which helps both the investigators and qualifies practitioners to gain enough evidence from the crime scene View full abstract»

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  • Fast response CCTV image recall and motion detection

    Page(s): 44 - 46
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    An Advanced Alarm Assessment System has resulted from the merging of two CCTV (closed-circuit television) related technologies: (1) a Presearch Image Capture System (PICS) which captures and displays images from before and after an intrusion alarm; and (b) an IMAGO series video sentry and target tracker which detects motion and, optionally, controls camera pan/tilt. The new technology MPICS (Motion PICS) was evaluated at a Canadian penitentiary. The system uses a transputer network with a distributed image frame store to yield fast recall from many cameras of the events leading up to, at the time of, and just after the alarm. The most likely causes of the alarm are indicated on the display to assist user decision-making. This is especially useful during periods of high alarm activity when many zones may alarm in rapid succession View full abstract»

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  • Authentication and authorization techniques in distributed systems

    Page(s): 164 - 170
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    The authors consider the following techniques for performing the authentication of user identity and the granting of proper authorization in distributed environments: user login and routing constraints at the network level; special-purpose, challenge-response systems; private key based systems such as Kerberos; and public key based systems with smart cards. They describe and discuss the strengths and weaknesses (i.e., residual vulnerabilities) of each technique and provide guidance with respect to their applicability and deployment View full abstract»

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